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Events, deaths, births, of NOV 15
[For Nov 15 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1582~1699: Nov 251700s: Nov 261800s: Nov 271900~2099: Nov 28]
swallowing earthwormsOn a November 15:
2003 Near the Marina beach in the Tambaram suburb of Chennai, India, C. Manoharan, 26, swallows 200 live earthworms, each 10 cm long, in 20.22 seconds [photo >] in the presence of a huge gathering, including an inspector, a government doctor, a lawyer, and a sports official, on the basis of whose report, Manoharan expects to replace, in the Guinness Book of World Records, the present world champion, Mark Hogg of the United States, who, in 2000, swallowed 94 earthworms in 30 seconds. The unemployed man, who has studied only up to ninth standard, was practicing for the past one year, during which he had demonstrated his skill six times. In October 2003, he swallowed 175 worms in 30 seconds, in a demonstration held in Cuddalore.
2002 After the previous evening's announcement of a delay and review of the quarterly statement of Talx Corporation (TALX), it is downgraded by AG Edwards from Hold to Sell. On the NAZDAQ 3.5 million of the 13.7 million shares of TALX are traded, dropping from their previous close of $13.11 to an intraday low of $6.98 and closing at $7.76. They had traded as high as $25.64 as recently as 04 January 2002, and $37.67 on 04 June 2001. TALX provides employee self-service solutions using interactive Web, interactive voice response, computer telephony integration software and services.
click for UNICEF2001 The chief of the UNICEF office in the West Bank and Gaza expresses concern over the impact of the prolonged conflict between Palestinians and Israelis. See: http://www.unicef.org/
2001 The Microsoft X-Box game machine goes on sale for $299 (at a loss, with hopes of making profits on the extra cost software)..
2001 Colins departs from Port Taranaki, New Zealand, on board a South Korean tanker, one of whose sailors had fed it. James Gordon MacPherson, the human of cat Colins, and his fellow dockworkers create such an outcry that the international news wires carry the story. On 04 December 2001, Colins arrives in Yosu, South Korea, where MacPherson is waiting for it, his airfare having been paid by Whiskas pet food and Korea Airlines. Quarantine officers in South Korea and New Zealand allow the immediate return home of Colins. MacPherson admonishes Collins not to talk to strange men from now on.
2000 Al Gore made a surprise proposal for a statewide hand recount of Florida's 6 million ballots — an idea immediately rejected by George W. Bush (he would have lost by a tiny margin if he had accepted, as shown by a painstaking private recount a year later). Earlier, Florida Secretary of State Katherine Harris had rejected requests from the counties to update presidential vote totals with the results of hand recounts under way at Gore's urging (he would have lost anyhow, by a tiny margin, because these recounts were only in a few selected predominantly Democratic, as show by the same recount)..
1999 China abre su mercado al comercio mundial después de 13 años de negociaciones, como consecuencia de un acuerdo con Estados Unidos que abría la posibilidad de ingreso del país asiático en la OMC (Organización Mundial del Comercio).
1999 Transit of Mercury visible in North America
1998 El presidente de Estados Unidos Bill Clinton da por finalizada la tercera crisis en sus relaciones con Irak y anula el ataque que tenía previsto.
1997 El secretario general de la ONU, Kofi Annan, anuncia la celebración de un referéndum sobre el Sáhara Occidental.
1996 Texaco agreed to pay $176.1 million dollars to settle a 2-year-old race discrimination suit.
1995 La Comisión Europea y Marruecos firman un acuerdo de asociación económica tras suscribir el día antes un difícil convenio pesquero.
Omaira1994 The US Federal Reserve Board raises short-term interest rates from 4.75% to 5.5%. Wall Street had a day of volatile action, but with only mild losses.
1994 Rafael Sánchez Ferlosio recibe el Premio Nacional español de Ensayo por su obra Vendrán más años malos y nos harán más ciegos.
1991 Una delegación de insurgentes de Afganistán y las autoridades soviéticas llegan a un acuerdo para poner fin a trece años de guerra y preparar elecciones democráticas.
1991 Dow Jones average drops 120.31 points (5th largest dive)
1991 The US Justice Department reveals criminal indictments of BCCI and three businessmen associated with it.
1991 A US federal appeals panel threw out former National Security Adviser John M. Poindexter's felony convictions in the Iran-Contra affair, saying his immunized testimony to Congress was improperly used against him.
1990 President Bush signs the Clear Air Act of 1990
1990 the "Keating Five" — Sens. Alan Cranston, D-Calif.; Dennis DeConcini, D-Ariz.; John Glenn, D-Ohio; John McCain, R-Ariz.; and Donald Riegle, D-Mich. — maintained their innocence at the opening of Senate hearings into charges of influence peddling on behalf of S&L kingpin Charles Keating
1990 El escritor argentino Adolfo Bioy Casares recibe el Premio Cervantes de Literatura.
1988 From Algeria, PLO proclaims the State of Palestine, recognizes Israeli existence.
1988 Se produce la proclamación del Estado de Palestina en los territorios de Gaza y Cisjordania.
1988 La Conferencia cuatripartita de Ginebra, con representación de Cuba, Angola, Sudáfrica y Estados Unidos, consigue un principio de acuerdo sobre la paz en África Austral.
1986 Los Gobiernos de Cuba y España llegan a un acuerdo para el pago de las indemnizaciones a españoles expropiados en 1959, tras el triunfo de la Revolución Cubana.
1985 Omaira Sanchez, 13, in Armero, Colombia, continues trapped up to her neck in lahar (mud flow) caused by the eruption of Nevado del Ruiz volcano shortly before midnight on November 13. [photo >] The vain efforts to rescue her are shown on TV, seen by her mother who was away at the time of the eruption. Plenty of TV equipment is flown in, but not the pump needed to save the girl. Omaira will die the next day after being in the mud for 60 hours.
1985 Britain and Ireland signed an accord giving Dublin an official consultative role in governing Northern Ireland.
1985 Se celebran en Brasil las primeras elecciones municipales en 20 años.
1983 Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus proclaimed. — La parte septentrional de Chipre, ocupada por tropas turcas y residentes turco-chipriotas, se declara unilateralmente independiente con el nombre de República Turca de Chipre del Norte.
1980 Un Consejo Revolucionario asume el poder en Guinea-Bissau, tras el triunfo de un golpe de Estado.
1977 President Jimmy Carter welcomes Shah of Iran.
1977 The 100'000'000th US-built Ford car
      At the Mahwah plant in New York, workers completed the 100'000'000th Ford to be built in the US: a 1978 Ford Fairmont four-door sedan. The Fairmont series was introduced at the beginning of the 1978 model year, to replace the discontinued Ford Maverick. Several Fairmont models were available in the first year of the series, and the available power ran from a 140 cubic-inch, four-cylinder engine to a 302 cubic-inch V-8. The most popular Ford Fairmont was the Sporty Coupe, which was introduced midway through the 1978 model year, and featured styling reminiscent of the Thunderbird. The vehicle was 5 cm longer than the other Fairmont models, and featured quad headlights and a unique roof design featuring a decorative wrap-over. In the 1979 model year, the Fairmont Sporty Coupe became the Fairmont Futura Sport, and by 1980 was available as a four-door sedan in addition to the original two-door coupe. By 1981, the Fairmont Futura series was more of a high-trim automobile than its original manifestation as a sporty vehicle, and a Futura station wagon became available. At the end of the 1983 model year, the entire Fairmont line was discontinued.
1976 A Syrian "peace force" takes control of Beirut, Lebanon.
1976 First annual Great American Smokeout {on the 484th anniversary of Columbus making the first recorded reference to tobacco)..
1974 La oposición al régimen de Ernesto Geisel consigue un éxito sin precedentes en las elecciones legislativas brasileñas.
1969 Second moratorium against the Vietnam war
      Following a symbolic three-day "March Against Death," the second national "moratorium" opens with mass demonstrations in San Francisco and Washington DC. Organized by the New Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam ("New Mobe"), an estimated 500'000 (possibly only 250'000) demonstrators rallied in Washington as part of the largest such rally to date. It began with a march down Pennsylvania Avenue to the Washington Monument, where a mass rally and speeches were held. Pete Seeger, Arlo Guthrie, Peter, Paul, and Mary, and four different touring casts of the musical "Hair" entertained the demonstrators. Later, violence erupted when police used tear gas on radicals who had split off from the main rally to march on the Justice Department. The crowd of about 6000, led by members of the Youth International Party ("Yippies"), threw rocks and bottles and burned US flags. Almost 100 demonstrators were arrested. The largest protest outside Washington was held in San Francisco, where an estimated 250'000 persons demonstrated. Antiwar demonstrations were also held in a number of major European cities, including Frankfurt, Stuttgart, West Berlin, and London. The largest overseas demonstration occurred in Paris, where 2651 persons were arrested.
1968 RMS Queen Elizabeth retires
      The RMS Queen Elizabeth, in its day the largest ocean liner ever built, ends her last voyage as a passenger carrier. The RMS Queen Elizabeth, boasting a 200'000-horsepower engine and elegant art deco style, made its public debut in 1946, leaving Southampton, England, on its first luxurious run across the Atlantic. However, before her days as a lavish passenger liner, the Queen Elizabeth steamed across the ocean for another purpose — as a transport during World War II.
      During the late 1930s, workers at a Scottish construction site began building a sea vessel that would be larger and more luxurious than anything the world had ever seen. However, the outbreak of World War II in 1939 prevented the completion of the Queen Elizabeth's finer points. The vessel was hastily made seaworthy for wartime service, and until the war's end was used as a transport vessel for the Allies during the war, carrying massive amounts of supplies and several hundred thousand troops around the world.
      After her retirement from the Cunard Line in 1968, the Queen Elizabeth was auctioned off to the highest bidder, eventually being purchased in 1970 by C. W. Tung, a Taiwanese shipping tycoon. Tung renamed the vessel Seawise University, and began work on converting the ship into a learning center that would tour the world. However, in early 1972, as the mobile university neared completion, a fire destroyed it.
1966 Gen. Earle Wheeler, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, addresses a gathering at Brown University and approximately 60 students walk out to protest his defense of US involvement in Vietnam. Some of those who remained shouted and heckled Wheeler, while others attempted to storm the stage. Outside, over 100 students continued the protest.
1966 The flight of Gemini 12 ended successfully as astronauts James A. Lovell and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin Jr. splashed down safely in the Atlantic. — Se da por finalizado el programa espacial estadounidense Gemini con el vuelo de la cápsula Gemini XII.
1966 La Fundación Bertrand Arthur William count Russell para la Paz constituye en Londres, por iniciativa del filósofo británico, el denominado "Tribunal Russell", formado por prestigiosos intelectuales de todo el mundo, para denunciar los delitos cometidos por varios Gobiernos en nombre de las razones de Estado.
1965 In the second day of combat, regiments of the 1st Cavalry Division battle on Landing Zones X-Ray against North Vietnamese forces in the Ia drang Valley.
1965 Craig Breedlove sets land speed record (966.57 kph)
1963 Argentina voids all foreign oil contracts.
1962 Cuba threatens to down US planes on reconnaissance flights over its territory.
1962 Yemen declara la guerra a Arabia Saudita.
1960 The first submarine with nuclear missiles, USS George Washington, takes to sea from Charleston, South Carolina.
1957 Khrushchev challenges US to peaceful missile "shooting match"
      In a long and rambling interview with an American reporter, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev claims that the Soviet Union has missile superiority over the United States and challenges America to a missile "shooting match" to prove his assertion. The interview further fueled fears in the United States that the nation was falling perilously behind the Soviets in the arms race. The interview elicited the usual mixture of boastful belligerence and calls for "peaceful coexistence" with the West that was characteristic of Khrushchev's public statements during the late 1950s. He bragged about Soviet missile superiority, claiming that the United States did not have intercontinental ballistic rockets; "If she had," the Russian leader sneered, "she would have launched her own sputnik." He then issued a challenge: "Let's have a peaceful rocket contest just like a rifle-shooting match, and they'll see for themselves."
      Speaking about the future of East-West relations, Khrushchev stated that the American and Soviet people both wanted peace. He cautioned, however, that although the Soviet Union would never start a war, "some lunatics" might bring about a conflict. In particular, he noted that Secretary of State John Foster Dulles had created "an artificial war psychosis." In the case of war, it "would be fought on the American continent, which can be reached by our rockets." NATO forces in Europe would also be devastated, and Europe "might become a veritable cemetery." While the Soviet Union would "suffer immensely," the forces of communism would ultimately destroy capitalism. Khrushchev's remarks came just a few days after the Gaither Report had been leaked to the press in the United States. The report supported many of the Russian leader's contentions, charging that the United States was falling far behind the Soviets in the arms race. Critics of President Dwight D. Eisenhower's foreign policy, particularly from the Democratic Party, went on the attack. The public debate concerning the alleged "missile gap" between US and Soviet rocket arsenals continued through the early 1960s and was a major issue in the 1960 presidential campaign between Richard Nixon and John F. Kennedy.
1957 US sentences Soviet spy Rudolf Ivanovich Abel to 30 years & $3000
1957 Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev asserts Soviet superiority in missiles, challenging the United States to a rocket-range shooting match.
1954 1st regularly scheduled commercial flights over North Pole begins
1948 William Lyon Mackenzie King retires as PM of Canada
1946 Los Países Bajos reconocen la autonomía de la República de Indonesia.
1945 Cherchant à former un gouvernement français d'Unité Nationale, De Gaulle, investi à l'unanimité par la Chambre des Députés, incarne la Résistance. Il refuse cependant au parti communiste l'un des trois ministères essentiels que sont les Affaires étrangères, l'Intérieur et la Défense nationale.
1945 Canadá, Estados Unidos y Gran Bretaña se niegan a entregar el secreto de la bomba atómica a la URSS.
1945 Concesión de los premios Nobel.
1943 Himmler orders imprisonment of Gypsies
      Heinrich Himmler, the leader of the German SS, publishes an order declaring that Gypsies and "part-Gypsies" were to be put "on the same level as Jews and placed in concentration camps." In "cases of doubt," local SS commanders were ordered to determine for themselves who were Gypsies. Soon after the order, hundreds of Gypsies then in labor camps were deported to Auschwitz.
1940 First 75'000 men drafted to US armed forces duty during peacetime
1940 Se cierra el gueto de Varsovia, con unos 350'000 judíos recluidos, en el contexto de la Segunda Guerra Mundial.
1939 Nazis begin mass murder of Warsaw Jews
1939 Social Security Administration approves 1st unemployment check
1938 Se disuelven las Brigadas Internacionales de la Guerra Civil española, según el acuerdo del Comité de no Intervención.
1938 1st telecast of an unscheduled event (fire), W2XBT, NY 1938 First live news broadcast The first live on-the-scene television news broadcast was transmitted on this day in 1938. A fire on Ward's Island broke out near NBC station W2XBT, and the station was able to film and broadcast the fire live.
1937 1st congressional session in air-conditioned chambers
1937 Eighteen lawsuits are brought against the Tennessee Valley Authority, calling for its dissolution.
1935 Commonwealth of Phillipines inaugurated
1930 General strikes and riots paralyze Madrid, Spain.
1927 Trotski expulsé du Parti communiste d'URSS.
      Léon Bronstein, alias Trotski, tard rallié à Lénine, il était devenu le chef de l'Armée rouge. Partisan de la révolution permanente et d'une répression à outrance de toute forme d'opposition au régime communiste, il s'oppose très vite à Staline, qui veut, comme Lénine, sauver la Révolution grâce à un compromis provisoire sur la collectivisation de l'agriculture et de la petite industrie (la NEP ou Nouvelle Politique Economique).
      En 1924, l'impitoyable Trotski écrit: "Aucun de nous ne veut ou ne peut discuter la volonté du Parti, car le Parti a toujours raison. On ne peut avoir raison qu'avec et par le Parti, car l'Histoire n'a pas ouvert d'autres voies pour suivre la raison."
      Conformément à ces vues, Trotski va lui-même devoir s'effacer devant son ennemi Staline, en qui s'incarne le Parti communiste. Il s'exilera au Kazakhstan puis au Mexique, où il sera tué en 1940 par un assassin à la solde de son vieil ennemi, Staline.
— Trotski y Zinoviev son expulsados del PCUS.
1926 NBC radio network begins broadcasts on twenty-four stations across the US. The first program, broadcast from New York City's Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, included remote pickups from Chicago and Kansas.
1923 Negro falsely accused of rape, will be 25 years in prison before exoneration.
      Mamie Snow, a mentally disabled white woman from Waukegan, Illinois, claims that James Montgomery, a black veteran, factory worker, and homeowner raped her. Montgomery, who was promptly thrown in jail, spent 25 years in prison before his conviction was overturned and he was released. From the start, Montgomery's trial seemed ill fated. Local Ku Klux Klan members threatened Montgomery's lawyer during the proceedings, and, in 1923, after a weak defense and a 20-minute trial, Montgomery was found guilty and sentenced to life in prison.
      While serving time, Montgomery studied the law in an attempt to prove his innocence. In 1946, he convinced civil rights attorney Luis Kutner to investigate his case. Kutner discovered a medical report from Snow's hospital stay revealing that not only was Snow never raped, she was likely a virgin. Kutner also located additional evidence suggesting that the Klan had framed Montgomery and that prosecutors had withheld the medical evidence from the defense. Nonetheless, it took Kutner three more years to have the unjust conviction overturned. Montgomery was released in August 1949 and died only 13 years later in 1962. This case of wrongful imprisonment is not an isolated incident for Illinois. Between 1977-1999, the state released 11 people from death row because they had been wrongly convicted.
1922 It is announced that Dr. Alexis Carrel has discovered white corpuscles.
1920 Free City of Danzig established under League of Nations protection
1920 Forty-one nations open the first League of Nations session in Geneva. — Première réunion à Genève de la Socièté des Nations Cet organisme a été créé sur la proposition du président des États Unies Woodrow Wilson. 42 pays y sont réprésentés. La S.D.N. a pour but essentiel de maintenir la paix dans le monde mais, à la grande déconvenue de Wilson, le Sénat américain refuse que les État Unis y adhèrent! — Se celebra la primera Asamblea de la Sociedad de Naciones, en Ginebra.
1917 Kerensky flees and Bolsheviks take command in Moscow.
1889 Brazil's monarchy overthrown
      Following a military coup, Dom Pedro II, Brazil's second and last emperor, is forced to abdicate the throne and a democratic republic is proclaimed. The Brazilian monarchy was first established in 1822, when the Portuguese prince regent declared himself Pedro I, emperor of the newly independent Brazil. However, the Brazilian empire got off to a rough start, and in 1831, Pedro I abdicated in favor of his five-year-old son before returning to Portugal. In 1840, Pedro II officially became emperor, and for the next forty years enjoyed a popular reign. However, during the 1880s, discontent built up, and in 1889 Pedro II is also forced to abdicate. Following the abolishment of the monarchy, the United States of Brazil is officially proclaimed, but the republic endures four years of military dictatorships before civilian rule begins in the country.
     Au Brésil, les militaires destituent l'empereur Pierre II et instaurent la République. L’année précédente, en retard sur les autres Etats occidentaux, le pays a aboli l’esclavage.
1884 Colonization of Africa organized at international conference in Berlin — Inauguración de la Conferencia de Berlín, que convocó a los países europeos y a Estados Unidos para tratar las tensiones generadas por el reparto colonial de África.
1881 American Federation of Labor (AFL) founded (Pittsburgh)
1869 Free postal delivery formally inaugurated
1864 Union Major General William T. Sherman's troops set fires that destroy much of Atlanta, before departing on "March to the Sea".
1806 Pike gets first peek at his Peak.
      Approaching the Colorado foothills of the Rocky Mountains during his second exploratory expedition, Lieutenant Zebulon Pike spots a distant mountain peak that looks "like a small blue cloud." The mountain was later named Pike's Peak in his honor. Pike's explorations of the newly acquired Louisiana Territory of the United States began before the nation's first western explorers, Lewis and Clark, had returned from their own expedition up the Missouri River. Pike was more of a professional military man than either Lewis or Clark, and he was a smart man who had taught himself Spanish, French, mathematics, and elementary science. When the governor of Louisiana Territory requested a military expedition to explore the headwaters of the Mississippi, General James Wilkinson picked Pike to lead it.
      Although Pike's first western expedition was only moderately successful, Wilkinson picked him to lead a second mission in July 1806 to explore the headwaters of the Red and Arkansas Rivers. This route took Pike across present-day Kansas and into the high plains region that would later become the state of Colorado. When Pike first saw the peak that would later bear his name, he grossly underestimated its height and its distance, never having seen mountains the size of the Rockies. He told his men they should be able to walk to the peak, climb it, and return before dinner. Pike and his men struggled through snow and sub-zero temperatures before finally taking shelter in a cave for the night, without even having reached the base of the towering mountain. Pike later pronounced the peak impossible to scale.
      The remainder of Pike's expedition was equally trying. After attempting for several months to locate the Red River, Pike and his men became hopelessly lost. A troop of Spanish soldiers saved the mission when they arrested Pike and his men. The soldiers escorted them to Santa Fe, thus providing Pike with an invaluable tour of that strategically important region, courtesy of the Spanish military. After returning to the United States, Pike wrote a poorly organized account of his expedition that won him some fame, but little money. Still, in recognition of his bravery and leadership during the western expeditions, the army appointed him a brigadier general during the War of 1812. He was killed in an explosion during the April 1813 assault on Toronto.
1805 Meriwether Lewis, William Clark and their party reach the mouth of the Columbia River, completing their trek to the Pacific.
1796 Le général Bonaparte remporte une brillante victoire sur les Autrichiens du général Avinczy à Arcole, dans le Piémont italien. Après trois jours de combats indécis, Bonaparte s'élance sur un pont sous la mitraille. Il tombe dans les marais et s'écrie: "Soldats, en avant pour sauver le général". Ses grenadiers se ruent en avant. La victoire est à la France.
1777 Articles of Confederation adopted by Continental Congress.
      After sixteen months of debate, the Continental Congress, sitting in its temporary capital of York, Pennsylvania, agrees to adopt the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union. Two days later it is sent to the states for ratification, and after three-and-a-half years of further debate it is ratified. The Articles of Confederation provide for only a loose federation of American states, as the colonists, still fighting in the Revolutionary War, were reluctant to establish any form of government that might infringe on the right of individual states to govern their own affairs. The Articles establish a single house congress with each state having one vote, and an elected president to chair the assembly. Although Congress does not have the right to levy taxes, it does have authority over foreign affairs, and can regulate a national army and declare war and peace. Amendments to the Articles require approval from all thirteen states. On 02 March 1781, following final ratification by the thirteenth state, the Articles of Confederation become the law of the land. However, in 1786, defects in the Articles become apparent, such as the lack of central authority over foreign and domestic commerce, and in the next year Congress endorses a plan to draft a new constitution for a more centralized United States. On 04 March 1789, the modern US Constitution formally replaces the Articles of Confederation.
1763 Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon begin surveying Mason-Dixon Line between Pennsylvania and Maryland
1720 El general marqués de Lede vence en Ceuta a los marroquíes que asediaban la ciudad desde hacía veintiséis años.
1715 Barrier Treaty, Austria cedes area to the Netherlands
1626 The original Mayflower "pilgrims" (Separatists), having lived in their American colony for six years, bought out their London investors for 1800 pounds.
1533 The explorer Francisco Pizarro enters Cuzco, Peru, and meets Atahualpa.
     Atahuallpa (or Atahualpa) was born approximately in 1502 and died on 29 August 1533, in Cajamarca, Inca empire [now in Peru]. 13th and last emperor of the Inca, who was victorious in a devastating civil war with his half brother, only to be captured, held for ransom, and then executed by Francisco Pizarro. Atahuallpa was a younger son of the Inca ruler Huayna Capac and an Ecuadorian princess; although not the legitimate heir, he seems to have been his father's favorite. When the old Inca chief died (c. 1527), the kingdom was divided between Atahuallpa, who ruled the northern part of the empire from Quito, and Huáscar, the legitimate heir, who ruled from Cuzco, the traditional Inca capital. Depicted by contemporary chroniclers as brave, ambitious, and extremely popular with the army, Atahuallpa was soon embroiled in a civil war with his older half brother for control of the empire. The war ravaged Inca cities, wreaked havoc on the economy, and decimated the population. Early in 1532, near Cuzco, Atahuallpa's army defeated the army of Huáscar in what was perhaps the greatest military engagement in Inca history. Huáscar and his family were captured and later executed under Atahuallpa's orders. While Atahuallpa was enjoying the hot springs in the small Inca town of Cajamarca, preparatory to entering Cuzco in triumph, Francisco Pizarro entered the city with a force of about 180 men.
      On 15 November 1532, Pizarro and Atahuallpa met in what was to prove one of the most fateful encounters in the New World. Invited by the Spaniard to attend a feast in his honor, the Inca chief accepted. The next day, he arrived at the appointed meeting place with several thousand unarmed retainers; Pizarro, prompted by the example of Hernán Cortés and Montezuma in Mexico, had prepared an ambush. Atahuallpa rejected demands by the friar Vicente de Valverde, who had accompanied Pizarro, that he accept the Christian faith and the sovereignty of Charles V of Spain, whereupon Pizarro signaled his men. Firing their cannons and guns and charging with their horses (all of which were unknown to the Inca), the conquistadores captured Atahuallpa and slaughtered thousands of his men. Perceiving the avarice of his captors, Atahuallpa offered to fill a room with gold as a ransom for his release. Pizarro accepted the offer, and from throughout the empire the Incas brought gold and silver statues, jewelry, and art objects. The Spaniards had the Indians melt it all down into bullion and ingots, accumulating 24 tons of gold and silver, the richest ransom ever received. Once the full amount was acquired, the conquistadores ordered Atahuallpa burned to death (29 August 1533). When Atahuallpa was at the stake, de Valverde offered him the choice of being burned alive or dying by the more merciful garrote if he became a Christian. Atahuallpa, who had resisted proselytization throughout his captivity, agreed to the conversion and so died that day by strangulation. The execution of Atahuallpa, the last free reigning emperor, marked the end of the Inca civilization.
— El imperio inca de Perú cae en manos de Pizarro, que ocupa el Cuzco y reconoce como soberano inca a Manco Cápac II.
1532 Pizarro entra en la ciudad de Cajamarca y al día siguiente celebra una entrevista con el inca Atahualpa.
1492 Christopher Columbus notes first recorded reference to tobacco
1492 In Spain, 6 Jews and 5 Conversos are accused of using black magic
1344 El papa Clemente VI nombra soberano de Canarias a Luis de la Cerda, lo que provoca las protestas de catalanoaragoneses y portugueses.
Swiss soldiers ambush and slaughter invading Austrians in the battle of Morgarten.
1315 Victoire des Trois Cantons suisses à Morgarten

      Les trois cantons alpins d'Uri, Schwyz et Unterwald avaient signé en 1291 un pacte pour se défendre contre les empiètements de leur suzerain féodal, la maison de Habsbourg. Le chef des Habsbourg, le duc Léopold d'Autriche, tente de soumettre les montagnards mais il est définitivement battu le à Morgarten. C'est l'une des rares fois où des communautés paysannes réussissent à s'émanciper de leur suzerain féodal.
      La victoire de Morgarten va renforcer la cohésion des trois cantons. Elle va aussi leur rallier les cantons environnants et surtout les villes de Zürich, Bâle et Berne. Ces communes libres, bien que bourgeoises, vont faire front commun avec les cantons paysans contre les prétentions des Habsbourg. A la fin du XVe siècle, les Suisses confédérés devront encore se battre contre le duc de Bourgogne Charles le Téméraire, désireux de reconstituer à son profit l'ancienne Lotharingie. Protégée par ses montagnes et fortifiée par le courage de ses habitants, la Suisse va rester une confédération de cantons autonomes sans aucune administration centrale ou presque. Les tentatives de centralisation se révéleront vaines, hier comme aujourd'hui.
Deaths which occurred on a November 15:
Queen Mary 2 on 24 Sep 20032003:: 16 persons in collapse of a gangway of the Queen Mary 2, 150'000-ton oceanliner in the last stages of construction at a shipyard in Saint-Nazaire, France [< 24 Sep 2003 photo]. 32 persons are injured.

2003:: 18 US soldiers in the collision and crash of two UH-60 Black Hawk helicopters of the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault), in the Borsa residential neighborhood of Mosul, Iraq, at 18:30. One of the helicopters had been attacked by a rocket-propelled grenade, and lurched upward to try and avoid it. Among the dead are:
  • Sgt. Michael D. Acklin II, 25, of Louisville KY, serving in the 1st Battalion, 320th Field Artillery.
  • Spc. Eugene A. Uhl III, 21, of Amherst WI, serving in the 1st Battalion, 320th Field Artillery.
  • Pfc. Sheldon R. Hawk Eagle, 21, of Grand Forks ND, serving in the 1st Battalion, 320th Field Artillery.
  • Pfc. Richard W. Hafer, 21, of Cross Lanes WV, serving in the 1st Battalion, 320th Field Artillery.
  • Pfc. Joey D. Whitener, 19, of Nebo NC, serving in the 1st Battalion, 320th Field Artillery..
  • Spc. Ryan T. Baker, 24, of Brown Mills NJ, serving in the 4th Battalion, 101st Aviation Regiment.
  • Spc. William D. Dusenbery, 30, of Fairview Heights IL, serving in the 4th Battalion, 101st Aviation Regiment.
  • 2nd Lt. Jeremy L. Wolfe, 27, of Wisconsin, serving in the 4th Battalion, 101st Aviation Regiment.
  • Spc. Jeremiah J. Digiovanni, 21, of Tylertown MS, serving in the 4th Battalion, 101st Aviation Regiment.
  • Sgt. John W. Russell, 26, of Portland TX, serving in the 4th Battalion, 101st Aviation Regiment
  • Chief Warrant Officer (CW2) Scott A. Saboe, 33, of Willow Lake SD, serving in the 4th Battalion, 101st Aviation Regiment
  • Sgt. Warren S. Hansen, 36, of Clintonville WI, serving in the 9th Battalion, 101st Aviation Regiment.
  • Chief Warrant Officer Erik C. Kesterson, 29, of Independence OR, serving in the 9th Battalion, 101st Aviation Regiment.
  • Pfc. Damian L. Heidelberg, 21, of Batesville MS, serving in the 1st Battalion, 187th Infantry Regiment.
  • Spc. John R. Sullivan, 26, of Countryside IL, serving in the 626th Forward Support Battalion.
  • Capt. Pierre E. Piche, 29, of Starksboro VT, serving in the 626th Forward Support Battalion.
  • Sgt. 1st Class Kelly Bolor, 37, of Whittier CA, serving in the 137th Quartermaster Company, US Army Reserve (not 101st Airborne)

    2003 A US soldier of the 1st Armored Division, by a roadside bomb in Baghdad, Iraq.

    2003 Brig. Gen. Sagar Pandey and 3 other Nepalese soldiers in a car, by a roadside bomb, near Bhaise, Nepal.

    2003 Three policemen, shot by Maoist rebels on motorcycles, in a market in Nepalgunj, Nepal.

    Neve Shalom2003 (Saturday) At least 20 persons by terrorist car bombs in Istanbul, at its largest synagogue, Neve Shalom [photo >], and almost simultaneously, at 09:30, at the Beth Israel Synagogue, 5 km away in the affluent district Sisli, both during Sabbath prayers.
    Among the dead are fourteen Muslims, including a police officer at Beth Israel and a security guard at Neve Shalom.
         One Jew is killed at Neve Shalom: Berta Ozdogan, 35, in her 4th month of pregnancy.
         Five Jews are killed at Beth Israel:
    Yoel Cohen Ulcer, 19, security guard who stood in front of one of the synagogue; Anet Rubinstein, 8; and her grandmother, Anna Rubinstein, 85; Beto Avraham Varol, about 45; and Yona Romano, about 55.
          At least 308 persons are injured, including some 80 Jews. In a telephone call to the Anatolia news agency, a caller claiming to be from the Great Eastern Islamic Raiders' Front said that the militant group was responsible for the attacks, and promised more. The caller said "the attacks would continue in the future and the reason was that to prevent the oppression against Muslims," Anatolia said. Police have accused the group, also known as IBDA-C, for a bombing attack which injured 10 people in downtown Istanbul on 31 December 2000. However, no one has claimed responsibility for that attack. The police says that today's attack was too sophisticated to be carried by that local and relatively small organization, and that recent intelligence has indicated that al-Qaida could be planning attacks in Turkey. The Neve Shalom synagogue is the most important spiritual center for Istanbul's 20'000 Jews. In 1986, gunmen, believed to be Palestinians, attacked the synagogue, killing 22 worshippers and wounding six during a Sabbath service. In 1992, the Iranian-backed Shiite Muslim group Hezbollah carried out a bomb attack against the same synagogue but no one was injured. Another 5000 Jews live elsewhere in Turkey. Jewish sites have been targeted in recent attacks blamed on militants linked to Osama bin Laden's Al-Qaida, notably in Casablanca, Morocco in May and a Tunisian synagogue bombed in April 2002, that killed 20 people, mainly German tourists.

    2002 Hebron Commander Colonel Dror Weinberg, 38; Operations officer, Superintendent Samih Swidan, 31; Lieutenant Dan Cohen, 22; Sergeant Tomer Nov, 19; 2nd Sergeant Gad Rahamim, 19; 2nd Sergeant Netanel Mahlouf, 19; 2nd Sergeant Yeshayahu Davidov, 20; Sergeant Igor Drobitsky, 20; Private David Marcus, 19; Yitzhak Boanish, security officer for the Kiryat Arba settlement; Alex Zvitman, 26, and Alexander Dohan 33, both of the Kiryat Arba emergency response team; and three Palestinian ambushers who, starting at 19:30, fire guns and throw hand grenades from the hilltop Abu Sneineh neighborhood, at security officers who had just finished escorting Jewish settlers from their Sabbath prayers at the Tomb of the Patriarchs (Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; revered by Jews and Muslims) in downtown Hebron to their Kiryat Arba enclave, and in the ensuing 90+ minute gun battle with Israeli troops who come to the rescue. Weinberg is the most senior Israeli officer killed in the al-Aqsa intifada to date. The attackers did not fire on “peaceful worshippers” as said the lies of Israeli authorities (which were soon exposed by Israeli news media) but all their victims were armed fighters. Fifteen Israelis are injured. Islamic Jihad announces that it has mounted the ambush to avenge the killing of its northern West Bank commander, Iyad Sawalha, by Israeli troops on 09 November 2002 in Jenin. [More on the dead Israelis]
    2002 Mohammed Obeid, Hamas militant, killed by Israeli undercover border policemen in Kafr Anza, near Tul Karm, West Bank.
    2002 Imran Shilah, 17, Palestinian, killed by Israeli troops as he was among youths throwing Molotov cocktails and rocks at Israeli tanks in Nablus.
    2002 (29 kartik 2059) Some 60 civilians, 25 policemen, 4 soldiers, and 50 Maoist rebels among the 3000 attacking the town of Jumla, Nepal, since the previous evening, using civilians as “human shields”.
    2002 Lynda Van Devanter, 55, of a vascular disease due to exposure to Agent Orange. She was the author of Home Before Morning (1983), her memoirs the horrors of her tour of duty as a US Army nurse in the Vietnam War, and of her resulting physical and mental problems.
    2001 Takako Konishi, 28, is found dead, presumably from exposure, in the North Woods near Detroit Lakes, Minnesota. The Japanese woman had come from Tokyo to hunt for a treasure she believed real (despite everything the police told her) but was in fact fictional in the 1996 darkly comic film Fargo, in which a character takes ransom money and buries it in a snowdrift.
    2000 Leandro Silva, pintor uruguayo.
    2000 Al menos ocho personas fallecen, y centenares resultan heridas, en los actos de celebración del aniversario de la declaración de independencia de Palestina.
    1998 Kwame Ture, 57, in Guinea, US civil rights activist formerly known as Stokely Carmichael.
    1996 Alger Hiss, in New York. Born on 11 November 1904, former US State Department official, convicted of perjury after denying having been a Communist spy, as accused (first on 03 August 1948) by Whittaker Chambers [01 April 1901 – 09 July 1961]. Hiss wrote two books, In the Court of Public Opinion (1957) and Recollections of a Life (1988).
    1985 Douglas Walker, 25, shot by Thomas Miller-El, 34, after being bound and gagged during a robbery at a Holiday Inn in Irving, Texas, where Walker is a clerk. Another clerk, Donald Ray Hall, 29, is wounded and permanently paralyzed from the chest down and would identify the gunman. On 21 November 1985, Miller-El, a Black, is arrested. During the arrest he is shot in the back and suffers also a “gunshot wound to the left flank with injuries to the jejenum, stomach, liver, pancreas, small bowel mesentery, abdominal wall, diaphragm and colon.” He is not adequately treated while in jail and during trial. He is sentenced to death. He is scheduled for execution on 21 February 2002, but on 15 February the US Supreme Court gave a reprieve, agreeing to hear his appeal. On 25 February the US Supreme Court orders a new trial for Miller-El, by a vote of 8 to 1 (the dissenter, Clarence Thomas, is a Republican Black of questionable moral character).
    1984 Baby Fae, 5 weeks old, of baboon heart transplant rejection.
          Baby Fae, a month-old infant who received a baboon's heart to replace her congenitally deformed one, dies at Loma Linda University Medical Center in California. The baboon heart transplant operation, the first ever attempted, was performed by Dr. Leonard L. Bailey 20 days before. The unusual plight of Baby Fae, who was just fifteen days old at the time of the operation, attracted national attention. However, after a month of miraculously holding onto life, the infant's immune system finally rejected the baboon heart, killing Baby Fae.
    1978 Margaret Mead, of cancer. Born on 16 December 1901, she was an anthropologist, author, lecturer (e.g. on air pollution, hunger, mental hygiene, sex, women's careers, population control, primitive art, the family, nutrition, city planning, military service, tribal customs, alcoholism, child development, architecture, drugs, civil liberties, etc.) , and social critic. According to the American Museum of Natural History, with which she was associated for most of her professional life, she was "a specialist in education and culture; relationship between character structure and social forms; personality and culture; cultural aspects of problems of nutrition; mental health; family life; ecology; ekistics; transnational relations; national character; cultural change, and cultural building." They could have added feminism, atomic politics, etc., etc. She became well known from her first book, Coming of Age in Samoa (1928), in which she described the values of adolescent lovemaking in Samoan society and suggested that, in our modern society, adolescent conflicts arise from excessively strict sexual norms. She studied seven other cultures: Manua, Arapesh, Mundugumor, Tchambuli, Iatmul, Balinese, US; and wrote Growing Up in New Guinea, Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies, Balinese Character, New Lives for Old, And Keep Your Powder Dry: An Anthropologist Looks at America (1942), Male and Female: A Study of Sexes in a Changing World (1949).
    1970 Un alto jefe de la policía de Argentina, relacionado con la investigación del asesinato del presidente Pedro Eugenio Aramburu, acribillado a balazos
    1969 Ignacio Aldecoa, novelista español. .
    1965 Allen Du Mont
          Allen Du Mont perfected the cathode-ray tube and manufactured the first commercially available television sets. Brooklyn-born Du Mont worked as chief engineer at De Forest Radio Company until 1931, when his interest in television led him to start his own company, the Allen B. Du Mont Lab. In 1937, he offered his television receivers for sale and set up experimental broadcasting stations. Du Mont continued to shape the television industry by helping formulate broadcast standards for black and white (and later, color) television and by working with the FCC to allocate frequencies for television channels.
    1949 Henri Liénard de Saint-Délis, French painter born on 04 April 1878. — more with link to an image.
    1942 The five Sullivan brothers, aboard USS Juneau, and many others as an American fleet defeats a Japanese naval force off Guadalcanal.
    1938 Unas 30'000 bajas del ejército republicano en la decisiva batalla del Ebro, la más larga y cruenta de toda la Guerra Civil española, que se termina y en la que 20'000 republicanos fueron hechos prisioneros.
    1935 "La Grande Chartreuse", la destilería del licor "Chartreuse" levantada en el siglo, por un corrimiento de tierras en los Alpes franceses.
    1932 Andrea Tavernier, Italian artist born on 23 December 1858.
    1930 Alfred Lothar Wegener, en Groenlandia, geofísico y meteorólogo alemán, en el transcurso de una expedición científica al polo Norte.
    1928 Louis Mathieu Verdilhan, French artist born on 24 November 1875.
    1917 Oswald Chambers while serving as chaplain to British troops in Egypt during World War I. His widow, Gertrude, spent the rest of her life compiling his notes into books, including the popular My Utmost for His Highest: Selections for the Year
    1917 Emile Durkheim, sociólogo francés.
    1916 Henryk Sienkiewicz, escritor polaco.
    1885 Joseph Mukasa, beheaded by Mwanga, ruler of Buganda (now part of Uganda). Mukasa, Anglican convert and member of the royal family, opposed killing the missionary bishop James Hannington and his colleagues. Mwanga's bloodbath continued through January 1887.
    1884 Ellen Keyse, beaten and throat cut, in Exeter, England..
         She was a rich old woman, who had been a maid to Queen Victoria. She is found dead in a pantry next to the room of John Lee, 19, who worked for her.
         There was no direct evidence of Lee's guilt. A case was made solely on circumstantial evidence. The alleged motive was Lee's resentment at Keyse's mean treatment. Lee was convicted of murder despite insisting on his innocence, and sentenced to death by hanging.
    Convicted murderer miraculously saved from hanging.
         On 23 Feb 1885 Lee is taken to the gallows in Exeter, England. Although the noose was brought around his neck and the lever was pulled, something malfunctioned and Lee was not dropped. The equipment was tested repeatedly and seemed to be in working order; weights used in a test run plunged to the ground as expected. But each time the lever was pulled when Lee stood over the trap door, nothing happened. Two more execution attempts were made without success, and Lee was returned to prison.
          The authorities, mystified at the gallows' inexplicable malfunction, decided to ascribe it to an act of God. Lee was removed from death row, his sentence commuted, and he spent the next 22 years in prison. After he was released, he emigrated to America. The cause of Lee's remarkable reprieve was never discovered.
          Condemned prisoners no longer have a chance at such reprieves. Even when there are mishaps in carrying out an execution (in one case, an executioner failed to properly find a vein for a lethal injection), authorities follow through until the prisoner has been put to death.
    1802 George Romney, Fashionable British portrait painter born on 15 December 1734. — MORE ON ROMNEY AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1794 John Witherspoon, the Scottish born pastor-educator of whom it was said that the American colonies have run off with a Presbyterian parson. He was the only clergyman to sign the US Declaration of Independence.
    1791 Edward Penny, British artist born in 1714
    1793 Luis Pedro Manuel, político francés.
    1761 Poleni, mathematician.
    1691 (burial) Aelbert Cuyp, Dordrecht painter born on 20 October 1620. — MORE ON CUYP AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1689 Cornelis Mahu, Flemish artist born in 1613.
    1676 Jacques Courtois “le Bourguignon”, French painter born on 12 February 1621. [puisqu'il était Courtois, je serai courtois avec lui en ne faisant aucune plaisanterie sur son nom] — LINKS
    1670 John Amos Comenius (Jan Ámos Komenský in Czech). 78, in Amsterdam.
       He was born on March 28, 1592, Nivnice, Moravia, Habsburg domain [now in Czech Republic] . Czech educational reformer and religious leader, remembered mainly for his innovations in methods of teaching, especially languages. He favored the learning of Latin to facilitate the study of European culture. Janua Linguarum Reserata (1631) revolutionized Latin teaching and was translated into 16 languages. Leader of the exiled Moravians.
    ONLINE: The Labyrinth of the World and the Paradise of the Heart
    1630 Johannes Kepler, 58, German mathematician and astronomer, discoverer of the laws of planetary motion. His arguments for the unity of religion and science were borrowed by Galileo without attribution and often printed as Galileo's own.
    1591 Barnabé Brisson et deux de ses conseillers, pendus
          Le premier président Barnabé Brisson ayant rendu quelques jours plus tôt un jugement intolérable aux yeux de la Ligue. Il a osé absoudre un nommé Brigard, procureur du roi à l'Hôtel de Ville, qui était accusé de correspondre les royalistes assiégeant Paris affamé. On y voit apparaître sur les murs ou les portes les lettres P, D ou C tracées (P signifie Pendu, D, Dagué et C, Chassé). Il est inacceptable aux yeux des ligueurs catholiques que la ville soit livrée au huguenot Henri de Navarre, quand bien même il se veut Henri IV. De délations en dénonciations, l'indulgence dont a fait preuve Brisson est confondue avec une trahison. Ce jour, un conseil des Dix fait arrêter Brisson avec deux de ses conseillers. Ils sont conduits au Petit Châtelet, après un simulacre de jugement on les condamne à mort. Séance tenante, ils sont pendus à une poutre de la prison. La Ligue fait exposer les corps des suppliciés sur la place de Grève. Mais les Parisiens n'admettent pas la rigueur dont la Ligue vient de faire preuve. L'exemple que celle-ci a cru donner se retourne contre elle.
    1560 Domingo de Soto, filósofo español.
    1280 Saint Albertus Magnus , 87, German mathematician and scholar, Dominican philospher, teacher of St. Thomas Aquinas.
  • Births which occurred on a November 15:
    1971 Le microprocesseur
          Acte de naissance du microprocesseur. Dans une publicité de la revue Electronic News, la firme Intel annonce "A microprogrammable computer on a chip" (un ordinateur programmable dans une puce). L'inventeur, Marcia E. "Ted" Hoff, a eu l'idée d'associer sur un minuscule support tous les circuits qui constituent un ordinateur. Ce microprocesseur 4004, avec une taille de 3,2 mm, est capable d'effectuer jusqu'à 60'000 opérations par seconde. Sa puissance est comparable à celle du célèbre ENIAC, dont les circuits occupaient un volume d'environ 80 mètre-cube.
    Genèse d'une révolution
          Avec l'aimable collaboration de Gilles Fort L'ENIAC, né juste après la seconde guerre mondiale, est l'un des premiers ordinateurs numériques jamais construits. Il était composé de plus de 15'000 tubes à vide, en quelque sorte de grosses ampoules. Ces tubes furent remplacés par des transistors dans la génération suivante d'ordinateurs numériques. Ces transistors, inventés par les laboratoires Bell en 1948 ont eux-même été progressivement miniaturisés, ce qui a permis la mise au point des microprocesseurs. En quelques années, dans l'ensemble du monde développé, les microprocesseur ont bouleversé l'informatique, l'industrie et les télécommunications.
          La "puce" est à l'origine de l'automatisation des tâches industrielles, de l'usage de la micro-informatique dans les activités de services et dans les activités ludiques ou domestiques, ainsi que de l'expansion foudroyante de la téléphonie et de l'internet. Ses performances ne cessent de s'accroître. Les microprocesseurs les plus récents, comme le "Pentium" d'Intel, peuvent contenir jusqu'à 100'000 transistors miniatures. Les microprocesseurs sont à l'origine d'une troisième révolution industrielle, après l'invention de la machine à vapeur par James Watt, au XVIIIe siècle, et la découverte des applications pratiques de l'électricité par Thomas Edison, au XIXe siècle.
    1947 Carmen Romero, política española.
    1942 David Crighton, mathematician.
    1937 Fernando Schwartz, escritor y diplomático español.
    1932 Las Hurdes, tierra sin pan, de Luis Buñuel, se estrena.
    1926 The National Broadcasting Company debuted with a radio network of 24 stations.
    1925 Howard Baker (Sen-R-TN), US presidential chief of staff.
    1910 Antoine Blanchard, French painter who died in 1988. — MORE ON BLANCHARD AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1906 General Curtis LeMay.
    1897 Sacheverell Sitwell English poet/writer (People's Palace)
    1891 W Averell Harriman US, (Gov-D-NY) / ambassador to USSR (1943-46)
    1891 Erwin Rommel German field marshall (WW II-African campaign)
    1887 Georgia O'Keefe Sun Prairie WI, painter (Cow's Skull)
    1887 Marianne Moore St Louis, poet (Pulitzer-1951-Collected Poems)
    1882 Felix Frankfurter Vienna Austria, US supreme court justice (1939-62)
    1881 Franklin P Adams Chicago IL, columnist (Information Please)
    1881 The American Federation of Labor is founded.
    1876 Anne Elizabeth de Brancovan, comtesse de Noailles, escritora francesa de origen rumano.
    1876 The stock ticker. Not only did this invention feed traders a steady stream of information, but it gave rise to the ticker-tape parade.
    1874 August Krogh Denmark, physiologist (Nobel-1920)
    1862 Gerhart Hauptmann Germany, writer (Before Dawn-Nobel 1912)
    1859 A Tale of Two Cities's final installment is published.
          The last installment of the serialized novel Great Expectations is published on this day in 1859. The book had been serialized in Dickens' literary circular, All the Year Round. The novel tells the story of young Pip, a poor orphan who comes to believe he will inherit a fortune.
          Charles Dickens had become one of the most popular writers in England nearly three decades earlier with the publication of his first novel, The Pickwick Papers. The short sketches, which Dickens published under the pseudonym "Boz," were originally commissioned as captions for humorous drawings.
          Dickens was born in 1812 and attended school in Portsmouth. His father, a clerk in the navy pay office, was thrown in debtors' prison in 1824, and 12-year-old Charles was sent to work in a factory. The miserable treatment of children and the institution of the debtors' jail became topics of several of Dickens' novels. In his late teens, Dickens became a reporter and started publishing humorous short stories when he was 21.
          In 1836, a collection of his stories, Sketches by Boz, was published. The same year, he married Catherine Hogarth, with whom he would have nine children. In 1838, Dickens published Oliver Twist, followed by Nicholas Nickleby (1839). In 1841, Dickens published two more novels, then spent five months in the US, where he was hailed as a literary hero.
          Dickens churned out major novels every year or two, usually serialized in his own circular. Among his most important works are David Copperfield (1850), Great Expectations (1861), and A Tale of Two Cities (1859). In 1858, Dickens separated from his wife and began a long association with a young actress. He began a series of public readings, which became immensely popular. He died in 1870 at the age of 58, with his last novel, The Mystery of Edwin Drood, still unfinished.
  • American Notes for General Circulation: 1 (1842)
  • American Notes for General Circulation: 2 (1842)
  • American Notes for General Circulation (1874)
  • Barnaby Rudge (PDF)
  • Barnaby Rudge
  • Barnaby Rudge (zipped PDF)
  • A Child's History of England
  • A Christmas Carol
  • A Christmas Carol (PDF)
  • A Christmas Carol (zipped PDF)
  • A Christmas Carol: The Reading Version
  • David Copperfield
  • David Copperfield (zipped PDF)
  • Dombey and Son (PDF)
  • Great Expectations
  • Great Expectations (PDF)
  • Great Expectations (zipped PDF)
  • The Haunted Man and the Ghost's Bargain
  • The Lazy Tour of Two Idle Apprentices
  • Letters of Charles Dickens to Wilkie Collins
  • The Life and Adventures of Martin Chuzzlewit (PDF)
  • The Life and Adventures of Martin Chuzzlewit (zipped PDF)
  • The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby
  • The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby (zipped PDF)
  • The Old Curiosity Shop
  • The Old Curiosity Shop
  • The Old Curiosity Shop (zipped PDF)
  • The Perils of Certain English Prisoners
  • Bleak House
  • Bleak House
  • Bleak House (zipped PDF)
  • Little Dorrit
  • Little Dorrit (PDF)
  • Little Dorrit (zipped PDF)
  • Hard Times
  • Hard Times
  • Hard Times (zipped PDF)
  • The Chimes
  • The Chimes
  • The Battle of Life
  • The Holly Tree
  • Hunted Down
  • The Lamplighter
  • The Cricket on the Hearth
  • Doctor Marigold
  • The Life of Our Lord
  • Mugby Junction
  • A Message from the Sea
  • Mrs. Lirriper's Legacy
  • Mrs. Lirriper's Lodgings
  • To Be Read at Dusk
  • Tom Tiddler's Ground
  • Pictures from Italy
  • Reprinted Pieces
  • Sketches by Boz
  • Somebody's Luggage
  • Mudfog and Other Sketches
  • Master Humphrey's Clock
  • The Mystery of Edwin Drood
  • The Mystery of Edwin Drood
  • Oliver Twist
  • Oliver Twist (PDF)
  • Oliver Twist (zipped PDF)
  • Our Mutual Friend
  • Our Mutual Friend (PDF)
  • The Pickwick Papers
  • The Pickwick Papers
  • The Pickwick Papers (zipped PDF)
  • The Seven Poor Travellers
  • Sketches of Young Couples
  • Sketches of Young Gentlemen
  • Speeches, Literary and Social
  • Sunday Under Three Heads
  • A Tale of Two Cities
  • A Tale of Two Cities
  • A Tale of Two Cities
  • A Tale of Two Cities (zipped PDF)
  • The Uncommercial Traveller
  • The Wreck of the Golden Mary
    co-author of:
  • No Thoroughfare
  • No Thoroughfare
    editor of:
  • A House to Let
  • 1844 or 1845 Tina Blau-Lang, Austrian artist who died in 1916.
    1832 (1831?) Hermann Herzog, German-born US painter who died on 06 February 1932. — MORE ON HERZOG AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1815 John Banvard, NYC, would claim to have painted the world's largest painting,a rolled panorama of the Mississippi, 370 m long (deceptively advertised as 3 miles in length). — MORE ON BANVARD AT ART “4” NOVEMBER
    1793 Michel Chasles, mathematician.
    1773 José Leopoldo, Conde de Hugo, militar francés.
    1738 Sir William Herschel astronomer (discovered Uranus)
    1708 William Pitt the Elder (Whig) UK PM (1756-61, 66-68) `Great Commoner' whose strategies helped win the Seven Years War
    1688 Castel, mathematician.
    1620 Cornelis Pieterszoon Bega, Dutch painter who died on 27 August 1664. — MORE ON BEGA AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1573 La ciudad de Santa Fe de la Veracruz es fundada en la ribera del río Paraná por Juan de Garay.
    1397 Nicholas V pope (1447-55); ended schism, founded Vatican Library
    Holidays Belgium : King's Day / Brazil : Republic Day (1889) / Japan : 7-5-3 Festival Day

    Religious Observances Christian : St Leopold / RC : St Albert the Great, bishop, confessor, doctor (opt) / Santos Alberto Magno, Aurelio, Eugenio, Félix y Leopoldo. / Saint Albert le Grand est né en Allemagne au XIIIe siècle. Il enseigne à Paris la théologie et l'oeuvre d'Aristote. Il poursuit son enseignement à Cologne où l'un de ses élèves n'est autre que Thomas d'Aquin. Avide de savoir et ignorant des frontières étatiques, Albert le Grand témoigne de ce qu'étaient les "intellectuels" au Moyen Age. Son oeuvre livresque, condensée dans un ouvrage du nom de "Grand Albert", a longtemps scandalisé le clergé catholique en raison de ses références à la magie et à la doctrine de Platon. Albert a néanmoins été proclamé docteur de l'Eglise en 1931.

    Thought for the day: “The desire to work is confined to classified ads.” [and to signs held by beggars at intersections]
    “Classifying ads is undesirable work.”
    “Classified work is confining to desires.”
    “Confining work is classified as undesirable.”
    “The desire to read classified ads should get a person confined.”
    “Classified ads work on your confined desires.”
    “Work too classified adds nothing to desire confined.”
    “In seeking wisdom you are wise; in imagining that you have attained it you are a fool.” -
    Simon Ben Azzai, 2nd-century Jewish scholar [speaking with the wisdom he imagined that he had attained?]
    “You know that you have attained wisdom when you know that you can't attain wisdom.”.
    “Wisdom is knowing enough to stop seeking what you can't attain.”
    “You can never attain what you stop seeking.”
    “If you can't attain wisdom, seek wit.”
    updated Thursday 20-Nov-2003 3:36 UT
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