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Events, deaths, births, of 19 NOV
[For Nov 19 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1582~1699: Nov 291700s: Nov 301800s: Dec 011900~2099: Dec 02]
On a November 19:
4'000'002'002 (give or take a few hundred million years) The two massive black holes at the center of the merged (since some 100'000'000 years earlier) galaxies Milky Way and Andromeda merge shooting out intense radiation and gravitational waves across the universe.
2002 In primary elections, Israel's Labor Party rejects its leader Binyamin Ben-Eliezer, who was defense minister in the coalition government of Likud's Ariel Sharon, and chooses instead ex-general Amram Mitzna, to go into the 28 January 2003 general election.
2001 World Toilet Association conference starts in Singapore with some 200 delegates from all over the world.
2000 El presidente peruano Alberto Fujimori anuncia en Japón su decisión de dimitir.
1998 Temporary workers at Microsoft file a lawsuit claiming they are unfairly denied health benefits and stock options. In a similar case in 1993, a federal appeals court had decided that freelancers were entitled to discounted stock and other financial benefits from the company.
1998 Extra fee for digital broadcasts
      The FCC announced that the government would charge digital broadcasters five% of their gross revenues for new pay-TV services. Because digital broadcast gave broadcasters a much larger spectrum than analog broadcast did, digital broadcasters were free to choose whether to use the extra bandwidth for clearer, high-definition pictures, or to send several analog services over the same space. The government required all stations to switch to digital TV broadcasting by the year 2006.
1996 The United States vetoed UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali's bid for a second term.
1995 In a close presidential runoff election in Poland, former communist party leader Aleksander Kwasniewski defeats incumbent Lech Walesa. — Victoria del candidato socialdemócrata (ex comunista) Aleksander Kwasniewski en las elecciones presidenciales de Polonia, al conseguir el 51,72% de los votos, frente al presidente saliente, Lech Walesa, que obtuvo el 48,28%.
1995 CiU (Convergencia i Unio) gana las elecciones catalanas con el 41% de los votos, pero pierde la mayoría absoluta y diez escaños.
1994 Mozambique President Joaquim Chissano and his party claim victory in the country's first multiparty presidential and parliamentary elections.
1993 The Chevy Cavalier becomes the Toyota Cavalier
      Toyota and General Motors sign an historic agreement to sell the Chevy Cavalier in Japan as the Toyota Cavalier. In a sense, the US-built but Japanese-inspired Cavalier was returning home. The popular Cavalier, which was first introduced in 1981, was Detroit's answer to Japan's fuel-efficient and well-made compacts. Japanese automakers had taken the US automobile market by storm during the 1970s, largely due to consumer demand for fuel-efficiency and durability during a time of oil crises and recession. It took a decade for the Big Three to bounce back from the blow, finally gaining ground in the early 1980s with Japanese-inspired compacts like the Chevy Cavalier. The Cavalier was the best-selling Chevy model in modern history, and the top-selling US car in 1984. By the late 1980s, Detroit's relationship with Japanese automakers had stabilized — major Japanese plants opened across the United States and the Japanese government relaxed its tariff laws to allow free competition from American automakers. During the 1990s, cooperation became the rule of thumb, and cars can no longer be considered strictly "Japanese" or "American," as most automobiles today are constructed in any number of countries from parts made all around the world.
1992 El presidente ruso Boris Nicolaievich Yeltsin anuncia en Seúl la decisión de su país de paralizar la fabricación de submarinos nucleares.
1991 Eduard Shevardnadze is reappointed Soviet foreign minister after resigning in December 1990 with a warning of an impending coup.
1991 The US House of Representatives sustained President Bush's veto of a bill that would have lifted his ban on federally financed abortion counseling.
1990 NATO and the Warsaw Pact nations signed a massive conventional arms treaty in Paris to end the 40-year Cold War.
1990 Greyhound files reorganization plan so they can be traded publicly
1990 Iraq announces it will free all German hostages
1988 Un millón de personas se manifiestan en Belgrado en apoyo del líder serbio criminal Slobodán Milosevicz y pidiendo que aumenten los controles sobre los albaneses de Kosovo.
1986 At the beginning of will become the Iran-Contra scandal, President Reagan says that the United States will send no more arms to Iran. His nose seems to grow longer.
1986 Entra en vigor la nueva Constitución nicaragüense, promulgada por la Asamblea Nacional, que define Nicaragua como un estado independiente, libre, soberano, unitario e indivisible, y garantiza la existencia del pluralismo político, la economía mixta y el no alineamiento.
1986 Un cuadro de Joan Miró es subastado en Nueva York por $2'350'000.
1985 Reagan and Gorbachev meet in Geneva
      US president Ronald Reagan meets for the first time with the new Soviet general secretary, Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, in Geneva, Switzerland, at the first US-Soviet summit in six years. The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in the late 1970s significantly cooled relations between the two superpowers, and President Reagan himself called the Soviet Union the "evil empire" in a speech he made after assuming office in 1981. No significant agreements are made at the first face-to-face meeting between Reagan and the new Soviet leader, but Gorbachev does reveal his government's desire to end the costly Afghan war and the two leaders agree to hold another summit meeting in the near future. President Reagan also informally discusses with Gorbachev the possibility of the US and the USS.R. joining forces in the event of an invasion of earth by extraterrestrials.
     For the first time in eight years, the leaders of the Soviet Union and the United States hold a summit conference. Meeting in Geneva, President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev produced no earth-shattering agreements. However, the meeting boded well for the future, as the two men engaged in long, personal talks and seemed to develop a sincere and close relationship. The meeting came as somewhat of a surprise to some in the United States, considering Reagan's often incendiary rhetoric concerning communism and the Soviet Union, but it was in keeping with the president's often stated desire to bring the nuclear arms race under control. For Gorbachev, the meeting was another clear signal of his desire to obtain better relations with the United States so that he could better pursue his domestic reforms.
      Little of substance was accomplished. Six agreements were reached, ranging from cultural and scientific exchanges to environmental issues. Both Reagan and Gorbachev, however, expressed satisfaction with the summit, which ended on 21 November. The next summit was held in October 1986 in Reykjavik and ended somewhat disastrously, with Reagan's commitment to the Strategic Defense Initiative (the so-called "Star Wars" missile defense system) providing a major obstacle to progress on arms control talks. However, by the time of their third summit in Washington, D.C. in 1987, both sides made concessions in order to achieve agreement on a wide range of arms control issues.
1985 Pennzoil wins $10 Billion from Texaco for overbidding it on Getty
      Pennzoil wins a $10.53 billion settlement in a case against fellow oil industry giant Texaco. The settlement stemmed from Pennzoil's attempted acquisition of Getty Oil. Pennzoil had anted up $5.3 billion for the family-run oil concern. Getty seemingly accepted the Pennzoil offer and the deal was feted with a round of press releases, champagne toasts, and a favorable vote from the Getty board. However, besides these gestures and a few handshakes, the deal lacked a written contract signed by both parties. Sensing an opening, Texaco stepped up to the bargaining table with an offer that doubled Pennzoil's bid for Getty. Officials for Getty accepted and signed off on the Texaco deal, triggering Pennzoil's lawsuit. Despite the absence of a signed document, the state-court jury ruled that Pennzoil and Getty had engaged in a binding contract and handed down the single biggest civil settlement in court history.
1982 The US Federal Reserve Board reduces the discount rate from 9.5% to 9% to stimulate the economy.
1982 José Luis Castillo Puche recibe el Premio Nacional español de Novela.
1978 Se celebra una entrevista entre monseñor Marcel Lefêbvre y Juan Pablo II.
1977 Sadat visits Israel for peace
      In an unprecedented move for an Arab leader, Egyptian president Anwar el-Sadat travels to Jerusalem in Israel to seek a permanent peace settlement with Egypt's Jewish neighbor after decades of conflict. Sadat's visit, in which he meets with Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin and speaks before Israel's Knesset, is met with outrage in most of the Arab world. Despite criticism from Egypt's regional allies, Sadat continues to pursue peace with Begin, and in 1978 the two leaders meet again in the United States, where they negotiate a agreement with US President Jimmy Carter at Camp David, Maryland. The historic treaty, the first peace agreement between the state of Israel and one of its Arab neighbors, ends three decades of war and establishes the groundwork for diplomatic and commercial relations. For their achievement, Sadat and Begin are awarded a joint Nobel Peace Prize. However, Sadat's peace efforts are not so highly acclaimed in the Arab world, and he is assassinated in 1981 by Muslim extremists in Cairo.
1971 Cambodia's appeal to Saigon for help is revealed.
      As communist forces move closer to Phnom Penh, South Vietnamese officials reveal that, the previous week, an eight-person Cambodian delegation flew to the Saigon to officially request South Vietnamese artillery and engineer support for beleaguered Cambodian government troops. Cambodian Premier Lon Nol and his troops were involved in a life or death struggle with the communist Khmer Rouge force and their North Vietnamese allies for control of the country.
1971 UNIVAC buys RCA's computer division
      Sperry Rand announces that it has purchased RCA's computer operation. Sperry Rand had already owned UNIVAC, the computer company established by pioneers J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly. RCA's computer operation had lost between $250 and $450 million since it was formed in the early 1960s. By purchasing RCA's computer division, UNIVAC gained access to a larger customer list and hired 2,500 new scientists, technicians, and salespeople.
1969 Module descends to Lunar surface
      As part of Apollo 12, the second manned mission to the surface of the moon, US astronauts Charles Conrad, Jr., and Alan L. Bean become the third and fourth humans to walk on the surface of the moon after their landing module, Intrepid, touches down on the lunar plain of the Ocean of Storms. Over the next fifteen-and-a-half hours, the two astronauts make two lunar walks, where they collect samples and investigate the Surveyor 3 spacecraft, an unmanned US probe that soft-landed on the moon in 1967. Five days later, Apollo 12 successfully returns to earth, splashing down only three miles from one of its retrieval ships, the USS. Hornet.
1968 Army coup seizes power in Mali
1967 The US Senate Foreign Relations Committee unanimously passes a resolution to curb the commitment of US armed forces in Vietnam and a resolution urging the President Johnson to take the initiative to have the conflict brought before the United Nations Security Council.
1962 Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru reconoce que el ejército chino ha conseguido victorias sobre las tropas indias en el Nepal.
1961 The Third Assembly of the World Council of Churches convened at New Delhi, India, during which the International Missionary Council and its work was integrated into the larger ecumenical group.
1959 Ford Motor Co. announced it was halting production of the unpopular "Edsel."
1954 First automatic toll collection machine is placed in service at the Union Toll Plaza on New Jersey's Garden State Parkway on this day. In order to pass through the toll area, motorists dropped 25 cents into a wire mesh hopper and then a green light would flash permitting passage through the toll. The automatic toll collection machine was an important innovation for America's modern toll highway, which first appeared in 1940 with the opening of the Pennsylvania Turnpike. For a three-hour reduction of travel-time between Pittsburgh and Harrisburg, the turnpike asked travelers to pay tolls, creating revenues that helped cover the roadway's high construction and maintenance costs.
      The Pennsylvania Turnpike was a tremendous success, leading to the construction of toll highways across the country, including the Garden State Parkway, which opened its first toll section in early 1954, and was completed in 1955. However, a non-automotive toll road first appeared in the United States in 1795, when people traveling through the Blue Ridge Mountains along the Little River Turnpike found their way blocked by toll gates at Snicker's Gap, where they were asked to pay a toll.
1949 Monaco held a coronation for its new ruler, Prince Rainier III, six months after he succeeded his grandfather, Prince Louis II.
1946 Début de la première guerre d'Indochine
      Une fusillade se produit dans le port de Haïphong entre une jonque chinoise et la douane française. A bord de la jonque, des nationalistes vietnamiens transportent de l'essence de contrebande. La fusillade dégénère et fait 24 morts dont le commandant Carmoin qui s'avançait avec un drapeau blanc vers les vietnamiens de la jonque. C'est le début de la première guerre d'Indochine.
Origines de la guerre
      Dans leur ancienne colonie d'Indochine, les Français avaient perdu le pouvoir dès le 30 Aug 1940, lorsque le gouverneur Jean Decoux avait dû concéder des facilités militaires aux Japonais, alors en guerre contre la Chine. Les occupants japonais chassent les derniers Français le 09 mars 1945. Ils confient le pays à l'ex-empereur d'Annam, Bao Dai. Mais Bao Dai doit abdiquer le 02 septembre 1945 cependant que la ligue Vietminh, fondée par Hô Chi Minh, proclame l'indépendance de la République démocratique du Vietnam.
      Cependant, à Paris, le général Charles De Gaulle, qui dirige le gouvernement provisoire de la République française, met tout en oeuvre pour restaurer la souveraineté de la France sur ses colonies d'outre-mer. Il veut effacer le souvenir de la défaite de 1940 et restaurer en tous lieux la "grandeur" de la France. Il veut aussi couper court à d'autres tentatives indépendantistes au sein de l'Empire colonial.
      Dès le 24 mars 1945, alors qu'il s'apprête à prendre le pouvoir en France à la faveur de la Libération du pays par les Anglo-Saxons, le général De Gaulle déclare son intention de restaurer l'autorité de la France en Indochine dans le cadre d'une fédération de colonies et de protectorats qui comprendrait les trois provinces du Vietnam (les trois Ky; Tonkin, Annam et Cochinchine) ainsi que le Cambodge et le Laos.
      Des soldats français s'emparent le 23 septembre de Saigon, capitale de la Cochinchine (le Vietnam du sud) en attendant l'arrivée quelques jours plus tard d'un corps expéditionnaire sous les ordres du général Leclerc de Hauteclocque, héros de la Libération. Celui-ci revient bientôt en France avec la conviction qu'il est urgent de négocier et qu'il faut se résigner à la décolonisation.
      L'éviction du général De Gaulle, en janvier 1946, permet au nouveau gouvernement de préparer un accord avec les Vietnamiens en vue de reconnaître leur indépendance. Il veut suivre l'exemple des Britanniques qui s'apprêtent à quitter sans façons leur colonie des Indes. Circonstance favorable, Hô Chi Minh, à Hanoi, craint une mainmise de ses voisins chinois et se montre disposé à composer avec les Français.
      Le négociateur Jean Sainteny et Hô Chi Minh signent alors les accords du 06 mars 1946 qui reconnaissent un Etat libre du Vietnam au sein de l'Union française. Une conférence réunie à Fontainebleau doit préciser les contours de l'indépendance de l'Indochine. Un référendum est prévu pour l'union des trois Ky. Mais la conférence va tourner court en raison des événements du 19 novembre.
      L'incident de la jonque chinoise est exploité par les partisans d'une reconquête de l'ancienne colonie. Leur chef de file est l'amiral Georges Thierry d'Argenlieu. Le général De Gaulle l'avait nommé le 14 août 1945 gouverneur général de l'Indochine et lui avait demandé de restaurer la souveraineté de la France sur l'ancienne colonie. L'amiral s'oppose ouvertement à Leclerc et Sainteny. Il veut au moins conserver à la France Saigon et la Cochinchine. En contradiction avec les accords du 6 mars, il tente de rompre l'unité des trois Ky du Vietnam en créant une Cochinchine indépendante affidée à la France. L'artillerie de marine, sous les ordres du colonel Debès, bombarde le 23 novembre le port de Haïphong. Elle fait au moins 6000 morts.
      Le 19 decembre suivant, Hô Chi Minh et son parti, le Vietminh, lancent une offensive générale contre les Français. Une guerre inutile commence. L'opinion française y restera à peu près indifférente à cette guerre. Il est vrai que les combattants du corps expéditionnaire sont des militaires de métier et des engagés. Une forte proportion d'entre eux sont des soldats perdus de la Wehrmacht, l'armée de Hitler. On le voit, sur les photos d'archives, aux panneaux indicateurs en français et en allemand.
      Dans leur effort de guerre, les Français obtiendront le concours des Américains en faisant valoir qu'ils luttent contre le communisme stalinien. La guerre s'achèvera au bout de huit ans avec les accords de Genève.
1945 Charles-André de Gaulle resulta reelegido presidente de la República Francesa por 400 votos a favor y 163 en contra.
1944 President Franklin D. Roosevelt announces the 6th War Loan Drive with the goal of "immediately" raising $14 billion in war bonds for the war.
1942 Red Army counterattacks at Stalingrad
      The Soviet Red Army starts a highly successful counteroffensive against the German armies north of Stalingrad. Thousands of Romanian, Hungarian, and Italian troops fought alongside the Germans during this battle. All of them were driven back. More than 3,500 guns and mortars opened fire on a fourteen-mile front. A particularly vicious assault was made on the segments of the front composed of Romanian troops, since they had no previous battle experience. The tactic worked—65'000 Romanian soldiers were taken prisoner in less than twenty-four hours.
      Aided by operational intelligence from Britain's Enigma (the German coding machine) code-breakers, the Soviets were predicting German Air Force and Army plans. Meanwhile, in one sector of the front, a ninety-man Red Army band belted out martial music as an inspiring soundtrack for battle. Just as the Soviet Army was pushing German troops back into Stalingrad from the north, it made a bold and unexpected move. It attacked from the south of the city, hoping to encircle the German troops inside the very city the Germans were trying to encircle. The plan worked. It caught General von Paulus' troops completely off guard. On 21 November, Paulus proposed that his Sixth Army break out of their ever-tightening trap and withdraw toward the River Don. Rarely a supporter of retreat, Hitler denied Paulus' proposal with a characteristically simple suggestion: "Hold on!" Hitler remained so steadfast against breaking out of the Stalingrad trap that on 21 November, he proposed that the German army instead break into the trap from the outside: Operation Winter Storm.
     The Soviet Red Army under General Georgi Zhukov launches Operation Uranus, the great Soviet counter-offensive that turns the tide of the Battle of Stalingrad. On 23 August 1943, the German Sixth Army sighted the Russian city of Stalingrad on the banks of the Volga River, the pre-designated boundary of the Third Reich. As part of the summer campaign by German forces in Russia, the Sixth Army under Field Marshall Friedrich von Paulus was to take Stalingrad, an industrial center and obstacle to Nazi control of the precious Caucasian oil wells.
      As the Sixth Army approached Stalingrad, the German Fourth Air Fleet under General Wolfram von Richthofen reduced the city to a burning rubble, and killed over forty thousand civilians. At the beginning of September, General Paulus ordered the first offensives against Stalingrad, estimating that it would take his army about ten days to capture the city. Thus began the most horrific battle of World War II, and arguably the most important because it marked the turning point in the war between Nazi Germany and the USS.R. In Stalingrad, the German Sixth Army faced a bitter Red Army employing the ruined city to their advantage, transforming destroyed buildings and rubble into natural fortifications. In a method of fighting the Germans began to call the Rattenkrieg, or "Rat's War," the opposing forces broke into squads eight or ten strong, and fought each other for every house and yard of territory.
      The battle saw rapid advances in the technology of street fighting, such as a German machine gun that shot around corners and a light Russian plane that glided silently over German positions at night, dropping lethal bombs without warning. However, both sides lacked the necessary food, water, or medical supplies, and tens of thousands perished. Soviet leader Joseph Stalin was determined to liberate the city named after him and in November he ordered massive reinforcements to the area. German command underestimated the scale of the imminent counterattack, and the Sixth Army was quickly overwhelmed in Operation Uranus, which involved eleven Soviet armies, 900 tanks, and 1400 aircraft. Within three days, the entire German force of over 200'000 men was encircled.
      For the next two months, the Germans desperately hung on, waiting for reinforcements that never came. Starvation and the bitter Russian winter took as many lives as the merciless Soviet troops, and when Field Marshal Friedrich Von Paulus finally surrendered on February 2, 1943, only 90'000 German soldiers were still alive.
1933 Los partidos de derecha ganan las elecciones generales en España de forma aplastante. Alejandro Lerroux García forma Gobierno con el beneplácito de la CEDA.
1931 Adolf Windaus, investigador de Gottingen, hace pública la fabricación, mediante radiaciones, de la vitamina D1 en forma de cristales puros.
1919 The US Senate rejects the Treaty of Versailles (and League of Nations) by a vote of 55 in favor, 39 against, short of the two-thirds majority needed for ratification.
1917 León Trotski crea en Rusia una comisión diplomática revolucionaria.
1896 Start of Sherlock Holmes' The Adventure of The Sussex Vampire
1887 Start of Sherlock Holmes' The Adventure of The Dying Detective
1875 El general Arsenio Martínez Campos somete los últimos focos de resistencia carlista en Cataluña.
1874 William Marcy "Boss" Tweed, of Tammany Hall (NYC) convicted of defrauding the city of $6M, sentenced to 12 years' imprisonment
1863 Siege of Knoxville, Tennessee continues.
1863. The Gettysburg Address is given by President Lincoln:
     At the close of a dedication ceremony for a cemetery for Union army dead at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, President Abraham Lincoln delivers his Gettysburg Address, commonly considered one of the finest speeches ever uttered by an American politician. Asked to make "a few appropriate remarks," the usually long-winded Lincoln articulates, in 4 minutes and less than three hundred words, an eloquent memorial to the thousands of Union soldiers who fell on the battlefields of Gettysburg, explains the historical relevance of their sacrifice, and calls for the living to resolve that "government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth." His brevity was no doubt all the more appreciated for the fact that the crowd and Lincoln had just endured a two-hour speech by Edward Everett, 69, former secretary of state and senator from Massachusetts.
      The hard-won Union victory at the bloody three-day (01 July to 03 July) battle of Gettysburg ended the northern invasion of Confederate forces under General Robert E. Lee, but resulted in over 20,000 Union casualties. The Lincoln Memorial, which opens in Washington, D.C., in 1922, features the words of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address carved into its interior marble walls.
     “Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final resting-place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.
      But in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead who struggled here have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us — that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion — that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain, that this nation under God shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth.”

     En pleine guerre de Sécession, le président Abraham Lincoln prononce un discours de haute tenue morale au cimetière des combattants de Gettysburg. "Gettysburg Address" figurait parmi les textes que les écoliers des États-Unis apprennaient par coeur.
1810 Las Cortes de Cádiz sancionan el tratado de alianza con Inglaterra del 14 de enero de 1809.
1794 Jay's Treaty, 1st US extradition treaty, signed with Great Britain.
1564 Miguel López de Legazpi parte de México al mando de una expedición para conquistar y colonizar las Filipinas, consideradas por Felipe II dentro del hemisferio español.
1493 Christopher Columbus discovers Puerto Rico, on his 2nd voyage.
1493 Santa Margarita de Hungría, hija de Bela IV, rey de Hungría, es canonizada por Pío XII.
1423 Alfonso V de Aragón regresa a Cataluña después de escapar de una sublevación en Nápoles que ha puesto en peligro su propia vida. En el viaje de vuelta saquea Marsella.
0461 St Hilary begins his reign as Pope.
-- 299'997'998 BC (give or take a few dozen million years) The two massive black holes at the center of galaxy N6240 merge shooting out intense radiation and gravitational waves across the universe, which reach the Solar system on 19 November 100'002'002 AD (give or take a few dozen million years). — [see http://chandra.harvard.edu/press/02_releases/press_111902.html]
Deaths which occurred on a November 19:
2000 Diego Ataide Leite, when being surgically separated from his twin Diago conjoined in the upper body with whom he shared a liver. Diago survives. They were born on 08 November 2000.
2001 Mohammad Abu Dalal, and Mohammad Ibrahim, shot from Israeli tanks (after they were wounded and lying on the ground, then tanks ran over their bodies, according to Palestinians) which had penetrated at about 22:30 the previous day about 1 km into the coastal neighborhood of Sudaniyeh in the town of Beit Lahia, Gaza strip. The two victums were Palestinian maritime policemen.
2001 Harry Burton, Azizullah Haidari, 33, Maria Grazia Cutuli, and Julio Fuentes [photos below], reporters murdered in Afghanistan by six gunmen who ambushed their convoy in a narrow mountain pass on the road to Kabul. Homuin, an Afghan translator working with the journalists is missing, and his fate is not immediately known.
      The murdered journalists are: Australian television cameraman Burton and Afghan photographer Haidari, both of Reuters; Maria Grazia Cutuli of Corriere della Sera; and Fuentes of El Mundo. The four were among more than a dozen international journalists traveling in a convoy of about eight cars from Jalalabad to the capital, Kabul. Because the road was very dusty, the cars spread out and often lost sight of each other.
      Near Serobi, 55 km east of Kabul, six gunmen on the roadside waved the first three cars in the convoy to stop. One car sped ahead, while two stopped. The gunmen, wearing long robes, beards and turbans, warned them not to go any farther because there was fighting ahead with the Taliban. At that moment, a bus from Kabul came by and said the road was safe. The cars' drivers thought the gunmen were thieves and tried to speed away, but the gunmen stopped them. The gunmen then ordered all the journalists out of the cars and tried to force them to climb the mountain. When they refused, the gunmen beat them and threw stones at them. They said, 'What, you think the Taliban are finished? We are still in power and we will have our revenge.". The gunmen then shot the Italian woman and one of the men, prompting the drivers to flee. The Afghan translator Homuin, was left behind with the journalists.
      The cars sped back toward Jalalabad and to warn the rest of the convoy. Other journalists saw the cars turn, and decided to turn around also.Villagers reported numerous other attacks involving gunfire on vehicles on the same road during the day. A French journalist was robbed in the area the day before, and hours after today's assault on the journalists, an Afghan car arrived in Jalalabad with two bullet holes after being attacked. The attackers may be thieves who want to put the blame on the Taliban. Just moments before the attack, an Associated Press correspondent coming from Kabul passed the spot and saw six gunmen in dark robes and turbans leaning against a destroyed house with assault rifles. One of the men shouted at the Afghan driver, "Why did you shave your beard? Stop, come here!" But the driver did not stop and the men did not threaten the correspondent. Minutes later the car carrying the soon-to-be-murdered journalists passed the AP car, heading in the opposite direction.
2000 Abdel Rahman al-Dahashan, 14, shot in the chest at a stone-throwing demonstration at the Karni crossing with Israel, according to Palestinian doctors and witnesses. The Israeli army, however, said it was not aware of clashes at Karni and did not shoot any live fire toward protesters. Some 200 Palestinians and 30 Israelis have been killed since the al-Aqsa intifada began after Ariel Sharon's 28 September visit to the Temple Mount in Jerusalem.
2000 Pheasant, neck wrung by Britain's Queen Elizabeth after one of her dogs brought the bird wounded by a shotgun blast, during a shooting trip at her estate at Sandringham. The next day, a Sunday, the queen would wear to church pheasant feathers on her hat.
1996 Fourteen persons as a commuter plane collides with a private plane at an airport in Quincy, Illinois.
1978 Giorgio de Chirico, Italian Surrealist painter and sculptor born in Greece on 10 July 1888. — MORE ON DE CHIRICO AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
1967 Charles Watters, military chaplain, by US bomb.
      Father Watters was serving in Vietnam as chaplain, with the rank of major, with the 2nd Battalion, 503rd Infantry when it conducted an attack against North Vietnamese forces entrenched on Hill 875 during the Battle of Dak To. The Catholic priest from New Jersey moved among the paratroopers during the intense fighting, giving encouragement and first aid to the wounded. At least six times he left the defensive perimeter with total disregard regard for his own personal safety to retrieve casualties and take them for medical