| On a November 20:
2002 Publication of The National Geographic–Roper 2002 Global Geographic Literacy Survey [PDF], of more than 3000 18- to-24-year-olds in Sweden, Canada, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, the US, and Mexico, in which the US ends next to last, and Mexico last. [Highlights] [Test yourself with 20 sample survey questions]
2002 After the previous evening's announcement of quarterly losses and of coming restatement of 2000 and 2001 earnings, 3 million of the 26 million shares of reinsurer Annuity &Life RE (ANR) are traded on the New York Stock Exchange, dropping from their previous close of $4.08 to an intraday low of $2.18 and closing at $2.24. They had traded as high as $26.09 as recently as 04 January 2002 and $36.98 on 13 August 2001, after starting trading at $22.50 on 22 February 1999.
2002 In Florida brothers Ramiro Ramos and Juan Ramos are each sentenced to 12 years and three months in prison and the forfeiture of real estate and personal property worth $3 million. Their cousin, José Ramos, is sentenced to 10 years, three months in prison. The three citrus contractors were were convicted in June 2002 of enslaving harboring undocumented workers (mostly from Mexico), interfering with interstate commerce by extortion (alleging the workers were in debt to them) and using a firearm (to threaten the workers).
2001 Municipal, county, and parliamentary elections in Denmark. The right-wing Liberal Party, with allied anti-immigration parties, wins a majority in the Folketing, insuring that Liberal Party leader Anders Fogh Rasmussen, 48, will become Prime Minister, replacing Social Democratic Prime Minister Poul Nyrup Rasmussen (no relation), 58, who has held the office since 1993.
2000 From Japan, the land of his ancestors, Peru's president Alberto Fujimori resigns, ending a 10-year authoritarian rule that ended in corruption.
2000 Lawyers for Al Gore and George W. Bush battled before the Florida Supreme Court over whether the presidential election recount should be allowed to continue.
2000 El ejército israelí ataca la franja de Gaza en represalia por el atentado contra un autobús escolar cometido por un comando radical palestino, que acabó con la vida de dos colonos judíos.
2000 Las autoridades francesas extraditan al dirigente de ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna) José María Arregui Erostarbe, Fittipaldi, para que sea juzgado en España por varios delitos de sangre.
1998 Comienza a construirse la Estación Espacial Internacional, futura colonia terrestre en el espacio.
1998 El Ejército israelí se retira de poco más de cien kilómetros cuadrados del noroeste de Cisjordania (2% del total del territorio) en los alrededores de la ciudad de Jenín.
1998 The Federal Communications Commission says that it will re-auction 356 wireless phone licenses that were returned by companies that could not pay for them. The licenses had been auctioned in 1996, but many companies later proved unable to pay for them. For instance, Pocket Communications, which filed for bankruptcy protection in 1997, alone had returned some forty licenses.
1997 Los jefes de Estado y de gobierno de los 15 países miembros de la Unión Europea, a excepción de España, firman un acuerdo de reinserción laboral y formación para parados de larga duración (12 meses) y para jóvenes que lleven seis meses parados.
1995 El poeta y escritor granadino Luis García Montero gana el Premio Nacional español de Poesía por su obra Habitaciones separadas.
1994 The Convention Against Torture, and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, which the US ratified in October 1994, enters into force for the US.
1993 The US Senate approved the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
| 1991 The US provides $1.5 billion in food and technical
assistance to the Soviet Union, about half of what was requested.
1990 British Prime Minister Thatcher failed to win a 65% majority for Conservative party leadership, forcing a runoff against Michael Heseltine.
1990 Guinness Beer buys for $1 billion Spain's biggest brewer, La Cruz del Campo. This is not only stood as the largest foreign investment in a Spain, but also a key strategic move for Guinness, which plans to use Cruzcampo as a building block for globalizing its brewing operations.
1989 Jean Vautrin, seudónimo de Jean Herman, obtiene el premio Goncourt por su novela Un grand pas vers le bon Dieu.
1986 UN's World Health Organization announced a coordinated global effort against the disease AIDS.
1983 100 million watch ABC-TV movie “The Day After," about nuclear war
1982 Se disuelve la organización política de extrema derecha Fuerza Nueva, dirigida por el notario Blas Piñar López.
1978 A satellite system for transmitting newspaper content is initiated by transmitting The Wall Street Journal from where it was typeset in Massachusetts to Orlando, Florida, at a rate of 3.5 minutes per page.
1978 ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna) ataca con metralleta un cuartel de la policía en Basauri (País Vasco).
1977 Egyptian President Anwar Sadat became 1st Arab leader to address Israeli Knesset
| 1977 Konstantinos Karamanlis, jefe del partido conservador,
obtiene la mayoría absoluta en las elecciones legislativas de Grecia.
1976 Grecia y Turquía llegan a un acuerdo con respecto al zócalo continental del Mar Egeo.
1969 The Nixon administration announced a halt to residential use of the pesticide DDT as part of a total phaseout in the US.
1967 President Lyndon Johnson announces the formation of the National Commission on Product Safety charged with safeguarding the public against "hazardous products," as well as exploring the efficacy of Federal consumer protection legislation.
1965 En la Organización de Estados Americanos (OEA), México y Chile rechazan el proyecto de una fuerza interamericana permanente contra la subversión.
1963 Camboya renuncia a la ayuda de EE.UU. y pide que la comunidad internacional garantice su neutralidad.
1962 US lifts blockade of Cuba
1961 The Russian Orthodox Church joined the World Council of Churches.
1959 Creación de la Asociación Europea de Libre Comercio, de la que forman parte Gran Bretaña, Suecia, Noruega, Dinamarca, Austria, Suiza y Portugal.
1959 The United Nations adopts the "Declaration of the Rights of the Child."
| 1957 Newly appointed US Secretary of Defense Neil McElroy
testifies before Congress about the United States ballistic missile programs.
He also says that he will set up an agency to manage all defense research.
Despite objections by various branches of the military, the research agency,
known as ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) was created in early 1958.
ARPA developed ARPANET, the precursor to the Internet, in 1969.
1956 Milovan Djilas, ex vicepresidente yugoslavo, es detenido por criticar a Josip Broz Tito.
1950 Charles André de Gaulle es reelegido [alcalde de París. ???????]
1949 Una revolución incruenta en Panamá provoca la dimisión del presidente.
1942 Arrestation de general Weygand, suspect au yeux des Allemands, qui l'internent en Allemagne.Il fut le ministre de la Defense nationale de juin a septembre 1940, puis commandant des armees restees fideles a Vichy en 1940 et 1941. Apres la Liberation, il sera traduit devant la Haute Cour, qui rendra un non-lieu.
| 1941 Se ordena la depuración de la Falange Española.
1940 Hungría se incorpora al Pacto Tripartito.
1938 1st documented anti-Semitic remarks over US radio (by Father Coughlin)
1931 The first commercial teletype service is inaugurated. The system, set up by AT&T, allowed messages typed on tape to be transmitted automatically to a central office, and then on to their destination. In December, Western Union Telegraph and the Postal Telegraph Company teamed up, allowing patrons of one service to transmit to patrons of the other service.
1929 Primera exposición individual de Salvador Dalí en París.
1917 Ukrainian Republic declared
1916 La Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) pacta con la UGT (Unión General de Trabajadores) la convocatoria de una huelga general en España.
1914 US State Department starts requiring photographs for passports
1910 Mexican Revolution against the Porfirio Díaz dictatorship announced in advance by Francisco I Madero from his exile in the US. Of course authorities are ready, so real revolution starts months later. Nevertheless the anniversary of this day is celebrated as a Mexican national holiday.
1894 US intervenes in Bluefields, Nicaragua
1890 Pope Leo XIII encyclical On slavery in the missions
1888 William Bundy patents the timecard clock
| 1866 Pierre Lalemont patents rotary crank bicycle
1863 Siege of Knoxville, Tennessee continues
1862 Confederate army of Tennessee, organizes under Gen Braxton Bragg
1861 Skirmish at Butler and Little Santa Fe, Missouri
1848 El príncipe Luis Napoleón jura su cargo de presidente de la República Francesa.
1843 El Gobierno provisional español presenta su dimisión tras declarar la mayoría de edad de Isabel II, que tiene 13 años.
1780 Britain declares war on Holland
1637 Peter Minuit & 1st Swedish immigrants to Delaware sail from Sweden
1542 New Spanish colonial laws are passed to protect Indians at the urging of Bartolomé de las Casas. Se promulgan las Nuevas Leyes de Indias.
1542 Por las ordenanzas de Barcelona se crea en América la Audiencia de los Confines (luego llamada de Guatemala).
1541 In Switzerland, French reformer John Calvin, 32, established a theocratic government at Geneva, thereby creating a home base for emergent Protestantism throughout Europe.
1520 La expedición marítima de Fernando Magallanes atraviesa el estrecho que tomará su nombre.
1272 Edward I is proclaimed King of England
0284 Dioclétien devient empereur. Il est originaire d'Illyrie (les rives de l'Adriatique) comme ses predecesseurs immediats. Il va restaurer pour un temps la puissance romaine et instaurer un gouvernement original a quatre, la tetrarchie.
which occurred on a November 20:|
2003 David Dacko, 73, who succeeded Central African Republic's independence leader Barthélemy Boganda killed in a plane crash in 1959. Dacko became president at the nation's declaration of independence but on 01 January 1966, he was overthrown by the dictator and future self-proclaimed Emperor Jean-Bedel Bokassa. Bokassa was overthrown in 1979 with the help of French paratroopers. Dacko was reinstated as leader, and won elections in 1981 but was pushed aside soon afterward by the military ruler André Kolingba.
2003 Five bystanders and the driver of a suicide truck bomb at the office of the PUK in Kirkuk, Iraq, at 10:30. The dead include a boy, 7, who died of his injuries in the evening.
2003 British Consul-General Roger Short, British consulate employee Lisa Hallworth, two other Brits, and at least 25 other persons including two suicide truck bombers in Istanbul, Turkey, one the at the Turkish headquarters of the London-headquartered HSBC bank at 11:10 (09:10 UT), the other at the British consulate 8 km away, at 11:12. Some 450 persons are wounded. HSBC bank is the world's second biggest bank by stock market value; it is present in 79 countries. It opened on 03 March 1865, founded by Thomas Sutherland [1834-1922], Francis Chomley, and 12 other UK nationals in Hong Kong, as the Hong Kong & Shanghai Banking Corporation. After acquiring other banks it is now the HSBC Group.
2002 Puan Sri Azizah Abdul Aziz, 57, her son-in-law Shamsul Azhar Shafie, 35, her son Ahmad Ijaz, 37, Ahmad's wife Zaradina Zaini, 29, and their children Johan, 1, and Zurian Aishah, 5; and the two Indonesian maids Su and Tini, as a landslide destroys the Kuala Lumpur home where they were about to have their sahur (pre-dawn Ramadan meal) with Puan's husband, former Armed Forces commanding general Tan Sri Ismail Omar, 62, now chairman of Affin Bank Bhd, and four other survivors, Intan Jasmin (Shamsul's wife) and her children, Ilya Syamira, Shamir Izat, and Shazwan. Ismail's house, at the end of Jalan Tiga in the Taman Hillview neighborhood, was less than 300 meters from the scene of the 1993 collapse of one of three blocks of the Highland Tower apartments which killed 48.
2002 Bomi Jampa Lodroe, born in 1918, senior Tibetan lama (“Rimpoche”) who did the Chinese Communist authorities' bidding in conducting a 29 November 1995 recognition ceremony of their phony puppet 11th Panchen Lama, is opposition to the authentic one recognized by the Dalai Lama.
[photo: Bomi Jampa Lodroe at the ceremony for the selection of the phony Panchen Lama. Sitting behind is puppet master Luo Gan, then Secretary General of the State Council, later Secretary of the Communist Party's Political and Legal Affairs Commission >]
1999 Amintore Fanfani, político italiano, senador vitalicio, dirigente de la Democracia Cristiana italiana y seis veces presidente del Gobierno, fallece en Roma a los 91 años de edad.
1996 Thirty-nine persons, in a fire in a building in Hong Kong.
1989 Leonardo Sciascia, escritor italiano.
1986 Beurling, mathematician.
1986 Alexander Ostrowski, mathematician.
1984 Santiago Santi Brouard Pérez, nacido en 1919, pediatra, dirigente de Herri Batasuna (HB), asesinado, se lo atribuyen los Grupos Antiterroristas de Liberación (GAL).
1959 Alfonso López Pumarejo, político liberal y ensayista colombiano.
1955 Benedetto Croce, filósofo italiano.
1921 Reijiro Wakatsuki, 25th and 28th Prime Minister of Japan (30Jan1926-20Apr1927, 14Apr1931-13Dec1931), born on 05 February 1866 in Shimane Prefecture.
1934 Sitter, mathematician
1909 Peder Severin Krøyer, Norwegian Danish artist born on 24 June 1851. LINKS
1908 Voronoy, mathematician.
1901 (or 13 Nov) Egisto Sarri, Italian artist born in 1837.
1857 Sebastien Wegmayr, Austrian artist born on 07 February 1776.
1856 Farkas Bolyai, mathematician.
1678 Karel Dujardin, Dutch Romanist painter and etcher born in 1622. MORE ON DUJARDIN AT ART 4 NOVEMBER with links to images.
0869 Saint Edmund is martyred by the Danes when he refuses to submit because it is not right for a Christian king to submit to a pagan. They tie him to a tree and shoot his extremities full of arrows.
which occurred on a November 20:
1939 Camino de José María Escrivá de Balaguer y Alba, fundador del Opus Dei, se publica.
1925 Robert F. Kennedy, in Brookline, Massachusetts, US Senator; JFK's brother; assassinated on 05 June 1968.
1924 Benoit Mandelbrot, Warsaw Poland, mathematician (proved Zipf's law)
1923 Nadine Gordimer South Africa, actress/writer (Lying Days) Premio Nobel de Literatura en 1991.
1923 Beryl Sprinkel, economist.
1917 Robert Byrd , prominent US Senator (D-WV)
1917 Savage, mathematician.
1914 José Revueltas, escritor mexicano.
1908 Sir Alistair Cooke (author: America; TV host: Omnibus, PBS Masterpiece Theater)
1902 Malas herencias, de José Echegaray Eizaguirre, se estrena en el Teatro Español.
1893 Bloch, mathematician.
1889 Edwin Hubble, mathematician, astronomer (discoverer of galaxies, red shift)
1886 Karl von Frisch zoologist/bee expert (Nobel 1973)
1884 Norman Thomas Marion Ohio, six times the Socialist Party candidate for US president (1928-48)
1851 John Merle Coulter, botanist
1841 Sir Wilfrid Laurier (L) 7th Canadian PM (1896-1911)
1786 John Bradley, British artist who died after 1843.
1782 Georgius Jacobus Johannes van Os, Dutch artist who died on 24 July 1861. — more
1761 Pius VIII 253rd pope (1829-30)
1752 Thomas Chatterton English poet (Christabel)
1713 Guillaume Voiriot, French artist who died on 30 November 1799.
1708 Balthasar Beschey, Flemish artist who died on 15 April 1776.
1647 Jan van Huchtenburg, Dutch artist who died in 1733.
1625 Paulus Potter, Dutch painter and etcher, celebrated chiefly for his paintings of animals. Potter died on 17 January 1654. MORE ON POTTER AT ART 4 NOVEMBER with links to images.
1580 Guy François Le Grand François, French Baroque painter who died on 05 October 1650. MORE ON FRANÇOIS AT ART 4 NOVEMBER with links to images.