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Events, deaths, births, of NOV 30
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On a November 30:
Pope gets basketball2000 Pope becomes Harlem Globetrotter
     At first I thought that the headline was about some basketball player surnamed Pope (you guessed it: I have no interest in sports). But no, it's really the world’s most famous globetrotter who becomes a Globetrotter — a Harlem Globetrotter. Pope John Paul II is made an honorary member of the famed basketball team, known as much for its hoop trickery as its extensive travels. To mark the occasion, John Paul was given a Globetrotters jersey signed by his new teammates, and numbered 75 to mark the squad’s 75th anniversary. The Globetrotters said in a statement that the “prestigious title recognizes an individual of extraordinary character and achievement who has made an everlasting mark on the world.” So prestigious, in fact, that the pope is only the seventh individual to hold it. John Paul also got an autographed ball in the deal.
Globetrotters All
      The pontiff has visited some 122 countries in his 22-year papacy, while the team has performed in 115 countries in its existence. “We are catching up to him,” team spokesman Brett Meister said. “We bring a message of hope to kids around the world,” said team owner-chairman Mannie Jackson, a former Globetrotter, after the Wednesday meeting.
Champions of Human Rights
      “With all the troubles that we see around the world, it gets more and more challenging to communicate with young people today,” said Jackson. “Similar to the Pope, the Globetrotters have touched tens of millions of people around the world as moral leaders and champions of human rights.” In addition to Jackson, team members Curley Johnson, Lou Dunbar, Elmer Martin, Wun Versher, and Alex Sanders attended the audience, which took place following the Pope’s weekly General Audience, before a crowd of 50,000 on in St. Peter’s Square at the Vatican. The Globetrotters have met with three other popes — Pius XII in 1951 and 1952, John XXIII in 1959 and 1963 and Paul VI in 1968. .”
     [photo: Harlem Globetrotters player-coach Curley "Boo" Johnson, right, gives Pope John Paul II a Globetrotters basketball as assistant coach and player Lou Dunbar, center, looks on.]
Elian and Lázaro2000 La UNESCO declara Patrimonio de la Humanidad el yacimiento paleontológico de Atapuerca (Burgos), el arte románico de Boí (Lérida), la muralla romana de Lugo, el conjunto monumental de Tarraco (Tarragona) y el palmeral de Elche (Alicante).
1999 El ex-canciller alemán Helmut Kohl reconoce haber financiado de forma ilegal su partido, el CDU.
1999 The opening of a 135-nation trade gathering in Seattle is disrupted by at least 40'000 demonstrators, some of which clash with police, which goes on an indiscriminate retaliatory rampage. — Comienza en Seattle (Estados Unidos) la última Cumbre del milenio de la Organización Mundial del Comercio en medio de las protestas de miles de manifestantes.

1999 Cuban shipwreck survivor Elian Gonzalez, 5, appears to be headed toward a long custody battle. The Immigration and Naturalization Service has set 23 December for the first hearing that all Cuban refugees go through to see if they qualify for US residency. Elian's great-uncle Lázaro Gonzalez [photo of the two >] and his other Miami relatives want the boy to stay in the United States, but his father has said he would go to Florida to get him back. Unaccountably (except for the needs of Castro's propaganda) the father would never do that.

1998 The US administration says that it will encourage research on the economic impact of technology, promote small-business use of the Internet, ask for the establishment of consumer-protection standards, and give financial assistance for Internet projects in developing countries.
1998 NBC announces that it will purchase a minority stake in iVillage, an Internet company producing popular sites for women, such as Parent Soup. NBC agrees to promote iVillage on its television properties.
1998 Au Québec, le Parti québécois du premier ministre Lucien Bouchard est reporté au pouvoir, remportant 75 sièges contre 48 pour les Libéraux dirigés par Jean Charest et 1 pour l'Action Démocratique de Mario Dumont. Le Parti libéral est cependant celui qui obtient le plus de voix avec 43,4%, tandis que l'ADQ surprend les observateurs en recueillant 11,9% des suffrages. Le lendemain, Bouchard annoncera qu'à la suite des résultats son gouvernement met en veilleuse le projet de référendum sur l'indépendance.
1997 The government of Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus of the Czech Republic resigned. Klaus's Civic Democratic Party had been accused of accepting contributions from foreign sources.
1997 Benjamín Netanyahu aprueba un plan de retirada israeli parcial de Cisjordania.
1995 US Justice Department indicts 11 brokers as swindlers
      The US Justice Department indicts eleven brokers for stock fraud. According to federal prosecutors, the brokers had developed an elaborate scheme to swipe large sums from their clients' holdings. Along with the usual round of fines, the government marshaled criminal sanctions in the case, meaning that the guilty brokers would likely wind up serving prison terms. The ruling marked the first time in years that such stern penalties had been levied in a fraud case. Following the announcement, Securities Exchange Commission chairman Arthur Levitt defends the strong-arm tactics, arguing that "the penalty for swindling investors is severe."
1993 Israeli and Palestinian leaders met in the Gaza Strip in an effort to end violence that threatened the peace accord.
1993 La eutanasia es legalizada en Holanda para pacientes terminales, en determinadas circunstancias y bajos severas condiciones.
1993 US handgun control bill signed into law
      During a White House ceremony attended by James S. Brady, US President Bill Clinton signs the Brady handgun control bill into law. The law requires a prospective buyer of a handgun to wait five business days while the authorities check on his or her background, during which time the sale is approved or prohibited, based on an established set of criteria.
      In 1981, James S. Brady, who served as press secretary for President Ronald Reagan, was shot in the head by John Hinckley, Jr., during an attempt on President Reagan's life outside a hotel in Washington, D.C. Reagan himself was shot in his left lung, but recovered and returned to the White House within two weeks. Brady, the most seriously injured, was momentarily pronounced dead at the hospital, but survived and began an impressive recovery from his debilitating brain injury.
      During the 1980s, Brady became a leading proponent of gun control legislation, and in 1987 finally succeeded in getting a bill introduced into Congress. The Brady Bill, as it would come to be known, was staunchly opposed by congressmen for over six years, who, in reference to the Fourth Amendment, questioned the constitutionality of regulating the ownership of arms. In 1993, with the vocal support of Democratic President Bill Clinton, the bill became law
1992 Senator Packwood, R-Ore., facing an Ethics Committee investigation of sexual harassment allegations, entered an alcohol-treatment facility.
1992 El Tribunal constitucional ruso declara formalmente disuelto el partido oficial comunista soviético, el PCUS.
1990 US President Bush offered to send Secretary of State Baker to Baghdad and to receive Iraq's foreign minister in Washington, D.C., in a bid for a diplomatic solution to the Persian Gulf crisis.
1990 US President Bush names outgoing Florida governor Bob Martinez to head the nation's “war on drugs” (ineptly named and conducted).
1990 The three Baltic republics — Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia — hold an historic joint parliamentary session to plot their common course.
1989 Rebel armed forces launched a fifth major coup attempt against Philippine President Corazon Aquino.
1989 Czechoslovakia announced an end to travel restrictions and said it planned to dismantle some of the fortifications along the Austrian border.
1988 RJR Nabisco suspiciously accepts low bid
      In 1988, a group of some of the world's most powerful companies engaged in a protracted struggle to acquire RJR Nabisco. After a period of furious action, a management group led by RJR executives, as well as Shearson Lehman Hutton Inc. and Salomon Inc. had seemingly seized the day, topping the list of bidders with an offer of $25.76 billion. The runner-up was New York buy-out specialist Kohlberg Kravis Roberts (KKR), who anted up $25.07 billion. Surprisingly, RJR Nabisco decided to accept the lesser offer and gave the nod to KKR. Understandably stunned by the outcome, representatives for the defeated management group blasted the auction as a "suspicious" process. Officials for RJR Nabisco did little to cool the controversy, issuing a statement, which, outside of deeming the two bids "substantially equivalent," did little else to explain their decision. However, a few fingers were pointed at F. Ross Johnson, RJR president and the head of the management group, who, a few weeks earlier, had angered Nabisco's board by tendering an initial $75-per-share offer that unintentionally touched off the bidding war for the company.
1988 UN General Assembly (151-2) censures US for refusing PLO's Arafat visa
1988 Soviets stop jamming Radio Liberty (Radio Free Europe); 1st time in 38 years
1987 Los 1350 delegados de la Asamblea Suprema de Afganistán aprueban por unanimidad la nueva Constitución, que establece el Islam como religión oficial.
1986 El PSOE (Partido Socialista Obrero Español) triunfa en las elecciones al Parlamento vasco.
1984 Wilson Ferreira Aldunate, líder político uruguayo, es liberado tras cinco meses de cárcel.
1984 La guerrilla de El Salvador propone al presidente José Napoleón Duarte un Gobierno de consenso nacional.
1983 Radio Shack announces the Tandy Model 2000 computer (80186 chip)
1983 El poeta Claudio Rodríguez consigue el Premio Nacional español de Literatura.
1982 US sub Thomas Edison collides with US Navy destroyer in So China Sea.
1981 US — USSR talks on intermediate-range nukes reduction
      Representatives from the United States and the Soviet Union open talks to reduce their intermediate-range nuclear forces (INF) in Europe. The talks lasted until 17 December, but ended inconclusively. SALT I (1972) and SALT II (1979) reduced the number of strategic nuclear weapons held by the two superpowers, but left unresolved the issue of the growing number of non-strategic weapons-the so-called intermediate-range nuclear missiles in Europe. By 1976, the Soviets began to update their INF systems with better SS-20 missiles. America's NATO allies called for a US response, and the United States threatened to deploy cruise and Pershing II missiles by 1983 if no agreement could be reached with the Soviets concerning INFs. However, by 1981, the situation changed. No-nuke forces were gaining strength in western Europe and there was a growing fear that President Ronald Reagan's heated Cold War rhetoric would lead to a nuclear showdown with Europe as the battlefield. The United States and USS.R. agreed to open talks on INFs in November 1981.
      Prior to the talks, President Reagan announced the so-called "zero option" as the basis for the US position at the negotiations. In this plan, the United States would cancel deployment of its new missiles in western Europe if the Soviets dismantled their INFs in eastern Europe. The proposal was greeted with some skepticism, even by some US allies, who believed that it was a public relations ploy that would be completely unacceptable to the Soviets. The Soviets responded with a detailed proposal that essentially eliminated all of the INFs from Europe, including French and British missiles that had not been covered in Reagan's zero option plan. Of course, such a plan would also leave west Europe subject to the Soviets' superior conventional forces. Neither proposal seemed particularly realistic, and despite efforts by some of the US and Soviet negotiators, no compromise could be reached. An INF treaty would not be signed until December 1987, when President Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev finally hammered out a plan acceptable to both sides.
1981 Iñigo Cavero es elegido secretario general de UCD (Unión de Centro Democrático) con el 36% de los votos en blanco.
1979 Pope John Paul II and Patriarch Dimitrous I pledge to hasten day of church reunification when John Paul II attends an Eastern Orthodox mass, the first pope in 1000 years to do so.
1978 Suspenden temporalmente su aparición los periódicos londinenses The Times y Sunday Times.
1975 Israel pulled its forces out of a 150-km-long corridor along the Gulf of Suez as part of an interim peace agreement with Egypt.
1975 Dahomey becomes Benin
Découverte de Lucy, morte il y a 3 millions d'années.

      Dans la vallée aride et desséchée de l'Omo, au sud de l'Ethiopie, les anthropologues Tom Gray, Donald Johanson, Yves Coppens et Maurice Taïeb découvrent 52 restes d'un squelette vieux de 3 millions d'années. Il s'agit d'une jeune femme de 1 mètre 10. Les savants la baptisent Lucy d'après… une chanson des Beatles qu’ils écoutaient à leur bivouac: "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds". Cette circonstance a contribué à réveiller l'intérêt du grand public pour la préhistoire. C'est le squelette le plus complet de cette lointaine époque avant une nouvelle découverte en Afrique australe, en 1999.

      De l'espèce Australopithecus afarensis, Lucy et ses congénères sont considérés par certains anthropologues comme les plus lointains ancêtres des humains actuels... D'autres y voient plus simplement de vieux cousins. Les trésors du Rift Dès 1959, les anthropologues anglo-kényans Richard et Mary Leakey ont mis à jour le fabuleux gisement anthropologique de la vallée du Rift. Cette grande faille traverse l'Afrique orientale du nord au sud.

      Certains savants y voient le lieu de naissance de l'humanité. La faille aurait entraîné la disparition de la forêt au profit de la savane, du côté le plus sec, à l'Est Les primates de la savane auraient alors pris l'habitude de marcher sur deux pattes pour guetter les prédateurs éventuels par-dessus les hautes herbes. Mieux soutenu, le cerveau de ces singes aurait gagné en volume et se serait développé jusqu'à atteindre notre capacité crânienne (de l'ordre de 1250 cm3).

      C'est ainsi que se serait formée une espèce réputée plus ou moins sensée, la nôtre. Beaucoup plus tard, nos ancêtres comprendront l'avantage de chacun à vivre en communauté et ils en viendront à construire des villages permanents autour de l'agriculture et de l'élevage.
1974 India and Pakistan decide to end a 10-year trade ban.
1974 Pioneer II sends photos back to NASA as it nears Jupiter.
1972 White House announces no full withdrawal from Vietnam before truce.
      White House Press Secretary Ron Zeigler announces to the press that the administration will make no more public statements concerning US troop withdrawals from Vietnam since the level of US presence had fallen to 27,000 men. Defense Department sources said that there would not be a full withdrawal of US forces from Vietnam until a final truce agreement was signed, and that such an agreement would not affect the 54,000 US servicemen in Thailand or the 60,000 aboard 7th Fleet ships off the Vietnamese coast. All US forces were withdrawn from South Vietnam in March 1973 as part of the terms of the Paris Peace Accords, which were signed in January of that year.
1967 McCarthy to enter Democratic presidential primary
      Liberal Democratic Senator Eugene J. McCarthy from Minnesota, an advocate of a negotiated end to the war in Vietnam, declares that he intends to enter several Democratic Presidential primaries in 1968. McCarthy believed that the majority of Americans were unhappy with President Lyndon B. Johnson's handling of the war, and he planned to challenge the president for the Democratic nomination. McCarthy conducted his campaign outside normal Democratic Party channels, relying on volunteers who conducted a grassroots campaign that emphasized the moral indefensibility of US action in Vietnam and the need for a negotiated settlement of the war. McCarthy shocked the political establishment when he almost defeated Johnson in the New Hampshire primary. When Johnson announced that he would not run for re-election, Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey defeated McCarthy for the presidential nomination at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago. Ultimately, Humphrey was defeated in the national election by Republican Richard M. Nixon.
1967 People's Republic of South Yemen (Aden) gains independence from Britain — La Federación de Arabia del Sur se convierte en la República Popular del Yemen del Sur y proclama su independencia.
1967 Kuria Muria islands ceded by Britain to Oman
1966 Britain grants independence to Barbados (National Day)
      At the request of island leaders, Barbados, a British crown colony in the West Indies, is granted independence within the Commonwealth by the British Parliament. The first British settlers arrived in Barbados in 1627, and in 1885 the island was designated a crown colony. Located in the Atlantic Ocean approximately 500 km north of Venezuela, Barbados is 34 km long and 22 km wide. The majority of citizens on the island are descendants of Africans. Barbados has had a legislative body since the arrival of the British in 1627, and after the establishment of self-rule in 1966, British-styled parliamentary democracy becomes the island's system of government.
1966 Radio time signal WWV moves from Greenbelt, MD to Boulder, CO
1966 South Vietnam drafts new constitution
      In Saigon, the South Vietnamese Constituent Assembly begins drawing up draft articles for a new constitution. On 15 December, the Assembly approved the proposal for the future civil regime to be headed by a popularly elected president, and a proposal empowering the president, rather than the legislature, to appoint a premier. On December 21, the assembly approved the establishment of a legislature made up of a senate and a house of representatives.
1965 US Defense Secretary to President: Communists gaining strength in South Vietnam
      Following a visit to South Vietnam, Defense Secretary McNamara reports in a memorandum to President Lyndon B. Johnson that the South Vietnamese government of Nguyen Cao Ky "is surviving, but not acquiring wide support or generating actions." He said that Viet Cong recruiting successes coupled with a continuing heavy infiltration of North Vietnamese forces indicated that "the enemy can be expected to enlarge his present strength of 110 battalion equivalents to more than 150 battalion equivalents by the end of 1966." McNamara said that US policymakers faced two options: to seek a compromise settlement and keep further military commitments to a minimum, or to continue to press for a military solution, which would require substantial bombing of North Vietnam. In conclusion, McNamara warned that there was no guarantee of US military success and that there was a real possibility of a strategic stalemate, saying that "US killed in action can be expected to reach 1000 a month." In essence, McNamara cautioned Johnson that sending additional troops was not likely to prevent the stalemate. In the end, however, Johnson chose to seek a military solution. By 1969, there were more than 500'000 US troops in Vietnam.
1965 El atleta keniata Kipchoge Keino logra el récord mundial de los 5000 m, con un tiempo de 13'24''.
1962 U Thant elected secretary-general of the UN
      U Thant of Burma is unanimously elected for a 5-year term as the 3rd secretary-general of the United Nations by the General Assembly, after serving nearly thirteen months as acting secretary-general following the death of Dag Hammarskjold in an air crash. As acting secretary-general, U Thant played a crucial diplomatic role in the Cuban Missile Crisis, and as secretary-general organizes the deployment of a UN peacekeeping force to Cyrus in 1964. On the unanimous recommendation of the Security Council, he is elected to a second term as secretary-general in 1966, and serves until 1971, guiding the UN through such major crises as the Arab-Israeli War of 1967.
1966 Britain Grants Independence to Barbados At the request of island leaders, Barbados, a British crown colony in the West Indies, is granted independence by the British Parliament. The first British settlers arrived in Barbados in 1627, and in 1885 the island was designated a crown colony. Located in the Atlantic Ocean approximately three hundred miles north of Venezuela, Barbados is twenty-one miles long and fourteen miles wide. The majority of citizens on the island are descendants of former Africans. Barbados has had a legislative body since the arrival of the British in 1627, and after the establishment of self-rule in 1966, British-styled parliamentary democracy becomes the island's system of government.
1961 USSR vetoes Kuwait's application for UN membership, pleasing Iraq.
1961 ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna) constituye el comité de acción directa, cuyo objetivo es lograr la libertad de Euskadi mediante la acción armada.
1961 El Ejército, bajo el mando del presidente Joaquín Balaguer, se hace con el poder en República Dominicana
1958 1st guided missile destroyer launched, Dewey, Bath, Me
1956 The United States offers emergency oil to Europe to counter the Arab ban.
1955 En France, dissolution de l'Assemblée Nationale.
     Le 24 février de cette année, par 369 voix contre 210, l'Assemblée avait approuvé le programme et la composition du gouvernement de M. Edgar Faure. Neuf mois plus tard, le président du Conseil est amené au cours d'un conseil des ministres qui se tient à l'Elysée à prononcer la dissolution de cette même Chambre. Le lendemain, un communiqué précise : " Le gouvernement — dans un accord largement majoritaire — a eu raison de prendre hier soir la décision que la logique et le simple bon sens imposaient : l'Assemblée nationale, qui depuis un mois nous donnait l'affligeant spectacle de ses contradictions, de ses volte-face et de son impuissance, est dissoute. " C'est la première fois dans l'histoire de la IVème République que l'article 51 de la Constitution a été appliqué.
1954 1st meteorite ( 8 lb ) known to strike a woman (Liz Hodges-Sylacauga AL)
1954 Meteorite strikes woman
      The first modern instance of a meteorite striking a human being occurs at Sylacauga, Alabama, when a meteorite crashes through the roof of a house and into a living room, bounces off a radio, and strikes a woman on the hip. The victim, Mrs. Elizabeth Hodges, was sleeping on a couch at the time of impact. The space rock is a sulfide meteorite weighing 8.5 pounds and measuring seven inches in length. Mrs. Hodges is not permanently injured but suffers a nasty bruise along her hip and leg.
      Ancient Chinese records tell of people being injured or killed by falling meteorites, but the Sylacauga meteorite is the first modern record of this type of human injury. However, a dog in Egypt was killed in 1911 by the Nakhla meteorite.
1951 Félix Gordón Ordáx es nombrado miembro del Gobierno republicano español en el exilio.
1949 Chinese Communists capture Chungking.
1948 The Soviet Union complete the division of Berlin, setting up a separate municipal government in East Berlin
1947 Day after UN decree for Israel, Jewish settlements attacked
1945 Russian forces take Danzig in Poland and invade Austria.
1943 El Gobierno italiano de Pietro Badoglio no reconoce al rey de Italia los títulos de "rey de Albania" y "emperador de Abisinia".
1943 Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin agree on invasion of France
      On this the third day of the Teheran Conference, the Big Three—President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill, and Soviet leader Josef Stalin—approached an agreement on the forthcoming Anglo-American invasion across the Channel, known as Operation Overlord. The three Allied rulers agreed that Overlord would be launched in June 1944. It would include a landing from Italy on the south coast of France, bolstered by a stepped-up Russian offensive in the east. Churchill then explained to a skeptical Stalin the conditions under which Operation Overlord must be launched. First, there must be a "satisfactory reduction" in the strength of the German fighter forces in northwest Europe before the assault; second, that German reserves in France and neighboring countries could not exceed "about twelve full-strength first-quality mobile divisions" on the day of the assault; and third, Germans could not be capable of transferring more than fifteen first-quality divisions during the first sixty days of the operation. In response to these conditions, Stalin asked Churchill whether he really believed in Overlord. Churchill responded that, if the aforesaid conditions were met, "it will be our stern duty to hurl across the Channel against the Germans every sinew of our strength." With that promise, Stalin agreed that as soon as Germany was defeated, the Soviets would enter the war against Japan. "We leave here friends in fact, in spirit, and in purpose," the leaders claimed after the conference, even though Roosevelt and Churchill were doubtful that Stalin would be a postwar friend.
1939 USSR invades Finland to grab territory which the Finns had refused to surrender.
1939 En France, la gréve réprimée au gaz lacrymogène.
      Le 12 novembre, le ministre des Finances Paul Reynaud a annoncé à la radio un train de mesures remettant en cause les acquis du Front populaire. Les quarante heures de travail hebdomadaire sont remises en cause. La CGT a donc lancé un ordre de grève générale pour ce 30 novembre. Le président du Conseil Daladier fait le choix d'une répression immédiate. Les employés des services publics sont réquisitionnés. Les dépôts sont occupés par la troupe. Pour la première fois, des gaz lacrymogènes sont utilisés pour disperser les manifestants. Le mouvement voulu par la CGT est un échec.
1935 Non-belief in Nazism is proclaimed grounds for divorce in Germany.
1924 1st photo facsimile transmitted across Atlantic by radio
1922 España es reelegida para integrar el consejo directivo de la Sociedad de Naciones.
1922 Una manifestación del Partido Nacional Socialista de los Trabajadores Alemanes (NSDAP) reúne a 50'000 personas en torno al orador Adolf Hitler.
1919 Women cast votes for the first time in French legislative elections.
1917 Alemania lleva a cabo una contraofensiva en Kortrijk (Bélgica), con la que consigue reconquistar el terreno perdido.
1917 Se celebra en Berlín la primera exposición de Ernst Barlach, escultor expresionista. — LINKS
1906 President Theodore Roosevelt publicly denounces segregation of Japanese schoolchildren in San Francisco.
1905 El presidente del Tribunal Supremo español, Eugenio Montero Ríos, presenta la dimisión, que no es admitida.
1904 El cólera se extiende en Transcaucasia.
1900 The French government denounces British actions in South Africa, declaring sympathy for the Boers.
1886 1st commercially successful AC electric power plant opens, Buffalo
1866 US's first underwater highway tunnel begun.
      Work on the first underwater highway tunnel in the United States began on this day in Chicago, Illinois. Over a three-year period, workers and engineers tunneled underneath the Chicago River, finally completing the 1,500-foot tunnel at a cost of over $500,000. The tunnel had two roadways, each eleven feet tall and thirteen feet wide, and a separate footway ten feet wide and ten feet tall. In 1907, the tunnel was lowered to provide better air circulation, and for the first time it began to allow regular automobile traffic.
1864 The Union wins the Battle of Franklin, Tennessee.
1864 Affair at Spring Hill, Tennessee
1863 Assault on Fort Sanders, Tennessee
1863 Siege of Knoxville, Tennessee continues
1863 Mine Run Campaign continues in Virginia
1838 Mexico declares war on France.
1807 Las tropas francesas al mando del general Jean Androche Junot, entran en Lisboa.
1804 Impeachment trial of US Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase begins in the Senate. He is accused of political bias and will be acquitted.
1803 Spain cedes her claims to Louisiana Territory to France
1861 The British Parliament sends to Queen Victoria an ultimatum for the United States, demanding the release of two Confederate diplomats who were seized on the British ship Trent.
1782 The US and UK sign a preliminary peace articles in Paris, ending the American Revolutionary War and recognizing US independence.
1554 Catholicism restored in England.
     Roman Catholicism is (briefly) restored to England, under the reign of Mary Tudor, the daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. In the process, "Bloody Mary" had Thomas Cranmer, Hugh Latimer, Nicholas Ridley and nearly 300 other Protestant leaders burned at the stake.
     Mary's father was energetic King Henry VIII of England. Her mother was Catherine of Aragon, the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain. In spite of her royal lineage, the world would remember her as "Bloody Mary". Did she deserve that title? In l553 Queen Mary was 37 when she came to the throne of England upon the death of her half-brother, Edward. Her father's divorce of her mother provoked the Pope in Rome to excommunice Henry VIII. In retaliation, Henry had himself proclaimed head of the Church of England, and made some surface changes by taking over Catholic lands and allowing priests to marry. Henry's daughter Mary, however, remained loyal to the Catholic Church of her mother. When Henry died and Mary's half-brother Edward became king, Mary continued her Catholic worship.
      When Edward died after a brief reign, Mary found herself Queen of England. It seemed her years of frustration were over and she should could restore England to the Catholic Church. On this day, November 30, l554, Cardinal Pole announced England's reconciliation with the pope. Catholicism was again the official religion of England. Protestants who had enjoyed religious liberty under Edward now fled to the Continent for safety. Those who remained were imprisoned. During Mary's five-year reign before her death, hundreds were persecuted for insisting on believing only in Christ and the Scriptures, and refusing to observe Catholic church tradition. After Mary's death, Fox's Book of Martyrs, Fox's Book of Martyrs listed 284 burned at the stake, including bishops, women, and even two boys and two babies. Nearly 400 more died by imprisonment and starvation. Thus the Queen was called "Bloody Mary!"
1215 The Fourth Lateran Council closed, under Innocent III. It was this council that made first official use of the term "transubstantiation," with reference to the Eucharist (Lord's Supper).
0722 Boniface is consecrated a bishop for the work he will do as a missionary to the Germans.
0306 St Marcellus I begins his reign as Pope
Deaths which occurred on a November 30:

2002:: 47 persons, almost all by smoke inhalation in fire just before midnight in basement nightclub La Guajira, overcrowded witn nearly 400 persons, and with inadequate exits, in downtown Caracas, Venezuela.

heart2002 Ashur Salem (or 'Ashur 'Abdul Malik D'ib), 68 (or 70), flattened to 2 cm thick by his home dynamited (or bulldozed) by Israeli troops, in Beit Lahiya, Gaza Strip. The Israelis had invaded the town with more than 25 tanks at 22:50, seeking Ashur's brother Hisham Salem (or Hisham D'ib or Dab), a senior Islamic Jihad militant who in 1996 ordered the 04 March 1996 suicide bombing on Tel Aviv's Dizengoff Street that killed 20 Israelis and wounded 70. Not finding Hisham, the Israelis went to the 6-story building housing three generations of the family and shouted that those inside had three minutes to get out. Ashur Salem, deaf, was sleeping, alone on the 6th floor.
2002 Mahmoud Saleh Mohammed al-Na'rani, 32, riddled by Israeli bullets late in the night as he drove past Beit Lahiya, Gaza Strip, on his way home to the al-Nada housing compound east of there.

2002 Khatem Ajali, 16, Palestinian, one of a group of kids walking home from school east of the Gaza City neighborhood of Sajania, 700 meters from an Israeli army outpost at the Karni Crossing, whose soldiers fired at
them “because they neared a border fence”.

2001 Robert Tools, 59, first recipient of self-contained artificial heart (on 02 July 2001). The second recipient of an AbioCor, Tom Christerson, would had it implanted on 13 September 2001, and would die on 07 February 2003, at age 71.

1999 Germán Arciniegas Angueyra, escritor colombiano.
1994 Guy Debord, pensador francés.
1990 Norman Cousins, 75, author, in Los Angeles.
1989 Alfred Herrhausen, 59, by terrorist bomb of Red Army Faction, in Germany. He was president of Deutsche Bank.
1979 Zeppo Marx, 78
1968 Ismaël Gonzalez de la Serna, Spanish artist born on a 06 June sometime from 1897 to 1900.
1953 Francis Martínez de Picabia, French Dadaist-Surrealist painter born on 22 January 1879. — precursor del dadaísmo. — MORE ON PICABIA AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.

1939 Day 01 of the Winter War: [Talvisodan 1. päivä] [Vinterkrigets första dag]
Hundreds die as USSR launches massive aggression against little Finland.

     Following Finland's rejection of Soviet demands to sign a mutual assistance pact and cede Finnish territory for the defense of Leningrad, the Red Army attacks Finland at various positions along the Russo-Finnish frontier. Over the next two weeks, a greatly outnumbered Finnish army resists the invasion of nearly fifty Red Army divisions — over one million men. The fifteen Finnish divisions under the command of Marshal Carl Gustav von Mannerheim rely on forest combat to inflict heavy damage on the Russian invaders. In mid December, the virtually defunct League of Nations accuses the USS.R. of unlawful aggression, and Britain and France respond by sending arms to Finland. In February of 1940, Britain and France agree to send a force of 50'000 men to assist in the Finnish defense, but by the end of February, the Soviet Union has crushed von Mannerheim's opposition, and the reinforcements are called off as Finland sues for peace. In March, the "Peace of Moscow" treaty is signed, and Finland cedes 16,000-square miles to the Soviet Union, including the city of Vyborg and the Karelian Isthmus.
      Karelian Isthmus: the Soviet artillery opens fire at 06.50.
      Soviet troops cross the border at several places without declaring war.Crossing points include Rajajoki, Joutselkä and Lipola.
      Karelian Isthmus: the invading Soviet 7th Army has 120'000 men on the Isthmus with some 900 field guns and trench mortars and 1400 tanks.The Finnish covering force on the Isthmus has 21'600 men, 71 field guns and 29 anti-tank guns.
      Viipuri: first air-raid warning sounds at 09.00.
      Ladoga Karelia: the Russians also have an overwhelming numerical superiority to the north of Lake Ladoga.The Finnish covering force joins battle along the entire length of the eastern border.
      Soviet aircraft bomb 16 Finnish localities during the course of the day.
      Helsinki: an air-raid warning sounds at 09.20. Enso bombed at 9.35.
      Viipuri: 13 enemy aircraft bomb the city for the second time at 10:00, leaving 10 dead and 11 injured.
      Lahti: Lahti bombed at 12:05; five dead and one injured.
      President Kyösti Kallio relinquishes his authority as Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces to Marshal Mannerheim and at 13:30 declares the country to be in a state of war. Marshal Mannerheim accepts the responsibilities of Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and issues his first Order of the Day. Mannerheim in the Order of the Day:
      "We shall fight to protect our homes, our religion and our country."
      Seiskari: Soviet troops occupy the uninhabited island, where a red flag is sighted at 13:55.
      Hanko: eight aircraft attack the town at 14.00.
      Helsinki: the all-clear is given from the morning air-raid at 14:20.At 14:50, first six and then three more enemy aircraft appear out of the clouds and bomb the Hietalahti shipyard.91 people are killed and 236 injured, 36 seriously.
      Eastern Isthmus: Group Rautu comes into contact with the enemy for the first time in the evening. Rautu: intense fighting during the day at Palkeala. An enemy attempt to break through with the support of tanks is successfully repulsed.
      Suojärvi: over a thousand civilians are trapped at the Hyrsylä bend and other border villages in the parish. Smaller numbers of civilians have also been captured by the Russians on the islands in the Gulf of Finland, and at Salmi, Suomussalmi and Petsamo.
      Parliament assembles at 20:00.The Government of Prime Minister A.K. Cajander presents its resignation.Parliament moves overnight to Kauhajoki.
      Moscow radio broadcasts a speech during the night by Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov. Molotov announces that the Soviet Government has ordered the Red Army to secure the external security of the Soviet Union. Molotov renounces the Non-Aggression Treaty agreed with Finland in 1932.
1935 Fernando António Nogueira Pessoa, born 13 June 1888, Portuguese poet whose part in Modernism gave Portuguese literature European significance. From age 7 to 17 he lived in Durban, South Africa, where his stepfather was Portuguese consul. He became fluent in English. He worked as a commercial translator in Lisbon, while becoming a leading aesthetician of the Modernist movement, contributing articles to magazines. In 1918 he started publishing books of his English poetry. It is only after his death that he became famous for his Portuguese poetry, written in different styles under his own name and a variety of pen names embodying what he felt were his multiple personalities, such as Poesias de Fernando Pessoa — Poesias de Alvaro de Campos — Poemas de Alberto Caeiro — Odes de Ricardo Reis.
1921 Herman Schwarz, mathematician.
1920 Francesc Layret i Foix, abogado catalán, asesinado en Barcelona; las sospechas recaen sobre miembros del Sindicato Libre.
1903 Francisco Blanco García, escritor e historiador español.
Oscar Wilde1900 Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde, 46, dramatist, poet, novelist and critic, from an ear infection that had spread to his brain, in a Paris hotel room after saying of the room's wallpaper: "One of us had to go."
     He was born on 16 October 1854 and grew up in Ireland. He went to England to attend Oxford, where he graduated with honors in 1878. A popular society figure known for his wit and flamboyant style, he published his own book of poems in 1881. He spent a year lecturing on poetry in the United States, where his dapper wardrobe and excessive devotion to art drew ridicule from some quarters.
      After returning to Britain, Wilde married and had two children, for whom he wrote delightful fairy tales, which were published in 1888. Meanwhile, he wrote reviews and edited Women's World. In 1890, his only novel, The Picture of Dorian Gray, was published serially, appearing in book form the following year. He wrote his first play, The Duchess of Padua, in 1891 and wrote five more in the next four years. His plays, including The Importance of Being Earnest (1895), were successful and made him a popular and well-known writer.
      In 1895, the Marquess of Queensberry denounced Wilde as a homosexual, accusing him of having an affair with the marquess's son. Wilde sued for libel, but lost his case when evidence strongly supported the marquess's observations. Homosexuality was classified as a crime in England at the time. Wilde was arrested, found guilty, and sentenced to two years of hard labor. Wilde was released from prison in 1897 and fled to Paris, where his many loyal friends visited him. He started writing again, producing The Ballad of Reading Gaol, based on his experiences in prison. He died of acute meningitis.
     Oscar Wilde won the Newdigate Prize in 1878 with a long poem, Ravenna. In 1881 he published Poems. In 1888 he published The Happy Prince and Other Tales, a romantic allegory in the form of a fairy tale. His only novel, The Picture of Dorian Gray was published in 1890. In Intentions (1891), he grouped previously published essays. In 1891 also, he published two volumes of stories and fairy tales: Lord Arthur Savile's Crime, and Other Stories and A House of Pomegranates. Wilde is best known as the writer of the plays Lady Windermere's Fan, Salomé (in French), A Woman of No Importance, An Ideal Husband and, above all, The Importance of Being Earnest.(WILDE ONLINE:)
1883 Francesco Bergamini, Italian artist born on 10 December 1815.
1864 Sand Creek Massacre, Colorado Territory
1864 General Patrick Cleburne, 5 other Reb generals, some 1750 other Rebs, some 200 Yanks, at Battle of Franklin.
      The once proud Confederate Army of Tennessee suffers a devastating defeat when its commander, General John Bell Hood, orders a frontal assault on strong Union positions around Franklin, Tennessee. The loss cost Hood six of his finest generals and nearly a third of his force.
      Hood assumed command in late July 1864 while the Confederates were pinned inside Atlanta by the armies of Union General William T. Sherman. Hood made a series of desperate attacks against Sherman but finally relinquished the city in early September. No longer able to wage an offensive against the massive Yankee force, Hood retreated into Alabama to regroup. In early November, he moved north into Tennessee to draw Sherman out of the Deep South. By now, Sherman had enough troops to split his army. He dispatched General George Thomas to the Nashville area to deal with Hood's threat while he took the rest of the force on his infamous March to the Sea, during which his men destroyed most of central Georgia.
      Hood approached Franklin, just south of Nashville, on 29 November. Thomas waited in Nashville, while another Union force under John Schofield was moving from the south to join Thomas. Schofield was aware of Hood's position and was attempting to move past the Confederates on his way to rejoining the rest of the Federal army. Hood tried to flank Schofield, but Schofield marched right past Hood's army and planted his Yankees in existing defenses at Franklin. Furious, Hood blamed his subordinates for failing to block Schofield's route, and then prepared for a frontal assault on the formidable Union trenches. Hood was handicapped by the fact that one of his three divisions was still marching toward Franklin and much of his artillery had not yet arrived. Under these circumstances, Hood's decision to attack may seem foolish, but he was probably motivated by an attempt to discipline his army and rebuild his men's lost confidence. On the afternoon of November 30, the Confederates charged into the Union defenses. The Rebel lines moved forward in nearly perfect unison, the last great charge of the war. Parts of the Union's outer trenches fell to Hood's men, but a Yankee counterattack spelled disaster for the Confederates. They did not penetrate any further and suffered frightful casualties.
      The fighting continued until after dark before Schofield resumed his march northward. Of 15,000 Union troops engaged, 200 were killed and slightly more than 2000 were wounded. The Confederates had 23,000 men at Franklin; 1750 died and 5,500 were wounded or captured. The losses among the Confederate leadership were horrifying. Six generals were killed, including Patrick Cleburne, one of the Confederate army's finest division commanders. Another five were wounded, one more captured, and 60 of Hood's 100 regimental commanders were killed or wounded. Despite the defeat, Hood continued to move against Thomas. Just two weeks later, Hood hurled the remnants of his army against the Yankees at Nashville with equally disastrous results.
1836 Pierre Girard, mathematician.
1832 Jean-Jacques François Taurel, French artist born in 1757.
1830 Pío VIII, Papa.
1820 Adriaen de Lelie, Dutch artist born on 19 May 1755. — more
1799 Guillaume Voiriot, French artist born on 20 November 1713.
1793 Antoine Joseph Marie Barnave, miembro de la Asamblea Constituyente de Francia.
1786 Bernardo conde de Gálvez, gobernador de Cuba y virrey de México.
1765 George Lambert, British painter born in 1710 (or 1700?) — MORE ON LAMBERT AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
1732 (or another year no later than 1736) François Octavien, French artist born in 1695.
1731 More than 100'000 persons in a series of earthquakes in China.
1694 Marcello Malpighi father of microscopic anatomy
1647 Bonaventura Cavalieri, mathematician.
1647 Giovanni Lanfranco (or Lanfranchi) di Stefano, Italian Baroque painter born on 26 January 1582. — MORE ON LANFRANCO AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
1592 Erasmus Reinhold Jr., 54
      He was born in Wittenberg on 20 January 1538. At that time his father, Erasmus Reinhold Sr., was professor of sciences at the university there and in his parents'home he experienced humanism and got into contact with outstanding scholars of that era, especially with Philipp Melanchton, who, after his father's death, patronized the talents of the boy und supported his education. In 1555 Erasmus Reinhold junior started studying mathematics, but in 1556 he changed to the studies of medicine, which he continued in Jena in 1558, after already being bestowed with the academic degree of a doctor. After finishing his studies he was employed as a district medical officer in the Upper Palatinate till 1564, then moved to Saalfeld where he worked as a district medical officer, too. Besides his profession he was engaged in astronomy as his father had been. He published the so-called "Practices"or "Almanacs", calendars for which he used the latest discoveries in the fields of astronomy and astrology.
      Tycho Brahe, at that time the most famous Danish astronomer,became attentive to him, when Erasmus described a new star, a so-called supernova, in his 1574 calendar. He visited him in Saalfeld. After finishing his work as a physician in the middle of the 1570s the local mining became another field of his scientific investigations. With his treatises about surveying and underground surveying which appeared in Erfurt in 1574 he acquired the reputation of an outstanding specialist in the field of mining, so that he was appointed mining supervisor for the mining industry and metallurgical engineering in Saalfeld. In 1575 he decisively participated in drafting the Saalfeldian Mines Act, put new life into gold mining near Reichmannsdorf and in 1585 he invented a new smelting technique for silver mining. Because of his poor health he was dispensed from his function of a mining supervisor in 1578. He died in Rudolstadt on November 30th, 1592. — // http://www.erg.slf.th.schule.de/reinhold/kurzbio2-e.htm
1543 Francesco Granacci, Florentine painter born on a 23 July some year between 1477 and 1460. — MORE ON GRANACCI AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
1016 Edmund II Ironsides, 27, King of the Saxons (1016)
30 -BC- Cleopatra, Egyptian queen, suicide
Births which occurred on a November 30:
1960 The First International Harvester Scout vehicle
      The first Scout all-terrain vehicle rolled off the assembly line at International Harvester's Fort Wayne plant. The history of International Harvester dates back to the early 1800s, when the company sold Cyrus McCormick's mechanical reaper. Around the turn of the century, the company took the name of International Harvester (IH), and in 1907 produced the Auto Buggy, an early motorized truck marketed to farmers. During the next few decades, IH specialized in industrial vehicles and agricultural machinery. During the 1950s, IH truck production flourished with the rapid emergence of interstate highways. In 1959, IH began work on a new 4x4 utility vehicle, which would be offered to the average American as an alternative to the popular Jeep vehicle. Designed by Ted Ornas, the first Scout was introduced to the public as a versatile, affordable vehicle for both passenger and cargo transport. It was available in both two- and four-wheel drive and featured a 4-cylinder engine, with three-speed, floor-mounted transmission. The Scout became the best-selling vehicle in IH history, enjoying a full ten years of production before being replaced by the improved Scout II in 1971.
1947 David Mamet US playwright/director (Speed the Plow, House of Games).
1939 El sueño eterno, novela negra de Raymond Chandler, se publica.
1936 Abbie Hoffman aka Free, Yippie/activist/author (Steal this Book)
1933 Der Antiquitätenhändler, ópera de Paul Hindemith, se estrena.
1930 G Gordon Liddy Watergate felon, radio talk-show host
1924 Shirley Chisholm, politician: 1st black woman elected to the US Congress.
1923 Ángel Martín Municio, científico español.
1915 Henry Taube chemist (Nobel 1983)
1907 Jacques Barzun France, author (The House of Intellect)
1904 Clyfford Still, US Abstract Expressionist painter, who died on 23 June 1980 — MORE STILL AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to blotches.
1874 Lucy Maud Montgomery, author of Anne of Green Gables.
     Born in Clifton, Prince Edward Island, Canada, she would become a regional romantic novelist, best known for Anne of Green Gables (1908), a sentimentalized but often charming story of a spirited, unconventional orphan girl who finds a home with an elderly couple. Lucy Montgomery died on 24 April 1942, in Toronto.
  • Anne's House of Dreams
  • Anne's House of Dreams
  • Anne's House of Dreams
  • Anne of Avonlea
  • Anne of Avonlea
  • Anne of Green Gables
  • Anne of Green Gables
  • Anne of the Island
  • Anne of the Island
  • The Golden Road
  • The Golden Road
  • Rilla of Ingleside
  • Rilla of Ingleside
  • The Story Girl
  • Chronicles of Avonlea
  • Chronicles of Avonlea
  • Further Chronicles of Avonlea
  • Kilmeny of the Orchard
  • Rainbow Valley
  • The Watchman and Other Poems
  • The Alpine Path: The Story of My Career
  • 1874 Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill, (Nobel 1953), British statesman, orator, and author who as prime minister (1940-45, 1951-55) rallied the British people during World War II and led his country from the brink of defeat to victory. He died on 24 January 1965.
         Not to be confused with Winston Churchill [10 November 1871 – 12 March 1947], US author of historical novels of wide popularity, such as The Crossing (1904), which tells of Kentucky pioneers during the US War of Independence.
         Le petit fils du septièmeDuc de Marlborough, choisit d'abord la carrière des armes. En 1899, Churchill quitte l'armée pour entrer d'abord dans le journalisme puis dans la vie politique. Élu député conservateur en 1900, il se verra confier de hautes responsabilités ; il sera notamment Premier Lord de l'Amirauté; et Chancelier de l'Échiquier; de 1940 à 1945, il est Premier Ministre et soutient l'effort de guerre britannique pendant la durée des hostilités et jusqu'à la victoire. En 1953, il reçoit le Prix Nobel de Littérature. Sir Winston Churchill est mort en 1965.
          Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill, the British leader who guided Great Britain and the Allies through the crisis of World War II, is born at Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire, England. Churchill came from a prestigious family with a long history of military service and joined the British Fourth Hussars upon his father's death in 1895. During the next five years, he enjoyed an illustrious military career, serving in India, the Sudan, and South Africa, and distinguishing himself several times in battle. In 1899, he resigned his commission to concentrate on his literary and political career and in 1900 was elected to Parliament as a Conservative MP from Oldham. In 1904, he joined the Liberals, serving in a number of important posts before being appointed Britain's First Lord of the Admiralty in 1911, where he worked to bring the British navy to a readiness for the war he foresaw.
          In 1915, in the second year of World War I, Churchill was held responsible for the disastrous Dardanelles and Gallipoli campaigns, and he was excluded from the war coalition government. He resigned and volunteered to command an infantry battalion in France. However, in 1917, he returned to politics as a cabinet member in the Liberal government of Lloyd George. From 1919 to 1921, he was secretary of state for war and in 1924 returned to the Conservative Party, where two years later he played a leading role in the defeat of the General Strike of 1926. Out of office from 1929 to 1939, Churchill issued unheeded warnings of the threat of German and Japanese aggression.
          After the outbreak of World War II in Europe, Churchill was called back to his post as First Lord of the Admiralty and eight months later replaced the ineffectual Neville Chamberlain as prime minister of a new coalition government. In the first year of his administration, Britain stood alone against Nazi Germany, but Churchill promised his country and the world that the British people would "never surrender." He rallied the British people to a resolute resistance and expertly orchestrated Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin into an alliance that eventually crushed the Axis.
          In July 1945, 10 weeks after Germany's defeat, his Conservative government suffered an electoral loss against Clement Attlee's Labour Party, and Churchill resigned as prime minister. He became leader of the opposition and in 1951 was again elected prime minister. Two years later, he was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II and awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature for his six-volume historical study of World War II and for his political speeches. In 1955, he retired as prime minister but remained in Parliament until 1964, the year before his death.
         Winston L. S. Churchill saw service as both soldier and journalist on the North-West Frontier of India (1897). Expanded as The Story of the Malakand Field Force (1898), his dispatches attracted such wide attention as to launch him on the career of authorship that he intermittently pursued throughout his life. In 1897-98 he wrote Savrola (1900), a Ruritanian romance, and got himself attached to Lord Kitchener's Nile expeditionary force in the same dual role of soldier and correspondent. The River War (1899) brilliantly describes the campaign.
         He also wrote an autobiographical history of WW I, The World Crisis;
    Marlborough: His Life and Times
    , a massive rehabilitation of his ancestor against the criticisms of the 19th-century historian Thomas Babington Macaulay.
  • The World Crisis (1923-29);
  • The Unknown War: The Eastern Front (1931);
  • The Second World War (1948-53);
  • Lord Randolph Churchill (1906);
  • My African Journey (1908);
  • My Early Life (1930);
  • Speeches Into Battle (1941);
  • The Unrelenting Struggle (1942);
  • The End of the Beginning (1943);
  • Onwards to Victory (1944);
  • A History of the English- Speaking Peoples, (4 volumes 1956-58).
  • The Dawn of Liberation (1945);
  • Victory (1946);
  • Secret Session Speeches (1946);
  • The Sinews of Peace (1948);
  • Europe Unite (1950);
  • In the Balance (1951);
  • Stemming the Tide (1953);
  • The Unwritten Alliance (1961).
  • Winston S. Churchill: His Complete Speeches, 1897-1963, (8 volumes, 1974).
  • 1872 Isidro Nonelly Monturiol, Spanish artist who died on 21 February 1911.
    1863 Andres Bonifacio leader of 1896 Philippine revolt against Spain
    1861 François Bernard Gailliard, Belgian artist who died in 1932.
    1846 Jean André Rixens, French painter who died on 21 December 1924. — links to images.
    1836 Karl Herpfer, German artist who died on 18 June 1897.
    1835 Samuel Langhorne Clemens “Mark Twain”, author, in Florida, Missouri.
          Clemens was apprenticed to a printer at age 13 and later worked for his older brother, who established the Hannibal Journal. In 1857, the Keokuk Daily Post commissioned him to write a series of comic travel letters, but after writing five he decided to become a steamboat captain instead. He signed on as a pilot's apprentice in 1857 and received his pilot's license in 1859, when he was 23. Clemens piloted boats for two years, until the Civil War halted steamboat traffic. During his time as a pilot, he picked up the term "Mark Twain," a boatman's call noting that the river was only two fathoms deep, the minimum depth for safe navigation. When Clemens returned to writing in 1861, working for the Virginia City Territorial Enterprise, he wrote a humorous travel letter signed by "Mark Twain" and continued to use the pseudonym for nearly 50 years.
          In 1864, he moved to San Francisco to work as a reporter. There, he wrote the story that made him famous: The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County. In 1866, he traveled to Hawaii as a correspondent for the Sacramento Union. Next, he traveled the world writing accounts for papers in California and New York, which he later published the popular book The Innocents Abroad (1869). In 1870, Clemens married the daughter of a wealthy New York coal merchant and settled in Hartford, Connecticut, where he continued to write travel accounts and lecture. In 1875, his novel The Adventures of Tom Sawyer was published, followed by Life on the Mississippi (1883) and his masterpiece Huckleberry Finn (1885). Bad investments left Clemens bankrupt after the publication of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, but he won back his financial standing with his next three books — The Tragedy of Pudd'nhead Wilson (1894), Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc (1895), and Following the Equator: A Journey Around the World (1897). In 1903, he and his family moved to Italy, where his wife died. Her death left him sad and bitter, and his work, while still humorous, grew distinctly darker. He died in 1910.
  • The Pirates of Penzance
  • The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
  • The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
  • The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1st ed.)
  • The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
  • The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
  • The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
  • Tom Sawyer, Detective
  • Tom Sawyer Abroad
  • Chapters From My Autobiography
  • The Prince and the Pauper
  • The Prince and the Pauper
  • Extracts From Adam's Diary
  • Extracts From Adam's Diary
  • What is Man? and Other Essays
  • What is Man? and Other Essays
  • Mark Twain's Speeches
  • Songs of a Savoyard
  • A Dog's Tale
  • Eve's Diary
  • A Horse's Tale
  • A Horse's Tale
  • The Innocents Abroad
  • Life on the Mississippi
  • Life on the Mississippi
  • Life on the Mississippi
  • The Mysterious Stranger
  • The Mysterious Stranger
  • Roughing It
  • Roughing It
  • A Tramp Abroad
  • 1601
  • Concerning the Jews
  • Concerning the Jews
  • A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court
  • The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County, and Other Sketches
  • Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc
  • Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc volume 1 / volume 2
  • A Double-Barrelled Detective Story
  • The $30,000 Bequest, and Other Stories
  • The $30,000 Bequest, and Other Stories
  • The Tragedy of Pudd'nhead Wilson
  • The Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg
  • Extract From Captain Stormfield's Visit to Heaven
  • Following the Equator: A Journey Around the World
  • Is Shakespeare Dead? From My Autobiography
  • Is Shakespeare Dead? From My Autobiography
  • King Leopold's Soliloquy: A Defense of His Congo Rule
  • Christian Science: With Notes Containing Corrections to Date
  • translator of Hoffmann's Struwwelpeter (in German, English, and French)
  • Engaged
  • 1825 William Adolphe Bouguereau, French painter who died on 19 August 1905. — MORE ON BOUGUEREAU AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1817 Theodor Mommsen Germany, historian / writer (Nobel 1902)
    1813 Salomon Leonardus Verveer, Dutch artist who died on 05 January 1876.
    1812 John Woodhouse Audubon, US painter who died on 21 February 1862. — Not to be confused with his father John James Audubon [26 Apr 1785 – 27 Jan 1851] the famous painter of birds. — MORE ON AUDUBON AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1810 Oliver Fisher Winchester, rifle maker (Winchester)
    1736 Jean-Jacques de Boissieu, French painter who died on 01 March 1810. — MORE ON DE BOISSIEU AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1736 Andrés Torrejón, político español.
    1710 Jacob-Andries Beschey, Flemish artist who died on 28 February 1786.
    1687 Juan José Navarro de Viana y Bufalo, Marqués de la Victoria, general de la marina español.
    1667 Jonathan Swift, in Dublin, satirist         ^top^
         He would be an Irish author and Anglican dean of St. Patrick's Cathedral in Dublin (from 1713), the foremost prose satirist in the English language. He died on 19 October 1745 in Dublin.
  • Gulliver's Travels
  • Gulliver's Travels
  • A Modest Proposal
  • A Tale of a Tub
  • The Lady's Dressing Room
  • The Battle of the Books, and Other Short Pieces
  • A Proposal for Correcting, Improving, and Ascertaining the English Tongue
  • 1642 padre Andrea Pozzo, Italian artist who died on 31 August 1709. — MORE ON POZZO AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1636 Adriaen van de Velde, Dutch painter who died on 21 January 1672. — MORE ON VAN DE VELDE AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1633 Theodor van Aenvanck, Flemish artist who died in 1690.
    1622 Thomas van Apshoven, Flemish artist who died in September 1664.
    1622 Robert van den Hocke, Flemish artist who died in 1668. —Relative? of Jan van den Hoecke [1611-1651]?
    1599 Andrea Ouche Sacchi, Italian artist who died on 21 June 1661. — more
    1554 Philip Sidney England, poet / statesman / soldier, SIDNEY ONLINE: Astrophel and Stella, The Defence of Poesie, A Defence of Poesie and Poems, Selected Works and Commentary.
    1549 Savile, mathematician.
    1466 Andrea Doria Genoese statesman / admiral
    0538 St Gregory of Tours chronicler / bishop.SAINT GREGORY ONLINE: History of the Franks (abridged translation).
    Holidays Barbados : Independence Day (1966) / Benin : National Day / Iran : Qadir Khom Festival / Philippines : Bonifacio Day/Heroes' Day (1863) / Yemen PDR : Independence Day (1967) / Santos Andrés, apóstol; Cástulo y Constancio; santas Justina y Maura.

    Religious Observances RC, Luth, Ang-NZ : St Andrews Day, patron of Scotland
    Thoughts for the day : “To get ahead and stay ahead, use your head.” — [especially if you have horns]
    “To get ahead and stay ahead, use your head to protect your rear.”
    — [especially if those behind you have horns]
    “No wise man ever wished to be younger.”
    — Swift (Thoughts on Various Subjects) [perhaps Young didn't wish to be younger... but did Swift wish to be swifter? Did Wilde wish to be wilder? Did Wilder wish to be wildest?]
    “In this world everyone ages, but a wise person never grows old.” — [just as a foolish person never grows young]
    “A foolish person never grows old, if foolish enough to commit suicide while young.”
    “The more you know, the more you know that there's more that you don't know.”
    “The Catholic Church is for saints and sinners alone, for respectable people, the Anglican Church will do.”
    — Oscar Wilde
    “A man cannot be too careful in the choice of his enemies.” — Oscar Wilde [16 Oct 1854 – 30 Nov 1900]. [nor can a woman, an organisation, or a country] [Wilde learned this from experience]
    “Saints, sinners, and respectable people cannot be too careful in the choice of their church.”
    “A church cannot be too careful in the choice of its saints.”
    “Pharisees were respectable people.”
    “The enemies of my enemies are making me reconsider my choice of enemies.”
    updated Friday 28-Nov-2003 20:08 UT
    safe site site safe for children safe site