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Events, deaths, births, of 06 OCT
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Lauterburg, possible halo cropped outMansfield, not necessarily a saintOn a 06 October:

This year's Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine is announced to go, for seminal discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging, to Paul C. Lauterbur [06 May 1929–] of the US and Peter Mansfield [09 Oct 1933–] of the UK.

Nothwithstanding the photo of Peter Mansfield [>>>], a Nobel Prize is not equivalent to canonization as a saint of the Catholic Church, or even of the Orthodox Church. For one thing, Nobel Prizes are awarded to persons living in this world, while a prerequisite to canonization is to have gone to Heaven. The Nobel Peace Prize is the one most likely to be awarded to persons who will later be officially recognized as saints. But the first such case would be that of the 1979 laureate [27 Aug 1910 – 05 Sep 1997], canonized as Saint Teresa of Calcutta in 2012 by Pope John XXV.
     What you see above Mansfield's head in the photo is just an out-of-focus ceiling light. Note that in Lauterbur's photo [<<<] posted on one of his web sites, any possibility of halo has been modestly cropped out.

     Paul Lauterbur discovered the possibility to create a two-dimensional picture by introducing gradients in the magnetic field. By analysis of the characteristics of the emitted radio waves, he could determine their origin. This made it possible to build up two-dimensional pictures of structures that could not be visualized with other methods.
      Peter Mansfield further developed the utilization of gradients in the magnetic field. He showed how the signals could be mathematically analysed, which made it possible to develop a useful imaging technique. Mansfield also showed how extremely fast imaging could be achievable. This became technically possible within medicine a decade later.
      Magnetic resonance imaging, MRI, is now a routine method within medical diagnostics. Worldwide, more than 60 million investigations with MRI are performed each year, and the method is still in rapid development. MRI is often superior to other imaging techniques and has significantly improved diagnostics in many diseases. MRI has replaced several invasive modes of examination and thereby reduced the risk and discomfort for many patients.

Lula Serra Garotinho Gomes Maria Costa
2002 Presidential election in Brazil. Fourth-time candidate Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, 56, of the Partido dos Trabalhadores (which he founded with other union leaders in February 1980) comes out ahead with 46% of the 84.6 million votes, but short of the 50% majority needed to avoid a runoff election (which he will win) on 27 October 2002 with second place Jose Serra of the present government's PSDB (who got 23%). Anthony Garotinho (Frente Brasil Esperança = PSB+PGT+PTC), 42, got 18%, Ciro Gomes (PPS) 12%, Zé Maria (PSTU) 0.5%, and Rui Costa (PCO) 0.05%. US and European banks and their stockholders are worried that after Lula is elected he will keep his electoral promise to default on Brazil's $360 billion foreign debt. The next day, a Monday, those bank stocks, the Brazilian stock market in general, and the Brazilian currency, the real, all fall 2 to 3%.
click for Rosinha with Clara      Rosangela Rosinha Garotinho Barros Assed Matheus de Oliveira [< photo to click], does much better than her husband Anthony Garotinho. Backed by Coligação Rio Esperança (PSB, PPB, PST, PTC, PSC, PSD, PRP, and PGT), she is elected outright, with 51% of the vote, to the position from which he resigned on 05 April 2002 to run for President: governor of Rio de Janeiro state. Born on 06 April 1963, she married at the age of 18 and is the mother of biological (Clarissa, 20, Wladimir, 17, Anthony, 12, Clara, 8) and adopted (Aparecida, 26, Altamir, 25, Amanda, 15, Wanderson, 10, David, 3) children [family picture]. She and her husband are active Presbyterians.

2002 Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer [photo >] is canonized a saint by pope John Paul II. Il sacerdote spagnolo, fondatore dell'Opus Dei, è nato a Barbastro il 09 Jan 1902 e ordinato presbitero il 28 marzo 1925. Escrivá diede vita all'Opus Dei il 02 Oct 1928, mosso dal desiderio di intraprendere un nuovo cammino vocazionale all'interno della Chiesa per promuovere la ricerca della santità e l'apostolato attraverso la santificazione del lavoro e della vita quotidiana. Dopo un lungo e fecondo itinerario sacerdotale, morì il 26 Jun 1975. [Homilía del Papa] [Reseña de los escritos de Escrivá] [The Opus Dei is controversial]

2002 Un groupe japonais a dévoilé un projet de $367 millions pour la construction de la plus haute tour du monde (600 m) dans le parc Ueno de Tokyo, rapporte la presse nippone. Cette structure dépasserait la CN Tower de Toronto (553 m). La tour servirait notamment de relais de transmission pour les télévisions, qui utilisent aujourd'hui la Tour Tokyo (333 m), un bâtiment rouge inspiré de la Tour Eiffel

2002 Human world chess champion Kramnik, with White, beats computer program Deep Fritz, with Black, in the 2nd of the 8 games in their match of 04, 06, 08, 10, 13, 15, 17, and 19 October 2002, putting Kramnik ahead 1.5 to 0.5. — 1. d4 – d5 / 2. c4 – d×c4 / 3. Nf3 – Nf6 / 4. e3 – e6 / 5. B×c4 – c5 / 6. 0-0 – a6 / 7. d×c5 – Q×d1 / 8. R×d1 – B×c5 / 9. Kf1 – b5 / 10. Be2 – Bb7 / 11. Nbd2 – Nbd7 / 12. Nb3 – Bf8 / 13. a4 – b4 / 14. Nfd2 – Bd5 / 15. f3 – Bd6 / 16. g3 – e5 / 17. e4 – Be6 / 18. Nc4 – Bc7 / 19. Be3 – a5 / 20. Nc5 – N×c5 / 21. B×c5 – Nd7 / 22. Nd6+ – Kf8 / 23. Bf2 – B×d6 / 24. R×d6 – Ke7 / 25. Rad1 – Rhc8 / 26. Bb5 – Nc5 / 27. Bc6 – Bc4+ / 28. Ke1 – Nd3+ / 29. R1×d3 – B×d3 / 30. Bc5 – Bc4 / 31. Rd4+ – Kf6 / 32. R×c4 – R×c6 / 33. Be7+ – K×e7 / 34. R×c6 – Kd7 / 35. Rc5 – f6 / 36. Kd2 – Kd6 / 37. Rd5+ – Kc6 / 38. Kd3 – g6 / 39. Kc4 – g5 / 40. h3 – h6 / 41. h4 – g×h4 / 42. g×h4 – Ra7 / 43. h5 – Ra8 / 44. Rc5+ – Kb6 / 45. Rb5+ – Kc6 / 46. Rd5 – Kc7 / 47. Kb5 – b3 / 48. Rd3 – Ra7 / 49. R×b3 – Rb7+ / 50. Kc4 – Ra7 / 51. Rb5 – Ra8 / 52. Kd5 – Ra6 / 53. Rc5+ – Kd7 / 54. b3 – Rd6+ / 55. Kc4 – Rd4+ / 56. Kc3 – Rd1 / 57. Rd5+ — Possible continuation: the transition into the pawn ending is the simplest way to victory, for example / – R×d5 / 58. e×d5 Kd6 / 59. b4 a×b4+ / 60. K×b4 K×d5 / 61. Kb5 Kd6 ( / – f5 / 62. a5 e4 / 63. f×e4+ f×e4 / 64. a6 e3 / 65. a7 e2 / 66. a8Q++- ) / 62. a5 f5 / 63. a6 Kc7 / 64. Kc5 e4 / 65. f×e4 f×e4 / 66. Kd4 Kb6 / 67. K×e4 K×a6 / 68. Kf5 Kb6 / 69. Kg6 Kc7 / 70. K×h6 Kd7 / 71. Kg7+-

Vojislav Kostunica takes power in Belgrade as president of Yugoslavia, elected by some 55% of the vote on 24 September. Sobodan Milosevic, the previous (dictatorial) president, had failed in his attempts to rig the election, and then had it reported as requiring a run-off election. However the Serbian masses demonstrated in the streets, culminating on 5 October with the taking of the Parliament building and of the government TV, while the police joined the demonstrators ending the 13-year autocratic regime of Milosevic.
1998 Digital TV ahead of schedule         ^top^
      The National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) announced that broadcasters would air digital television broadcasts ahead of the schedule agreed upon by the NAB and the Federal Communications Commission. The FCC had approved a plan ordering television broadcasters in the country's largest markets to offer digital TV as of 01 November 1998. Some twenty-six broadcasters in the nation's largest markets had volunteered to meet the deadline. However, on 06 October 1998, the NAB announced that forty-one stations would be ready to broadcast as of 01 November.

1996 This year's IgNobel Prizes are awarded in the following fields:
John Martinez of J. Martinez & Company in Atlanta, for Luak Coffee, the world's most expensive coffee, which is made from coffee beans ingested and excreted by the luak (aka, the palm civet), a bobcat-like animal native to Indonesia.
D.M.R. Georget, R. Parker, and A.C. Smith, of the Institute of Food Research, Norwich, England, for their rigorous analysis of soggy breakfast cereal, published in the report entitled 'A Study of the Effects of Water Content on the Compaction Behaviour of Breakfast Cereal Flakes."
Awarded jointly to Nick Leeson and his superiors at Barings Bank and to Robert Citron of Orange County, California, for using the calculus of derivatives to demonstrate that every financial institution has its limits.
Marcia E. Buebel, David S. Shannahoff-Khalsa, and Michael R. Boyle, for their invigorating study entitled "The Effects of Unilateral Forced Nostril Breathing on Cognition."
David B. Busch and James R. Starling, of Madison Wisconsin, for their deeply penetrating research report, "Rectal foreign bodies: Case Reports and a Comprehensive Review of the World's Literature." The citations include reports of, among other items: seven light bulbs; a knife sharpener; two flashlights; a wire spring; a snuff box; an oil can with potato stopper; eleven different forms of fruits, vegetables and other foodstuffs; a jeweler's saw; a frozen pig's tail; a tin cup; a beer glass; and one patient's remarkable ensemble collection consisting of spectacles, a suitcase key, a tobacco pouch and a magazine.
The Taiwan National Parliament, for demonstrating that politicians gain more by punching, kicking and gouging each other than by waging war against other nations.
Shigeru Watanabe, Junko Sakamoto, and Masumi Wakita, of Keio University, for their success in training pigeons to discriminate between the paintings of Picasso and those of Monet. [REFERENCE: "Pigeons' Discrimination of Paintings by Monet and Picasso," Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior vol. 63, 1995, pp. 165-174.]
Martha Kold Bakkevig of Sintef Unimed in Trondheim, Norway, and Ruth Nielson of the Technical University of Denmark, for their exhaustive study, "Impact of Wet Underwear on Thermoregulatory Responses and Thermal Comfort in the Cold."
Robert H. Beaumont, of Shoreview, Minnesota, for his incisive study "Patient Preference for Waxed or Unwaxed Dental Floss."
Bijan Pakzad of Beverly Hills, for creating DNA Cologne and DNA PERFUME, neither of which contain deoxyribonucleic acid, and both of which come in a triple helix bottle.

1995 Boeing machinists go on strike         ^top^
      Thirty-two thousand Boeing machinists hit the picket lines in three states on this day to call for a pay raise and job guarantees. After years of frustration and failed walkouts, labor had little reason to be hopeful about the strike's outcome, but workers successfully halted production on planes and forced airlines to roll back their schedules. As a result, sixty-nine days after the beginning of the strike, union officials agreed to a new contract that met the machinists' demands. The deal came complete with a pay increase that averaged an estimated $19,200 in wages and benefits over four years, safeguards against job cutbacks, and a full extension of health premiums through the end of 1998. Following the agreement, giddy union officials rushed to declare victory. Spokesman Matt Bates called the agreement a "slam dunk" for the machinists and chief negotiator Bob Gregory hailed the episode as proof that the labor movement was "alive and well.” .

1994 This year's IgNobel Prizes are awarded in the following fields:
W. Brian Sweeney, Brian Krafte-Jacobs, Jeffrey W. Britton, and Wayne Hansen, for their breakthrough study, "The Constipated Serviceman: Prevalence Among Deployed US Troops," and especially for their numerical analysis of bowel movement frequency.
John Hagelin of Maharishi University and The Institute of Science, Technology and Public Policy, promulgator of peaceful thoughts, for his experimental conclusion that 4000 trained meditators caused an 18% decrease in violent crime in Washington, D.C. [Would 4000 trained mediators have caused an 81% decrease?]
This prize is awarded in two parts. First, to Patient X, formerly of the US Marine Corps, valiant victim of a venomous bite from his
pet rattlesnake, for his determined use of electroshock therapy -- at his own insistence, automobile sparkplug wires were attached to
his lip, and the car engine revved to 3000 rpm for five minutes.
Second, to Dr. Richard C. Dart of the Rocky Mountain Poison Center and Dr. Richard A. Gustafson of The University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, for their well-grounded medical report: "Failure of Electric Shock Treatment for Rattlesnake Envenomation."
Robert A. Lopez of Westport, NY, valiant veterinarian and friend of all creatures great and small, for his series of experiments in obtaining ear mites from cats, inserting them into his own ear, and carefully observing and analyzing the results.
Lee Kuan Yew, former Prime Minister of Singapore, practitioner of the psychology of negative reinforcement, for his thirty-year study of the effects of punishing three million citizens of Singapore whenever they spat, chewed gum, or fed pigeons.
The Japan Meterological Agency, for its seven-year study of whether earthquakes are caused by catfish wiggling their tails. [to be followed by the complementary study of whether earthquakes cause catfish to wiggle their tails?]
L. Ron Hubbard, ardent author of science fiction and founding father of Scientology, for his crackling Good Book, Dianetics, which is highly profitable to mankind or to a portion thereof.
Texas State Senator Bob Glasgow, wise writer of logical legislation, for sponsoring the 1989 drug control law which makes it illegal to purchase beakers, flasks, test tubes, or other laboratory glassware without a permit.
Jan Pablo Davila of Chile, tireless trader of financial futures and former employee of the state-owned Codelco Company, for instructing his computer to "buy" when he meant "sell," and subsequently attempting to recoup his losses by making increasingly unprofitable trades that ultimately lost 0.5%
of Chile's gross national product. Davila's relentless achievement inspired his countrymen to coin a new verb: " davilar," meaning, "to botch things up royally."
The Southern Baptist Church of Alabama, mathematical measurers of morality, for their county-by-county estimate of how many Alabama citizens will go to Hell if they don't repent. [additional details.]

1991 Reports surface that a former personal assistant to US Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas, University of Oklahoma law professor Anita Hill, had accused Thomas of sexually harassing her.
1979 Pope John Paul II is 1st Pope to visit the White House
1976 John Hathaway completes a bicycle tour of every continent in the world, cycling 81'400 km
1976 In his second presidential campaign debate with Jimmy Carter, President Ford asserted there was "no Soviet domination of eastern Europe." (Ford later conceded he'd misspoken.)
1973 Yom Kippur War begins         ^top^
      Hoping to win back territory lost to Israel during the third Arab-Israeli war, Egyptian and Syrian forces launch a surprise attack against Israel on the Jewish holy day of Yom Kippur. Egyptian troops sweep deep down into the Sinai, while Syria struggles to throw Israel out of the Golan Heights. Israel eventually reverses the initial Arab gains, but suffers heavy losses before a cease-fire takes effect two weeks later. On October 17, Western support for Israel in the Yom Kippur War leads eleven Arab oil-producing nations, with the support of OPEC, to begin a crippling oil embargo against the US, Great Britain, and several other nations.
      The surprise attack by Egyptian and Syrian forces on Israel throws the Middle East into turmoil and threatens to bring the United States and the Soviet Union into direct conflict for the first time since the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. Though actual combat did not break out between the two nations, the events surrounding the Yom Kippur War seriously damaged US-Soviet relations and all but destroyed President Richard Nixon's much publicized policy of détente.
     When the fourth Arab-Israeli war began on October 6, 1973, many of Israel's soldiers were away from their posts observing Yom Kippur, and the Arab armies made impressive advances with their up-to-date Soviet weaponry. Iraqi forces soon joined the war, and Syria received support from Jordan. After several days, Israel was fully mobilized, and the Israel Defense Forces began beating back the Arab gains at a heavy cost to soldiers and equipment. A US airlift of arms aided Israel's cause, but President Richard Nixon delayed the emergency military aid for seven days as a tacit signal of US sympathy for Egypt. In late October, an Egyptian-Israeli cease-fire was secured by the United Nations.
      Initially, it appeared that Egypt and Syria would emerge victorious from the conflict. Armed with up-to-date Soviet weaponry, the two nations hoped to avenge their humiliating defeat in the Six-Day War of 1967. Israel, caught off guard, initially reeled under the two-front attack, but Israeli counterattacks turned the tide, aided by massive amounts of US military assistance, as well as disorganization among the Syrian and Egyptian forces. The Syrians were driven back, with Israeli troops seizing the strategically important Golan Heights. Egyptian forces fared even worse: retreating back through the Sinai Desert, thousands of their troops were surrounded and cut off by the Israeli army.
      Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, together with his Soviet counterparts, eventually arranged a shaky cease-fire. When it became clear that Israel would not give up its siege of the Egyptian troops (low on food and medicine by this time), the Soviets threatened to take unilateral action to rescue them. Tempers flared both in Washington and Moscow; US military forces went to a Stage 3 alert (Stage 5 is the launch of nuclear attacks). The Soviets backed down on their threat but the damage to relations between the two nations was serious and long lasting. Kissinger worked furiously to bring about a peace settlement between Israel and Syria and Egypt. In what came to be known as "shuttle diplomacy," the secretary of state flew from nation to nation hammering out the details of the peace accord. Eventually, Israeli troops withdrew from some of their positions in both the Sinai and Syrian territory, while Egypt promised to forego the use of force in its dealings with Israel. Syria grudgingly accepted the peace plan, but remained adamantly opposed to the existence of the Israeli state.
     The surprise attack by Egyptian and Syrian forces on Israel throws the Middle East into turmoil and threatens to bring the United States and the Soviet Union into direct conflict for the first time since the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. Though actual combat did not break out between the two nations, the events surrounding the Yom Kippur War seriously damaged US-Soviet relations and all but destroyed President Richard Nixon's much publicized policy of detente. Initially, it appeared that Egypt and Syria would emerge victorious from the conflict. Armed with up-to-date Soviet weaponry, the two nations hoped to avenge their humiliating defeat in the Six-Day War of 1967. Israel, caught off guard, initially reeled under the two-front attack, but Israeli counterattacks turned the tide, aided by massive amounts of US military assistance, as well as disorganization among the Syrian and Egyptian forces.
      The Syrians were driven back, with Israeli troops seizing the strategically important Golan Heights. Egyptian forces fared even worse: retreating back through the Sinai Desert, thousands of their troops were surrounded and cut off by the Israeli army. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, together with his Soviet counterparts, eventually arranged a shaky cease-fire. When it became clear that Israel would not give up its siege of the Egyptian troops (low on food and medicine by this time), the Soviets threatened to take unilateral action to rescue them.
      Tempers flared both in Washington and Moscow; US military forces went to a Stage 3 alert (Stage 5 is the launch of nuclear attacks). The Soviets backed down on their threat but the damage to relations between the two nations was serious and long lasting. Kissinger worked furiously to bring about a peace settlement between Israel and Syria and Egypt. In what came to be known as "shuttle diplomacy," the secretary of state flew from nation to nation hammering out the details of the peace accord. Eventually, Israeli troops withdrew from some of their positions in both the Sinai and Syrian territory, while Egypt promised to forego the use of force in its dealings with Israel. Syria grudgingly accepted the peace plan, but remained adamantly opposed to the existence of the Israeli state.
     Although Egypt had again suffered military defeat at the hands of its Jewish neighbor, the initial Egyptian successes greatly enhanced Sadat's prestige in the Middle East and provided him with an opportunity to seek peace. In 1974, the first of two Egyptian-Israeli disengagement agreements providing for the return of portions of the Sinai to Egypt were signed, and in 1979 Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin signed the first peace agreement between Israel and one of its Arab neighbors. In 1982, Israel fulfilled the 1979 peace treaty by returning the last segment of the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt.
      For Syria, the Yom Kippur War was a disaster. The unexpected Egyptian-Israeli cease-fire exposed Syria to military defeat, and Israel seized even more territory in the Golan Heights. In 1979, Syria voted with other Arab states to expel Egypt from the Arab League. On October 6, 1981, Sadat was assassinated by Muslim extremists in Cairo while viewing a military parade commemorating the anniversary of the Yom Kippur War.
     Israel's stunning victory in the Six-Day War of 1967 had left the Jewish nation in control of territory four times its previous size. Egypt lost the 61'000-square-kilometer Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza Strip, Jordan the West Bank and East Jerusalem, and Syria the strategic Golan Heights. When Anwar el-Sadat became president of Egypt in 1970, he found himself leader of an economically troubled nation that could ill afford to continue its endless crusade against Israel. He wanted to make peace and thereby achieve stability and recovery of the Sinai, but after Israel's 1967 victory it was unlikely that Israel's peace terms would be favorable to Egypt. So Sadat conceived of a daring plan to attack Israel again, which, even if unsuccessful, might convince the Israelis that peace with Egypt was necessary.
      In 1972, Sadat expelled 20'000 Soviet advisers from Egypt and opened new diplomatic channels with Washington, which, as Israel's key ally, would be an essential mediator in any future peace talks. He formed a new alliance with Syria, and a concerted attack on Israel was planned.
1967 Vietnam: US jets strike targets in North Vietnam         ^top^
      US Navy pilots fly 34 missions as they again strike the Chien Chiang and Lang Son bridges near the Chinese border, another bridge 39 miles northeast of Hanoi, a railroad yard near Mo Trang, and two anti-aircraft sites south of Dong Hoi. Other jets attacked the Nam Dinh power plant that lay 45 miles southwest of Haiphong; a railway and highway bridge 24 miles southeast of Hanoi; and eight buildings in the Yen Bac military storage area.
      These raids were all part of Operation Rolling Thunder, which had been initiated in March 1965 and became the longest bombing campaign ever conducted by the United States Air Force. It was designed to destroy North Vietnam's industrial base and war-making capability. During the protracted campaign, more than 643,000 tons of bombs fell on North Vietnam, destroying 65 percent of North Vietnam's petroleum storage capacity and an estimated 60 percent of its power-generating capability. Despite these results, Rolling Thunder has generally been assessed as a failure.
      For a number of reasons, conventional airpower used on North Vietnam did not have the desired impact on the unconventional war being fought in South Vietnam. First, North Vietnam was primarily a pre-industrial, agricultural society without major industrial targets. Second, the overall effectiveness of the bombing campaign was hampered by political constraints that limited targeting and other operational planning factors. Third, and perhaps most important, the North Vietnamese were a determined people who were prepared to continue fighting as long as it took to achieve their war aims. In essence, the United States was fighting a limited war, but the North Vietnamese were fighting a total war to the finish.
1966 Hanoi insists the United States must end its bombings before peace talks can begin.
1961 Kennedy urges building of bomb shelters         ^top^
      US president John F. Kennedy, speaking on civil defense, advises US families to build or buy a bomb shelter to protect them from atomic fallout in the event of a nuclear exchange with the Soviet Union. Kennedy also declares that the US civil defense program will soon begin ensuring such protection for every American. Only one year later, true to Kennedy's fears, the world hovers on the brink of full-scale nuclear war when the Cuban Missile Crisis erupts over Soviet placement of nuclear missiles in Cuba. During the tense six-day crisis, many Americans across the country prepare for nuclear war, buying up canned goods and completing last-minute work on their nuclear shelters.
1949 Iva Toguri D'Aquino (Tokyo Rose) sentenced to 10 years & $10,000 fine
1949 US President Truman signed the Mutual Defense Assistance Act, totaling $1.3 billion in military aid to NATO countries.
1945 Top French traitor attempts suicide         ^top^
      Former French premier and Vichy collaborator Pierre Laval tries to kill himself on the day he is to be executed for treason. He fails. Laval served as premier of France twice, the second time from June 1935 to January 1936, but fell from power primarily because of his appeasement of Italy after the invasion and occupation of Ethiopia by Mussolini and his fascist regime in 1935.
      Upon the German invasion of France in 1940, Laval, ever the opportunist, saw a chance to re-establish himself in office by supporting a puppet government headed by marshal Henri Philippe Pétain, who, when he acceded to the position of premier in June 1940, rewarded Laval by making him deputy head of state and foreign minister. Laval was always more slavish in his devotion to his German masters than was Pétain; for example, Laval began secret negotiations for a formal collaboration with Germany, convinced that the future lay in the hands of the Axis power.
      Pétain finally fired him in December 1940. But the Germans questioned Pétain's double loyalty and pressured him to reinstate Laval. Pétain fell further from German favor, and when Hitler's forces occupied France in 1942, Laval, wanting to reassure Germany of his loyalty, began sending French workers to Germany and stripping French Jews of their rights. He also helped the Nazis capture and deport non-French Jews. He openly announced that he wished for a German victory. “An American victory would mean victory for the Jews and the communists.”
      As the end for Hitler grew near, Laval fled first to Germany, then to Spain, then to Austria, where he was arrested and sent back to France and was tried, as Pétain was also, on the charge of treason. Laval defended his actions, believing he had done nothing wrong. He was sentenced to be shot by firing squad on October 6, 1945, but swallowed cyanide before they could come for him. A physician saved his life--just in time for Laval to be executed a little less than two weeks later.
1941 German troops renew their offensive against Moscow
1939 In an address to the Reichstag, Adolf Hitler denies having any intention of pursuing war against France and Britain. — Plan de paix de Hitler (rejeté par Chamberlain le 12)
1939 Reddition des derniers combattants polonais à Koch
1928 Chiang Kai-Shek becomes president of China
1927 The Jazz Singer, 1st movie with a sound track, premieres (NYC) with popular entertainer Al Jolson singing and dancing in black-face.
1926 Cord acquires Duesenberg         ^top^
      Automobile manufacturer E. L. Cord had a vision: his company was going to produce the finest and most luxurious automobile the world had ever seen. Already a financial success with his prestigious Auburn and Cord lines, Cord wanted to go one step further. In the early 1920's, two German-American engineers from Iowa, Frederick and August Duesenberg, had begun to command the automotive world's attention with their exquisitely constructed racing cars. In 1921, a Duesenberg car won the 24-hour race in Le Mans, France, and in 1924 and 1925 their cars won the Indy 500. In 1926, E. L. Cord offered to purchase the Duesenberg company, with the sole purpose of obtaining the design expertise of Fred Duesenberg -- the one man he believed could construct the grand automobile he envisioned.
      On this day in 1926, Duesenberg was incorporated into the Auburn-Cord company, and the Duesenberg brothers began working toward Cord's dream. Two years later, Cord introduced the Duesenberg Model J to the American public. It was of typical Duesenberg design, but on a grander scale. No other automobile of the time could approach the sheer power of the Model J. The engine displaced 420-cubic inches and sported twin overhead camshafts that operated four valves per cylinders, all adding up to an impressive 165 hp. And in elegance it was incomparable - the chassis was huge and the bodies were custom built by the leading coach-builders of the day. At a price tag beginning around $17'000, the Model J was a true luxury car, and movie stars and millionaires soon vied for ownership of "Duesies.” But Cord's Duesenberg line could not survive the difficulties of the Depression, and it folded along with the rest of Auburn-Cord in 1937. Yet, for a short time, Cord had accomplished his dream of grandeur, and the Duesenberg Model J is still widely regarded as one of the finest automobiles ever manufactured.
1923 USSR adopts experimental calendar
1911 The first transpacific radio conversation takes place over over 10,000 km between a Japanese steamer and a wireless station in San Francisco.
1908 Austria annexes Bosnia & Herzegovina
1890 Mormon Church outlaws polygamy
1889 Thomas Edison shows his 1st motion picture
1886 Start of the Sherlock Holmes adventure The Resident Patient
1873 Début du procès du maréchal Achille-François Bazaine, 62 ans, pour sa capitulation sans combat à Metz avec 140'000 hommes, qui complète la défaite dans la guerre de 1870 engagée par le second Empire contre la Prusse. Il sera condamné le 10 décembre à la dégradation et à mort par le conseil de guerre, que préside le duc d'Aumale. Sa peine sera commuée par le président de la République Mac-Mahon en 20 ans de prison. Il parviendra à s'évader le 9 août 1874 et finira sa vie en exil en Espagne, où il meurt le 28 septembre 1888..
1866 The Reno brothers--Frank, John, Simeon and William--commit the US's first train robbery near Seymore, Indiana netting $10'000. (However it was preceded by a train burglary. Exactly nine months before, bandits entered an Adams Express car en route to Boston from New York and stole over half a million dollars from safes on the unoccupied car.) [MORE]
1866 Henry House drives his steam car out of town         ^top^
      In the first use of a steam car to garner national attention, brothers Henry and James House transported a party of men in their House steam car from Bridgeport, Connecticut, to Stratford, Connecticut, on this day. With the assistance of his brother James, inventor Henry House had constructed the House Steamer, one of America's first steam cars, earlier in the year. After testing their invention in and around Bridgeport for several months, the brothers approved the first official journey for the House steam car -- a 10 km trip to Stratford to watch a vessel launching.
1864 Cavalry engagement at Brock's Gap, Virginia
1814 Alexander J. Dallas took the oath to become the United States' sixth Secretary of the Treasury on this day. Dallas' tenure came to a close in 1816
1801 Napoleon Bonaparte imposes a new constitution on Holland.
1788 The Polish Diet decides to hold a four year session.
1781 Americans and French begin siege of Cornwallis at Yorktown; last battle of the Revolutionary War
1696 Savoy Germany withdraws from the Grand Alliance.
1683 First Mennonites arrive in America         ^top^
      Encouraged by William Penn's offer of 2000 hectares of land in the colony of Pennsylvania and the freedom to practice their religion, the first Mennonites arrive in America aboard the Concord. Led by Francis Daniel Pastorious and Johann Kelpius, thirteen German and Dutch families traveled from Krefeld, Germany, to the British colony, establishing a settlement called Germantown, now a neighborhood in present-day Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. They were among the first Germans to settle in the American colonies.
      The Mennonites, members of a Protestant sect founded by Menno Simons in the 16th century, were widely persecuted in Europe. Seeking religious freedom, Mennonite Francis Daniel Pastorious led a group from Krefeld, Germany, to Pennsylvania in 1683 and founded Germantown, the pioneer German settlement in America and now part of the city of Philadelphia. Numerous other German groups followed, and by the American Revolution there were 100,000 Germans in William Penn's former colony, more than a third of Pennsylvania's total population at the time.
1520 Martin Luther, 36, publishes "Prelude on the Babylonian Captivity of the Church," which attacks the entire sacramental system of the Catholic Church.
1014 The Byzantine Emperor Basil earns the title "Slayer of Bulgars" after he orders the blinding of 15'000 Bulgarian soldiers.
0891 Formosus begins his reign as Pope.
tanker before explosionDeaths which occurred on an October 06:

2003 Elizabeta Rizea, 91, resistance fighter against the Communist dictatorship in Romania, from soon after its 1945 beginnings to 1949 when she was imprisoned.

2002 One Bulgarian engine-room sailor from an explosion of a small suicide bomb boat followed by fire on French supertanker Limburg [photo before explosion >] while it is meeting the boat of the pilot who is to guide it the 5 km into the port of Mina al-Dabah, near Mukalla in the Gulf of Aden. 17 others of the crew of 17 Bulgarians and 8 Frenchmen are injured.
      The 157'833-ton ship, belonging to Euronav and chartered by Malaysia's Petronas, was carrying 397'000 barrels of Iranian crude petroleum, and was about to load more in the port. A severe petroleum spill results.
[faked photo below]
faked photo of tanker on fire 2002 Hani Beni Maniyeh, 24, Palestinian from Akrabeh near Nablus, West Bank, bleeds to death after being hit from the back in the femoral artery by gunfire from a group of 10 Israeli settlers from the Gidonim and Itamar enclaves who at 09:00 attacked Palestinians harvesting olives in an orchard 1.5 km from Itamar and 3 km from Akrabeh. Settlers have been attacking Palestinians harvesters since the olive harvest began on 02 October. Akrabeh residents are unable to get to 70% of their lands because of these attacks. The Israeli army and police do nothing to stop the murderous settlers. The al-Aqsa intifada body count is now “at least” At least 1584 Palestinians and 602 Israelis, according to Reuters.
2002 Sami Nursi, 21, Islamic Jihad activist, shot by Israeli soldiers at the entrance to the Jenin refugee camp, West Bank.
2002 Frank X. Barron, 80, after a fall, US psychologist best known for intensive studies of highly creative people. Two of his books, Creativity and Psychological Health (1963) and Creativity and Personal Freedom (1968), are considered classics in the field.
2001 Hamza al Hawazmeh, 24, by Israeli gunfire, and his cousin, 36, by a tank shell, both from Israeli troops invading Palestinian Hebron.
1996 Seymour Cray, computer pioneer         ^top^
      Seymour Cray, the engineer whose name became synonymous with the world's fastest supercomputers, founded Cray Research and later the Cray Computer Company. Cray worked on UNIVAC, the first commercially available digital computer. In 1957, Cray helped found Control Data Corp., and in 1972, he founded Cray Research, where he developed the system of parallel processingæusing more than one processor simultaneously. The company's first machine, the Cray 1 supercomputer, performed 240 million calculations per second. In 1985, he introduced the Cray 2, at 1.2 billion calculations per second. In 1989, he founded another firm, Cray Computer Company, to create even faster computers, but the company folded in 1995 because the demand for supercomputers, primarily used by the government and the military, plummeted after the Cold War ended. Cray died the following year.
1983 Terence Cooke, 62, Cardinal Archbishop of New York,
1981 Anwar el-Sadat and 10 others, assassinated in Cairo by Muslim fundamentalists.         ^top^
      As Sadat, president of Egypt, reviews troops on the anniversary of the Yom Kippur War. The terrorists, all wearing army uniforms, led by Khaled el Islambouli, a lieutenant in the Egyptian army with connections to the terrorist group Takfir Wal-Hajira, stop in front of the reviewing stand and fire shots and throw grenades into a crowd of Egyptian government officials. Sadat, who is shot four times, dies two hours later. Ten other persons also die in the attack.
      In November of 1977, in an unprecedented move for an Arab leader, Egyptian President Anwar el-Sadat had traveled to Jerusalem in Israel to seek a permanent peace settlement with Egypt's Jewish neighbor after decades of conflict.
      Sadat's visit, in which he met with Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and spoke before Israel's parliament, was met with outrage in most of the Arab world. Despite criticism from Egypt's regional allies, Sadat continued to pursue peace with Begin, and in 1978 the two leaders met again in the United States, where they negotiated an agreement with US President Jimmy Carter at Camp David, Maryland. The historic treaty, the first peace agreement between the state of Israel and one of its Arab neighbors, ended three decades of war and laid the groundwork for diplomatic and commercial relations. For their achievement, Sadat and Begin were awarded a joint Nobel Peace Prize.
        Despite Sadat's incredible public service record for Egypt (he was instrumental in winning the nation its independence and democratizing it), his controversial peace negotiation with Israel in 1977-78, for which he and Menachem Begin won the Nobel Peace Prize, made him a target of Islamic extremists across the Middle East. Sadat had also angered many by allowing the ailing Shah of Iran to die in Egypt rather than be returned to Iran to stand trial for his crimes against the country.
      Libyan leader Muammar Qadaffi, who sponsored Takfir Wal-Hajira, had engineered his own unsuccessful attempt on Sadat's life in 1980. Despite the well-known threats on his life, Sadat did not withdraw from the public eye, believing it was important to the country's well-being that he be open and available.
      Before executing their plan, Islambouli's team of assassins took hits of hashish to honor a long-standing Middle Eastern tradition. As their vehicle passed the reviewing stand, they jumped out and started firing. Vice President Hosni Mubarak was sitting near Sadat but managed to survive the attack.
      Taking over the country when Sadat died, Mubarak arrested over 800 people suspected to have participated in the conspiracy to kill Sadat. Eventually, charges were brought against 24 men, who went to trial in November. Many of those charged were unrepentant and proudly admitted their involvement. Islambouli and four others were executed, while the others (except for two acquittals) got various prison sentences ranging from 2 years to life.
1972:: 298 pilgrims out of some 2000 in a 22-car train which derails in Mexico.
1968 Phyllis Nicolson, English mathematical physicist born on 21 September 1917.
1956 Charles Edward Merrill, 70, born on 19 October 1885, founder (on 03 January 1914, as Charles E. Merrill & Co.) and a directing partner of Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Beane (as it was called at the time of his death), investment banking and brokerage firm, in semi-retirement since a 1944 heart attack. He also started the magazine Family Circle, distributed in chain stores.
1951 Henry Gurney British high commissioner to Malaya, assassinated
1927 Paul Louis Henri Sérusier, French painter born in 1863. — MORE ON SÉRUSIER AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1912 Walter William Skeat, editor of Pierce the Ploughmans Crede, and of Chaucer's The Book of the Duchesse
1902 George Rawlinson, historian. RAWLINSON ONLINE: History of Phoenicia, translator of The History of Herodotus
1899 Felicia Skene, author. SKENE ONLINE: The Inheritance of Evil: Or, The Consequence of Marrying a Deceased Wife's Sister, Penitentiaries and Reformatories, Scenes from a Silent World: or Prisons and Their Inmates, The Shadow of the Holy Week, A Test of the Truth, The Tutor's Ward volume 1, volume 2
1892 Alfred Tennyson, author. TENNYSON ONLINE: Enoch Arden, &c., Enoch Arden, &c., Idylls of the King, The Lady of Shalott (with Pre-Raphaelite paintings), The Princess: A Medley, The Princess: A Medley
1891 Charles Stewart Parnell (born 27 June 1846), died in Brighton, England. The "Uncrowned King of Ireland" was an Irish nationalist and statesman who led the fight for Irish home rule in the 1880s and almost attained it. But the scandal of his adultery ruined his career and stalled advancement of the nationalist struggle. He dies long before home rule is finally achieved.
1889 Jules Dupré, French Barbizon school painter born on 05 April 1811, specialized in landscapes. — MORE ON DUPRÉ AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1880 Benjamin Peirce, US mathematician and astronomer born on 04 April 1809. Author of Linear Associative Algebra (1870)— PEIRCE ONLINE: Address of Professor Benjamin Peirce, President of the American Association for the Year 1853, On Retiring from the Duties of President, An Elementary Treatise on Curves, Functions, and Forces volume 1, volume 2, Elements of the Theory of the Newtonian Potential Function
1867 Henry Timrod, poet. TIMROD ONLINE: Poems (1860), The Poems of Henry Timrod (1872), The Poems of Henry Timrod (1873), The Poems of Henry Timrod
1855 August Leopold Crelle, German civil engineer and mathematician born on 11 March 1780. He founded in 1826 the Journal für die reine und angewandte Mathematik (“Crelle's Journal”) and was its editor-in-chief for the first 52 volumes.
1840 Ferdinand François Désiré Budan de Boislaurent, French physician and amateur mathematician born on 28 September 1761. He discovered a rule which gives necessary conditions for a polynomial equation to have n real roots between two given numbers.
1863 Yanks massacred by Quantrill's raiders at Baxter Springs.         ^top^
      Kansas Confederate guerilla leader William Clarke Quantrill continues his bloody rampage through Kansas when he attacks Baxter Springs. Although he failed to capture the stronghold, his men massacred a Union detachment that happened to be traveling nearby.
      Some of the bloodiest chapters of the Civil War were written in Kansas and Missouri, where irregular combatants fought. In August 1863, Quantrill and 450 Confederate partisans sacked the abolitionist town of Lawrence, Kansas. They murdered 150 men and set the town on fire before escaping the pursuing Union cavalry.
      After destroying Lawrence, Quantrill and his men noticed that the area around northwestern Missouri and northeastern Kansas was becoming more crowded with Yankee troops. Quantrill started to drift south, intent on wintering within the friendly confines of Confederate Texas.
      On 06 October, Quantrill and his men happened upon a Federal post at Baxter Springs, near the Missouri and Indiana Territory borders. Defending the post were parts of the 3rd Wisconsin Cavalry and the 2nd Kansas Colored Infantry. Quantrill attacked suddenly, surprising the Yankees, who suffered heavy casualties before barricading themselves inside the earth-and-timber fortress. While Quantrill's men debated the merits of another attack on the post, another Union force appeared from the north. It was General James G. Blunt, commander of the forces in Kansas, who was in the process of moving his headquarters from Fort Scott, Kansas, to Fort Smith, Arkansas.
      Blunt spotted Quantrill's men but mistook them for Union troops because many were dressed in captured Yankee uniforms. Many of Blunt's 100 men were clerks and office staffers. Quantrill attacked, and the scene turned into a massacre. The Yankees quickly scattered, and Quantrill's partisans hunted them down. Seventy Union troops were killed, but Blunt escaped to the safety of Fort Smith. However, he was removed from command shortly thereafter. Quantrill and his men continued south to Texas, raiding homesteads and attacking Native American communities along the way.
1809 Jean Bardin, French artist born on 31 October 1732.
1536 William Tyndale, English translator of the New Testament, convicted of heresy, is strangled and his remains burned, at Vilvorde, France.
0877 Charles II le Chauve, 54 ans, roi de France depuis 843 et Saint Empereur Romain Germanique (Karl der Kahle) depuis 875. (A ne pas confondre avec le roi Charles le Chauve ou le Bel, IV de France et I de Navarre [1322-1328]) Accouru au secours du pape attaqué par les Sarrasins, Charles II meurt de dysenterie sur la route du retour à Avrieux, près de Modane. Comme ça il n'a pas à faire face à la révolte de ses vassaux. Il est inhumé à Saint-Denis. Louis II le Bègue lui succède.
Births which occurred on an October 06:
2002 AngelBourse opens on the Internet. Based in Bristol, UK, its aim is to supplement the funds “angels” (venture capitalists) provide to tiny companies (market capitalization of less than £14 million) by making a market for those who want to risk at least £1000 in such companies. Thus it competes with the lower reaches of the London Stock Exchange's Alternative Investment Market (AIM). Initially AngelBourse lists 26 companies, not by name (for surfers who are not certified as either Sophisticated Investors or High Net Worth Individuals with an account costing £33 per month) but by code. However, after completing an application, giving my name as “Anonymous Guest” (without paying anything) I saw these listed [I added the links]: AJC Trailers — BCD ModellingCalibrandCarefree.TV — Click Recruitment Systems — LookbeyondNetvoyager — Radtables — RostimaSocietyPersonnel.com — The Creative Educational Corporation — The Prestfold Group — Worldwide Environmental Technologies
1942 Xerography patented         ^top^
      Chester Floyd Carlson obtained a patent on the xerography process for making electrostatic copies. Carlson worked in the patent department of an electronics firm and was frustrated at the difficulty of making copies of patent drawings. He investigated various processes and developed xerography after four years of experimenting. He made the first Xerox copy on 22 October 1938. Although he received a patent in 1942, he failed to interest companies in producing copy machines until 1947, when the Haloid Company of Rochester, New York, licensed the process. The company, which later changed its name to Xerox, introduced its first copy machine in 1958.
1936 Robert Phelan Langlands, Canadian mathematician. In January 1967 he made "the Langlands conjectures" relating number theory, automorphic forms, and representation theory.
1930 Hafez al Assad president-dictator (Syria)
1927 The Jazz Singer, a movie that featured both silent and sound-synchronized scenes, opens, ushering in the era of talking pictures.
1925 Shana Alexander, author-journalist.
1918 Abraham Robinson, Jewish-German-born US mathematician who died on 11 April 1974. Author of Complete theories (1956), Non-Standard Analysis (1966). Robinson invented non-standard analysis, which gives an alternative model for the Real numbers (sometimes called hyperreals) in which infinitesimals (numbers > 0 but < 1/n for all n) can be interpreted in a different way.
1914 Thor Heyerdahl Norway, anthropologist/explorer (Kon Tiki, Aku-Aku)
1908 Sergei Sobolev, Saint-Petersburg Russian mathematician who died on 03 January 1989. In the 1930s he introduced the Sobolev function spaces.
1898 Charles Lapicque, French artist who died in 1988.
1895 Caroline Gordon, writer (The Strange Children)
1888 Li Ta-chao cofounder with Mao Tse-tung of Chinese Communist Party
1887 Charles Edouard Jeanneret “Le Corbusier”, Swiss French architect, urban planner, painter, lithographer, writer, designer, and theorist, active mostly in France, who died on 27 August 1965. — MORE ON “LE CORBUSIER” AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1887 Martín Luis Guzmán Mexico, novelist (The Eagle and the Serpent)
1862 Albert Jeremiah Beveridge US, politician/author (Progressive)
1849 Sir Basil Zaharoff arms dealer, "merchant of death"
1847 Jane Eyre, novel by Charlotte Brontë, is published in London         ^top^
     Jane Eyre is published by Smith, Elder and Co. Charlotte Brontë, the book's author, used the pseudonym Currer Bell. The book was an immediate popular success. Brontë was born in 1816, one of six siblings who grew up in a gloomy parsonage in the remote English village of Hawthorne. Her mother died when she was 5, and Charlotte, her two older sisters, and her younger sister Emily, were sent to Clergy Daughter's School at Cowan Bridge in Lancashire. The cheap school featured bad food, cold rooms, and harsh discipline, all reflected in the image of the boarding school portrayed in Jane Eyre. Charlotte's two oldest sisters died of illnesses while at school.
      After their sisters' deaths, Charlotte and Emily were brought home, where they and their remaining siblings, Anne and Branwell, amused themselves by making up elaborate stories about fantastical worlds. From 1835 to 1838, Charlotte taught in a girls' school. Meanwhile, she and Emily formed a plan to open their own school, and in 1842 the sisters went to Brussels to study languages and school administration. In Brussels, Charlotte fell in love with the married headmaster, an experience she used as the basis for her last novel, Villette (1853).
      Returning to the parsonage at Hawthorne, the sisters tried to open their own school but could not attract pupils. Meanwhile, their adored brother Branwell had become a heavy drinker and opium user. When Emily got him a job teaching with her at a wealthy manor, he lost both their positions after a tryst with the mother of the house. In 1846, Charlotte accidentally found some poems written by Emily and discovered that all three sisters had secretly been writing verse. They published at their own expense their own book, Poems by Currer, Ellis and Acton Bell, adopting a pseudonym because they believed women writers were judged too softly. Only two copies sold, but publishers became interested in the sisters' work. Charlotte's Jane Eyre was published in 1847 under the name Currer Bell. Emily's Wuthering Heights and Anne's Agnes Grey were published later that year. Sadly, all three of Charlotte's siblings died within the next two years. Left alone, Charlotte cared for her ill father and married curate Arthur Bell Nicholls in 1854. Charlotte died during pregnancy shortly after the marriage.
Written under the pseudonym Currer Bell, the novel Jane Eyre presents the struggles of an orphan girl who grows up to become a governess. She is a thinking, feeling woman, craving for love but able to renounce it at the call of impassioned self-respect and moral conviction. The book's narrator and main character, Jane Eyre, is an orphan and is governess to the ward of Mr. Rochester, the Byronic and enigmatic employer with whom she falls in love. Her love is reciprocated, but on the wedding morning it comes out that Rochester is already married and keeps his mad and depraved wife in the attics of his mansion.
      Jane leaves him, suffers hardship, and finds work as a village schoolmistress. When Jane learns, however, that Rochester has been maimed and blinded while trying vainly to rescue his wife from the burning house that she herself had set afire, Jane seeks him out and marries him.
      There are melodramatic naïvetés in the story, and Charlotte's elevated rhetorical passages do not much appeal to modern taste, but she maintains her hold on the reader. The novel is subtitled An Autobiography and is written in the first person; but the autobiography is not Charlotte's. Personal experience is fused with suggestions from widely different sources, and the Cinderella theme may well come from Samuel Richardson's Pamela. The action is carefully motivated, and apparently episodic sections are seen to be necessary to the full expression of Jane's character and the working out of the threefold moral theme of love, independence, and forgiveness.
  • Jane Eyre
  • Jane Eyre (2rd site)
  • Jane Eyre (3rd site)
  • Jane Eyre (zipped PDF)
  • Poems by Currer, Ellis, and Acton Bell (i.e.the 3 Brontë sisters)
  • Poems (same, another site)
  • The Professor
  • The Professor (another site)
  • The Professor (zipped PDF)
  • Shirley
  • Shirley (another site)
  • Villette
  • 1846 George Westinghouse prolific inventor, held over 100 patents on creations including air brakes for trains, responsible for alternating current in US; founder of Westinghouse Electric Company
    1831 Julius Wilhelm Richard Dedekind, Braunschweig German mathematician who died on 12 February 1916. His major contribution was a redefinition of irrational numbers in terms of Dedekind cuts. He introduced the notion of an ideal which is fundamental to ring theory. Author of Vorlesungen über Zahlentheorie (1863), Stetigkeit und Irrationale Zahlen (1872), Über die Theorie der ganzen algebraischen Zahlen (1879).
    1823 George Henry Boker, author. BOKER ONLINE: Anne Boleyn: A Tragedy, The Book of the Dead
    1784 Pierre Charles François Dupin, French mathematician who died on 18 January 1873. He made contributions to differential geometry and in particular invented the Dupin Indicatrix.
    1771 (or some time in December 1771?) Jacques Nicolas Paillot de Montabert, French artist who died on 06 May 1849.
    1745 Francissek Smuglevitch, Polish artist who died on 18 September 1807
    1578 Hieronymus Kessel, Flemish artist who died in 1636.
    1552 Matteo Ricci, an Italian Jesuit who was sent as a missionary to China in 1583 and co-founded the first successful Catholic missions there. His complete adoption of Chinese customs raised the issue of the limits of "accommodation" to other cultures, in the preaching of the gospel. He was also a mathematician. He died on 11 May 1610.
    1536 Santi di Tito, Italian artist who died on 24 July 1603.
    Holidays Egypt : Military Day

    Religious Observances Ang : St Faith's Day / Christian : St Bruno, Blsd Marie-Rose Durocher / RC : St Bruno, patron of the possessed CE (opt) / Ang, Luth : St William Tyndale, priest / RC-US : Blessed Marie Rose Durocher, Canadian virgin (opt)

    NOVAMENTE — diz-se de indivíduos que renovam sua maneira de pensar
    Thoughts for the day : 1. “If you make a mistake, immediately fix it to the best of your ability.”
    2. “If you make a mistake, immediately fix responsibility for it on someone else.”
    3. “If you make a mistake, immediately fixing it to the best of your ability can be a worse mistake.”
    4. “If you make a mistake, immediately try to learn something from it.”
    5. “If you make a mistake, immediately find someone who has the ability to fix it.”
    6. “If you make a mistake, immediately pretend it was a stroke of creative genius.”
    7. “If you make a mistake, it may be a sign that you are human after all.”
    8. “If you make a mistake, learn to be forgiving of others' mistakes.”
    9. “If you make a mistake, the chances are that a second mistake won't fix it.”
    10. “If you make a mistake, don't make it a habit.”
    11. “If you make a mistake, immediately hide it to the best of your ability.”
    12. “If you make a mistake, immediately try again, but not the same way.”
    13. “If you make a mistake, immediately do something, anything, and it's bound to be a worse mistake.”
    updated Friday 10-Oct-2003 14:56 UT
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