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Events, deaths, births, of 15 OCT
[For Oct 15 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1582~1699: Oct 251700s: Oct 261800s: Oct 271900~2099: Oct 28]
On an October 15:
2002 Ivory Coast government troops retake Daloa from the nerthern rebels who had captured the city of 160'000 two days earlier.

2002 Referendum in Iraq: YES for beloved Saddam Hussein to have another 7 years of dictatorship, or NO for the benighted voter to suffer the fate of the 0.04% who voted “no” on 15 October 1995 in the last such referendum. With those renegades out of the way, this time 99.9999917% of the 12 million voters enthusiastically choose “yes”, according to preliminary reports. The final official results would be announced on 16 October: there were 11'445'938 eligible voters, of which 11'445'938 cast their ballot, and there were 11'445'938 “Yes” votes, 0 abstention, and 0 “No” votes. What is not announced is that there was a 11'445'639th ballot, but it was invalidated because the voter died a few minutes after casting it, together with all the poll workers at that particular station. Not announced either is that 62 citizens did not vote, thus demonstrating that they were mentally ill and therefore not eligible voters; nor was it announced that the survivors among them were admitted for long-term treatment in psychiatric hospitals. Reporters covering the event ought to admit that freedom of speech is greater in Iraq than in the US. It is true that, in the US, without getting shot, you can stand in front of the President's mansion and yell that George “Dubya” Bush is a fool and a criminal for wanting to invade Iraq, but you run the risk of being hustled along by guards, or even arrested for disordely conduct. In contrast, in Baghdad or anywhere else in Iraq where Saddam Hussein has one of his multitudinous weapon caches.... er .... presidential palaces, you can yell exactly the same and be praised for it.

Human world chess champion Vladimir Kramnik, with White, loses to computer program Deep Fritz, with Black, in the 6th of the 8 games in their match of 04, 06, 08, 10, 13, 15, 17, and 19 October 2002, evening the score 3 to 3. —
1. d4 – Nf6 / 2. c4 – e6 / 2. Nf3 – b6 / 4. g3 – Ba6 / 5. b3 – Bb4+ / 6. Bd2 – Be7 / 7. Bg2 – c6 / 8. Bc3 – d5 / 9. Ne5 – Nfd7 / 10. Nxd7 – Nxd7 / 11. Nd2 – 0-0 / 12. 0-0 – Rc8 / 13. a4 – Bf6 / 14. e4 – c5 / 15. exd5 – cxd4 / 16. Bb4 – Re8 / 17. Ne4 – exd5 / 18. Nd6 – dxc4 / [the position here >] / 19. Nxf7 – Kxf7 / 20. Bd5+ – Kg6 / 21. Qg4+ – Bg5 / 22. Be4+ – Rxe4 / 23. Qxe4+ – Kh6 / 24. h4 – Bf6 / 25. Bd2+ – g5 / 26. hxg5+ – Bxg5 / 27. Qh4+ – Kg6 / 28. Qe4+ – Kg7 / 29. Bxg5 – Qxg5 / 30. Rfe1 – cxb3 / 31. Qxd4+ – Nf6 / 32. a5 – Qd5 / 33. Qxd5 – Nxd5 / 34. axb6 – axb6 / White (Kramnik) resigns
A probable continuation: 35. Rxa6 – b2 / 36. Ra7+ – Kg6 / 37. Rd7 – Rc1 / 38. Rd6+ – Nf6 / 39. Rdd1 – b1Q-+ –
2002 UK imposes its rule on Northern Ireland.       ^top^
      At midnight (14 Oct 23:00 UT) Great Britain imposes direct rule, replacing Northern Ireland's Protestant-Catholic power-sharing administration and 108-member legislature, because Protestants have been doing what they do best: protest, and the IRA has been doing what it does best: arouse their ire.
      After the decision was announced on 14 October, the prime ministers of Britain and Ireland, Tony Blair and Bertie Ahern, jointly said that they were "deeply saddened", but that British rule would prevent complete collapse of the coalition resulting from the Good Friday peace pact of 1998. They said that restoring Ulster Unionist-Sinn Fein relations would require a clear-cut end to IRA activity
      There is rising Protestant hostility to sharing power with Sinn Fein, the Irish Republican Army-linked party that has grown increasingly popular among Catholics, thanks to the peace process.
[photo: Sinn Fein President Gerry Adams, 13 Oct 2002 >]

     The major Protestant party, the Ulster Unionists, had threatened to withdraw from power-sharing because of alleged IRA spying. First Minister David Trimble, leader of the Ulster Unionists and the local administration, had set 15 October as a deadline for Britain to to expel Sinn Fein. As the UK takes power away from all four parties in the coalition, Trimble said that he accepted this "a poor second best," and offered to resume cooperation with Sinn Fein if the IRA disbanded.
      Four persons, including Sinn Fein's top legislative aide, are in jail awaiting trial for espionage-related charges following 04 October police raids. The prisoners are accused of stealing from Reid's office documents that include details of potential IRA targets and records of talks between Britain and other key parties.
      It is hoped that Great Britain may be able to return power to the Northern Ireland government before elections to Northern Ireland's legislature in May.
      John Reid, a Scotsman appointed by Prime Minister Tony Blair in 2000, will oversee Northern Ireland's 12 government departments with help from four lawmakers from London. Reid said that he planned to consult regularly the powerless administration's top two men — Trimble and the Catholic deputy leader, Social Democratic and Labor Party chief Mark Durkan.
      This suspension of powers was the fourth ordered by Britain since Trimble's coalition took office in December 1999, following a US-brokered compromise. Under that plan, Sinn Fein received two administration posts on condition that the IRA began to disarm. Great Britain resumed sole control in February 2000, after disarmament officials confirmed that the IRA had yet to get rid of any weapons. Three months later, Britain switched power back to local hands after the IRA pledged to put its stockpiled weaponry "beyond use." When no disarmament followed, however, Trimble resigned as government leader in July 2001, and vowed not to return until the IRA moved. Britain used two short suspensions of power to extend the deadline for Trimble's re-election until the IRA secretly scrapped a few arms dumps in October 2001. But the belated IRA move did little to ease opposition to Trimble in the legislature, where Protestant hard-liners came within a few votes of blocking his return to power.
      Protestant hostility to Sinn Fein has swelled un 2002, with police allegations against The IRA is largely observing a 1997 cease-fire but remains active in the most hard-line Catholic areas. The police alleges, and the IRA denies, that the outlawed IRA stole police documents detailing its informer network; keeps gathering intelligence and training for a potential end to its cease-fire; kills drug dealers, and wounds criminal rivals in its Catholic power bases; and directs mob attacks on police. The Protestants must feel that siding with drug dealers and criminals will gain them popular support.
2001 The marking on a package received from the US by a retiree in Chemnitz, Germany, causes him to call the police, who call experts in chemical and biological hazards. As they examine the package cautiously, it dawns on them that the offending word is not the German word meaning poison: GIFT, but is in English.
2000 Maruja Torres Manzanera recibe el premio Planeta de novela por su obra Mientras vivimos.
1999 Chechnya says that it shot down a third Russian warplane (CNN)
1999 The US Department of State submits its Initial Report of the USA to the UN Committee Against Torture. In October 1994 the US ratified the Convention Against Torture, and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. On November 20, 1994 the Convention entered into force for the US. The present report covers the situation in the US through September 1999.
1999 Nobel Peace Prize goes to Médecins Sans Frontières       ^top^
     It is in recognition of the organization's pioneering humanitarian work on several continents.
—      La Organización No Gubernamental Médicos sin Fronteras, gana el Premio Nobel de la Paz por su trabajo humanitario "profesional", "eficaz" e "independiente", desempeñado a lo largo de 28 años, y por su contribución a generar un rechazo social a las violaciones de derechos humanos y a los abusos de poder.
1999 Laura Espido Freire gana el premio Planeta con la obra Melocotones helados.
1998 Carmen Posadas Mañe gana el premio Planeta por su novela Pequeñas infamias.
1998 .tv domain names for sale       ^top^
      Newspapers reported that the Toronto company TV Corp. would begin selling licenses for domain names ending in ".tv.” The domain name belonged to a tiny country called Tuvalo, which struck a deal with TV Corp. officials to license domain names ending in ".tv" to broadcasting companies, enabling them to create sites with addresses like "abc.tv.” Tuvalo, a group of nine atolls in the South Pacific, boasted a population of about ten thousand. Reserving a ".tv" name cost $1000, plus a $500-per-year registration fee.
1997 EE.UU. lanza la sonda espacial Cassini y el módulo de aterrizaje Huygens hacia Saturno en un viaje que durará siete años y atravesará 3500 millones de kilómetros.
1997 Juan Manuel de Prada gana la XLVI edición del premio Planeta de novela con la obra La tempestad.
1996 CSX Corp. announced plans to buy Conrail Inc. for $8.4 billion dollars to create the US's third-largest railroad.
1995 El periodista y escritor Fernando González Delgado gana el premio Planeta, dotado con 50 millones de pesetas, con su obra La mirada de otro.
1994 Camilo José Cela gana el premio Planeta con su novela La Cruz de San Andrés.
1993 The Norwegian Nobel Committee has decided to award the Nobel Peace Prize for 1993 to Nelson R. Mandela and Frederik Willem de Klerk for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa. Los dirigentes sudafricanos Frederik Willem de Klerk y Nelson Rolihalahla Dalibhunga Mandela obtienen el premio Nobel de La Paz. MORE
1991 Thomas confirmed to the US Supreme Court       ^top^
      After a series of bitter confirmation hearings, Clarence Thomas, the second Black to be appointed to the Supreme Court, is confirmed by a narrow vote of fifty-two to forty-eight in the Senate. In addition to the liberal opposition to his extreme conservatism, Thomas was accused of sexual harassment during the televised hearings by Anita Hill, a professor of law and former associate of Thomas. Although Hill, whose testimony was savagely attacked by several senators, was unable to produce any definitive evidence against Thomas, the episode served to foster a greater public awareness of the problem of sexual harassment in the workplace.
1991 Antonio Muñoz Molina gana el premio Planetapor su novela El jinete polaco.
1990 Mikhail Gorbachev wins Nobel Peace Prize       ^top^
      Soviet leader Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev wins the Nobel Peace Prize for his work in ending Cold War tensions.
1990 El escritor Antonio Gala consigue el premio Planeta con su novela El manuscrito carmesí.
1990 Apple replaces most of Mac line       ^top^
      Apple Computer replaced most of the Macintosh line with new, lower cost computers. In an effort to boost Apple's dwindling market shares, the more powerful new machines were priced between 33 and 50 percent lower than their predecessors. The new line, however, came too late to affect Apple's diminishing market share. Although the computer maker virtually founded the personal computer industry, its market share had declined dramatically and would continue to do so. By 1998, Apple held only 3.8 percent of the personal computer market.
1989 South African president F. W. de Klerk frees Sisulu and four other political prisoners.
1986 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physics by one half to Professor. Ernst Ruska, Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany, for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope and the other half, jointly to Dr Gerd Binnig and Dr Heinrich Rohrer, IBM Research Laboratory, Zurich, Switzerland, for their design of the scanning tunnelling microscope. MORE
1986 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the 1986 Nobel Prize in chemistry jointly to Professor Dudley R. Herschbach, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA, Professor Yuan T. Lee, University of California, Berkeley, USA and Professor John C. Polanyi, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes.. MORE
1985 Los estadounidenses Jerome Kasrle y Herbert Aaron Hauptman, logran el premio Nobel de Química. MORE
1985 El estadounidense Franco Modigliani gana el premio Nobel de Economía por sus estudios sobre el ahorro doméstico y el funcionamiento de los mercados financieros.
1985 José Antonio Vallejo Nágera obtiene el premio Planeta con la novela Yo, el rey.
1984 The Nobel Assembly of Karolinska Institutet has today decided to award the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 1984 jointly to Niels K. Jerne, Georges J.F. Köhler and César Milstein for theories concerning "the specificity in development and control of the immune system" and the discovery of "the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies". MORE
1984 Por primera vez en los cinco años de guerra civil, tiene lugar en El Salvador una reunión entre el Gobierno y los rebeldes.
1984 Francisco González Ledesma obtiene el premio Planeta por su novela Crónica sentimental en rojo.
1982 Jesús Fernández Santos obtiene el premio Planeta, con su novela Jaque a la dama.
1981 The Nobel Prize in Literature 1981 is announced to go to Elias Canetti (1905~1994), Bulgarian-born, of the UK "for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power" MORE
1981 Cristóbal Zaragoza gana el premio Planeta, con su novela Y Dios en la última playa.
1979 Manuel Vázquez Montalbán obtiene el premio Planeta de Novela con su obra Los mares del sur.
1977 Jorge Semprún Maura, premio Planeta con su novela Autobiografía de Federico Sánchez.
1976 1st debate of major-ticket VP nominees Mondale (D) vs Dole (R)
1975 Mercedes Salisachs Roviralta gana el premio Planeta, con La gangrena.
1974 National Guard mobilizes to restore order in Boston school busing
1974 Xavier Benguerel obtiene el premio Planeta por su novela Icaria, Icaria.
1973 Carlos Rojas Vila obtiene el premio Planeta por su novela Azaña.
1973 Thanom Kittikachorn es derrocado como consecuencia de los disturbios que sacuden el país (Tailandia?).
1972 Jesús Aguirre Ortiz de Zarate obtiene el premio Planeta por su novela La cárcel.
1971 El escritor José María Gironella obtiene el premio Planeta por su obra Condenados a vivir.
1970 El escritor argentino Marcos Aguinis Krutiansky obtiene el premio Planeta, con su novela La cruz invertida.
1969 Ramón J. Sender gana el premio Planeta, con la novela En la vida de Ignacio Morel.
1969 Vietnam: National Moratorium demonstrations held across the US       ^top^
      National Moratorium antiwar demonstrations are conducted across the United States involving hundreds of thousands of people. The National Moratorium was an effort by David Hawk and Sam Brown, two antiwar activists, to forge a broad-based movement against the Vietnam War. The organization initially focused its effort on 300 college campuses, but the idea soon grew and spread beyond the colleges and universities. Hawk and Brown were assisted by the New Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam, which was instrumental in organizing the nation-wide protest. One of the largest demonstrations occurred when 100,000 people converged on the Boston Common, but demonstrations nationwide also included smaller rallies, marches, and prayer vigils. The demonstrations involved a broad spectrum of the population, including those who had already participated in antiwar demonstrations and many who had never before raised their voices against the war. The protest, as a nationally coordinated antiwar demonstration, was considered unprecedented; Walter Cronkite called it "historic in its scope. Never before had so many demonstrated their hope for peace.”
1968 Manuel Ferrand Bonilla obtiene el premio Planeta, por su novela Con la noche a cuestas.
1966 Vietnam: Operation Attleboro continues in Tay Ninh Province       ^top^
      US troops move into Tay Ninh Province near the Cambodian border, about 50 miles north of Saigon, and sweep the area in search of Viet Cong as part of Operation Attleboro, which had begun in September. The purpose of this operation was to find and eliminate all enemy troops west of the Michelin rubber plantation. It was the largest US operation to date and included elements of the US 1st and 25th Infantry Divisions; the 196th Light Infantry Brigade; the 173rd Airborne Brigade; and at least two South Vietnamese army battalions. Engagements continued through the middle of November. At the height of the fighting, a record 20,000 Allied troops were committed. They were opposed by major elements of the 9th Viet Cong Division, one of the best-trained Communist formations. Communist resistance was strong because the Tay Ninh area contained the site of the principal Viet Cong command center for guerrilla operations in South Vietnam and the central office of the National Liberation Front. Operation Attleboro ended on November 25. By then, 2130 Viet Cong and North Vietnamese troops had been killed.
1966 Marta Portal Nicolás obtiene el premio Planeta, con la novela A tientas y a ciegas.
1966 The worst driver in American history       ^top^
      In McKinney, Texas, a seventy-five-year-old male driver receives ten traffic tickets, drives on the wrong side of the road four times, commits four hit-and-run offenses, and causes six accidents, all within twenty minutes. It is ironic that the record worst driver is a native Texan, because Texans, especially residents of Houston, are consistently ranked as the best drivers in the nation.
      On another record-breaking bad driver note, Mrs. Fannie Turner of Little Rock, Arkansas, finally overcame her driving demons this month in 1978 when she finally passed the written test for drivers--it was her 104th attempt.
1965 Vietnam: First draft card burned       ^top^
      In a demonstration staged by the student-run National Coordinating Committee to End the War in Vietnam, the first public burning of a draft card in the United States takes place. These demonstrations drew 100'000 people in 40 cities across the country. In New York, David Miller, a young Catholic pacifist, became the first US war protestor to burn his draft card in direct violation of a recently passed law forbidding such acts. Agents from the Federal Bureau of Investigation later arrested him; he was tried, found guilty, and sentenced to two years imprisonment.
1965 Rodrigo Rubio obtiene el XIV premio Planeta, con la novela Equipaje de amor para la tierra.
1964 Kosygin and Leonid Brezhnev take the place of Soviet premier Nikita Krushchev.
1963 Luis Romero obtiene el premio Planeta, por la obra El cacique.
1962 Cuban Missile Crisis:: After analyzing the pictures from the previous day's overflight of construction sites in Cuba by a spy plane, the US National Photographic Interpretation Center finds what at first seems like more of the surface-to-air missile sites that they already know are there. But closer inspection reveals six much larger missiles — each 18 to 20 meters long: SS-4 nuclear missiles!
1962 Ahmed Ben Bella y Fidel Castro Ruz piden a EE.UU. la inmediata evacuación de la base militar de Guantánamo
1962 Concha Alós Domingo, maestra nacional, obtiene el premio Planeta de novela, por El sol y las bestias.
1962 Byron R White appointed to the US Supreme Court
1961 Torcuato Luca de Tena obtiene el premio Planeta, con su novela La mujer de otro.
1960 Tomás Salvador Espeso obtiene el premio Planeta, por su novela El atentado.
1959 El investigador español Severo Ochoa y el bioquímico estadounidense Arthur Kurnberg ganan el premio Nobel de Medicina.
1959 La noche de Andrés Bosch Vilalta, obtiene el premio Planeta.
1958 Se concede el premio Planeta de novela a Pasos sin huella, de Fernando Bermúdez de Castro.
1957 Emilio Romero Gómez obtiene el premio Planeta, por su novela La paz empieza nunca.
1956 Carmen Kurz obtiene el premio Planeta por la novela El desconocido.
1950 La lista unitaria del Frente Nacional gana en la elecciones generales en la República Democrática Alemana, que consigue una participación del 98,5%.
1950 First radio paging service. Subscribers were provided with a six-ounce pocket radio receiver. The first radio page was sent to a doctor on a golf course 40 km outside of New York City.
1950 President Harry Truman meets with General Douglas MacArthur at Wake Island to discuss UN progress in the Korean War.
1949 Tropas comunistas entran en Cantón en una de las maniobras de la Guerra Civil China.
1949 Administration of territory of Manipur taken over by Indian govt
1949 Billy Graham begins his ministry
1942 La URSS exige inmediato proceso judicial contra representantes nacionalsocialistas, especialmente contra Walter Rudolf Hess [1894-1987] prisionero en Inglaterra.
1941 Odessa, a Russian port on the Black Sea which has been surrounded by German troops for several weeks, is evacuated by Russian troops.
1941 Jews caught outside the Polish Ghetto walls face the death penalty. (soon those inside too).
1937 Inglaterra cierra la frontera entre Siria y Palestina a causa de los constantes desórdenes árabes.
1924 German ZR-3 flies 8000 km, the furthest Zeppelin flight to date.
1915 US banks arrange a $5 million loan to help the British and French governments engaged in WWI.
1915 El alto mando alemán ordena que se vacune contra el tétanos a todos los soldados heridos. .
1914 Congress passes the Clayton Anti-Trust Act, which labor leader Samuel Gompers calls "labor's charter of freedom.” The act exempts unions from anti-trust laws; strikes, picketing and boycotting become legal; corporate interlocking
1907 La ciudad estaduounidense de Fontanet queda prácticamente destruida por la explosión de una fábrica de pólvora. directorates become illegal, as does setting prices which would create a monopoly.
1894 French Army Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a Jew, is arrested, falsely accused of betraying military secrets to Germany. — El capitán judío francés Alfred Dreyfus es acusado de alta traición en el conocido como affaire Dreyfus.
1883 US Supreme Court opposes civil rights       ^top^
      By a narrow decision, the US Supreme Court strikes down a significant part of the Civil Rights Act of 1875, which forbade racial discrimination and segregation in public places. The Court holds that only state-imposed discrimination is unlawful, not discrimination by individuals or corporations. It would be nearly a hundred years before the high court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka that racial segregation in public educational facilities is unconstitutional. Ten years after that, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 finally bars racial discrimination in all types of public accommodations, from schools to restaurants to passenger train cars.
1878 Edison Electric Light Company incorporated
1877 45th US Congress (1877-79) convenes
1860 Grace Bedell [04 November 1848 – 02 November 1936], of Westfield NY, writes a letter of support to presidential candidate Abraham Lincoln, including: “if you let your whiskers grow ... you would look a great deal better for your face is so thin.” Lincoln would answer on 19 October 1860, ending with: “As to the whiskers, having never worn any, do you not think people would call it a piece of silly affection if I were to begin it now?”. However, when Lincoln's train to Washington stopped in Westfiers on 16 February 1861 and he kissed Grace Bedell, he had his now-well-known beard.
1846 Dr. William Thomas Green Morton makes first public use of ether anesthesia.
1862 Skirmish at Neely's Bend on the Cumberland River in Tennessee
1821 Las Cortes españolas deciden crear la provincia de Logroño.
1815 Napoléon begins exile on St. Helena       ^top^
      Four months after suffering a final defeat against an allied force under the Duke of Wellington, Napoléon Bonaparte lands on the remote island of St. Helena in the Atlantic Ocean, where he spends the rest of his life in exile. The Corsica-born Napoléon, one of the greatest military strategists in history, rapidly rose in the ranks of the French Revolutionary Army during the late 1790s. By 1799, France was at war with most of Europe, and Napoléon returned home from his Egyptian campaign to take over the reigns of French government and to save his nation from collapse.
      After becoming first consul in February of 1800, he reorganized his armies and defeated Austria. In 1802, he established the Napoléonic Code, a new system of French law, and in 1804, was crowned emperor of France in Notre Dame Cathedral. By 1807, he controlled an empire that stretched from the River Elbe in the north down through Italy in the south, and from the Pyrenees to the Dalmation coast. Beginning in 1812, Napoléon began to encounter the first significant defeats of his military career, suffering through a disastrous invasion of Russia, losing Spain to the Duke of Wellington in the Peninsula War, and enduring total defeat against an allied force by 1814.
      Exiled to the island of Elba, he escaped to France in early 1815, and raised a new Grand Army that enjoyed temporary success before its crushing defeat at Waterloo against an allied force under Wellington on June 18, 1815. Napoléon was subsequently exiled to the island of Saint Helena off the coast of Africa. Six years later, on May 5, 1821, he died, most likely of stomach cancer, and in 1840, his body was returned to Paris, where it was interred in the Hotel des Invalides.
1790 Ann Teresa Mathews (Mother Bernardina) and Frances Dickinson found a convent of Discalced Carmelites (a contemplative working order) in Port Tobacco, Maryland. It is the first Catholic convent founded in the United States.
1783 Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier makes the first manned flight in a hot air balloon. The first flight reaches 25 m, but over the next few days the altitude would increased up to 2000 m. He made the balloon flight generally considered as first on 21 November 1783.
1722 Juan de Acuña y Bejarano sustituye como virrey de Nueva España a Baltasar de Zúñiga.
1641 Paul de Chomedy de Maisonneuve claims Montreal
1582 First day of the Gregorian calendar.
     The previous day was 04 October 1582 (Julian) The Gregorian (or New World, New Style) calendar is adopted in Italy, France, Spain, and Portugal; on this day, which is 05 October 1582 in the Julian (or Old Style) calendar, which will be gradually abandoned by other countries.
—     Le lendemain du 4 octobre 1582, les Romains se réveillent le... 15 octobre 1582.
      Cette nuit du 4 au 15 octobre 1582 avait été choisie par le pape Grégoire XIII pour l'entrée en application de sa réforme du calendrier julien, ainsi nommé d'après Jules César.
      A Rome, l'année débutait en mars et comportait 355 jours et dix mois. Les Romains payaient leurs dettes au début de chaque mois, ces jours étant appelés calendes (ou calendae). D'où le mot «calendrier» qui désigne le registre où sont inscrits les comptes puis la mesure du temps elle-même.
      En 46 avant JC, Jules César donne à l'année 365 jours et 12 mois. Il la fait débuter le 1er janvier et prévoit des années bissextiles.
      Le décompte actuel des années remonte à 532, lorsque l'Eglise décide de compter les années à partir du 1er janvier qui suit la naissance du Christ, 753 ans après la fondation de Rome.
      Sous la Renaissance, les astronomes s'aperçoivent que l'année calendaire dépasse l'année solaire de... 11 minutes 14 secondes. Quinze siècles après la réforme julienne, cette avance conduit à un décalage de dix jours... et à des problèmes croissants pour fixer la date de Pâques. Grégoire XIII décide donc d'attribuer désormais 365 jours, et non 366, à trois sur quatre des années qui inaugurent les siècles. Cette modeste réforme ramène à 25,9 secondes l'écart avec l'année solaire (une broutille). Par ailleurs, le pape décide de rattraper les dix jours de retard du calendrier julien entre le 4 et le 15 octobre 1582. La réforme va s'étendre peu à peu à l'ensemble des pays. Le calendrier grégorien est aujourd'hui d'application universelle. Pour tout savoir ou presque sur l'histoire du calendrier: http://www.Herodote.net/10150.htm
1533 Francisco Pizarro se apodera de Cuzco y pone fin a la conquista de Perú.
1529 Ottoman armies under Suleiman end their siege of Vienna and head back to Belgrade.
overturned carDeaths which occurred on an October 15:

2003 Joseph Bagarozza, 35; Pio Canini, 52; Vincent Ferrante, 26; Louis Robinson, 50; John Valinski, 40; all 5 from Staten Island -- John P. Healy, 44; Frank Sullivan, 46; both from Middletown NJ --Darios M. Marshall, 25, from Manhattan; --Guillermo Pagvay, 44, from Queens; and a 42-year-old woman; when 95-meter-long, 3335-ton, 22-year-old Manhattan to Staten Island ferry Andrew J. Barberi, carrying some 1500 passengers (its capacity is 6000), crashes its forward port side into pilings at its Staten Island terminal at 15:21 (19:21 UT). Some 45 persons are injured. The pilot, Assistant Capt. Richard J. Smith, 55, whose loss of consciousness caused the accident, flees 5 km to his home, slashes his wrists and shoots himself twice in the chest with a pellet gun; he survives.

2003 John Branchizio, 36; Mark T. Parson, 31; and John Martin Linde Jr., 30; US security guards in armored van torn in half and overtuned by a remote-controlled roadside bomb at 10:15 (07:15 UT) near Beit Hanoun, in the Gaza Strip, a couple of kilometers south of the Erez border checkpoint. One US security guard is wounded. The vehicle was the third in a convoy of four vehicles escorting US diplomats on their way to Gaza City to interview applicants for Fulbright scholarships. The security guards were employees of DynCorp, a Virginia-based security firm contracted by the US embassy in Israel. — [the van being examined >]. — A few hours later US investigators have to retreat when pelted by stones by a dozen youths in a crowd of some 200 Palestinians chanting “Allahu akbar”.

2003 A militant of the Popular Front from the Liberation of Palestine, shot by Israeli soldiers at roadblock at Enbata near Tul Karm, West Bank, when he tries to escape.

2003 The driver of concrete-mixer, after it overturns near West Bank enclave settlement Shavei Shomron.

2003 George Matar, 57, Christian Arab Israeli, injured in the 04 October 2003 suicide bombing of Maxim's Restaurant (of one of whose owners he was a relative), becomes the 21st killed by it.

2003 Moktar Ould Daddah, born in 1924, ruler of Mauritania from its 28 November 1960 independence (from France) to his 1978 overthrow by a military junta which jailed him for 15 months after which he went into exile in Tunisia and France.

2003 Benny Levy, of a heart attack, French Jewish philosopher and author. He was born in Cairo on 28 August 1945, was prominent Marxist-Leninist rebel student “Pierre Victor” in 1968, but later turned to Jewish piety and moved to Israel.

the duplex at via Parini 52002 Carla Bergamin, 40, her widowed mother Teresa Bergamin, brother Sergio Bergamin and his wife Margherita Bergamin, retired neighbors Decio Renato Guerra and wife Laura Guerra, one other man, and Mauro Antonello, 40, Carla's ex-husband (they separated in 2000), a night watchman, who at 08:45, with some 40 shots from four legal guns from his collection, kills the seven and then himself, in via Parini 5 and 3 [photo >], Chieri, 20 km south-east of Turin, Italy. Carla's and Mauro's daughter, 7, has left on the school bus a few minutes earlier to go to Borgo Venezia Elementary (the bus driver Antonio Lancellotti had instructions from Carla never to let Mauro take the girl off the bus). The neighborhood is known as Borgo Venezia, all the victims are of Venetian origin. — La prima ad essere caduta è stata la ex moglie. Agli spari accorrono i coniugi Guerra che vengono a loro volta uccisi. Mauro Antonello salta poi la recinzione che separa il numero civico 5 dal numero 3 ed entra in un' officina laboratorio dei Bergamin, specializzata in lavorazioni tessili. Lì ammazza due donne, una è Margherita Bergamin, la moglie di Sergio, l'altra la persona di cui non si conoscono ancora le generalità. Poi, nel giardino fra le due case, incontra Sergio e Teresa Bergamin e li uccide. Infine sale in mansarda, si siede sul divano, si punta il revolver alla tempia e fa fuoco togliendosi la vita. Daniele e Andrea Bergamin, di 18 e 20 anni, figli di Sergio e Margherita, si sono salvati perchè sono usciti di casa pochi prima della strage: Daniele per andare a Castelnuovo Don Bosco (paese a pochi chilometri da Chieri), dove frequenta un istituto tecnico, Andrea per un corso di informatica.
2002 Condor, 5-months old, seen dead in a cave in the Sespe Condor Sanctuary, in the Los Padres National Forest, Calfornia. Its mother was found to have high levels of lead, which may have been passed on to the egg. It was among the first condor chicks hatched in the wild in nearly two decades; the first one was found dead on 04 October 2002. Captive breeding has incresed the number of California condors in the world from 22 (in 1982) to 205 (as of 01 September 2002), 73 of them in the wild in California and Arizona.
2001 Ahmed Marshoud, Hamas militant, by explosion in a car parked outside a Nablus office in view of an Israeli position on a nearby hilltop.
1999 David Saenz, 57, shot in the head by Ramon Cabrera, 48, because Saenz did not know the tune of “El Guajolote” which Cabrera had asked him to play, as Saenz was entertaining neighbors with his guitar and accordion in his yard, in Corpus Christi. On 9 March 2001, Cabrera would be sentenced to 99 years in prison, with possible parole after 30 years.
1990 Magnus, mathematician
1987 Thomas Sankara,. presidente de Burkina Faso, en un golpe de Estado dado por Blaise Compaoré.
1983 Five snipers at Beirut International Airport, shot by US Marine sharpshooters
1981 Rafael Dieste, escritor español.
1965 Fraenkel, mathematician
1964 Cole Porter composer
1959 Fejér, mathematician
1946 Herman Goering, suicide by poison, on the eve of his scheduled hanging.       ^top^
      Herman Goering, commander in chief of the Luftwaffe, president of the Reichstag, head of the Gestapo, prime minister of Prussia, chief forester of the Reich, chief liquidator of sequestered estates, supreme head of the National Weather Bureau, and Hitler's designated successor dies by his own hand. Goering was an early member of the Nazi Party and was wounded in the failed Munich Beer Hall Putsch in 1923. That wound would have long-term effects, as Goering became increasingly addicted to painkillers.
      Not long after Hitler's accession to power, Goering was instrumental in creating concentration camps for political enemies. Ostentatious and self-indulgent, he changed his uniform five times a day and was notorious for flaunting his decorations, jewelry, and stolen artwork. It was Goering who ordered the purging of German Jews from the economy following the Kristallnacht pogrom in 1938, initiating an "Aryanization" policy that confiscated Jewish property and businesses. Goering's failure to win the Battle of Britain and prevent the Allied bombing of Germany led to his loss of stature within the Party, aggravated by the low esteem with which he was always held by fellow officers because of his egocentrism and position as Hitler's right-hand man. As the war progressed, he dropped into depressions and continued to battle drug addiction. When Goering fell into US hands after Germany's surrender, he had in his possession a rich stash of paracodin pills, a morphine derivative.
      He was charged with various crimes against humanity and tried by the International War Crimes Tribunal in Nuremberg. Despite a vigorous attempt at self-acquittal, he was found guilty and, along with ten other high-ranking Nazi officials, sentenced to be hanged, but before he could be executed, he committed suicide by swallowing a cyanide tablet he had hidden from his guards.
1945 Pierre Laval.       ^top^
      The puppet prime minister of Nazi-occupied Vichy France, is executed by a firing squad for treason against France. Laval, originally a deputy and senator of pacifist tendencies, shifted to the right in the 1930s while serving as the French premier and minister of foreign affairs. A staunch anti-Communist, Laval delayed the Soviet-Franco pact of 1935 and sought to align France with Fascist Italy. Hostile to the declaration of war against Germany in 1939, Laval encouraged the antiwar faction in the French government, and with the German invasion in 1940 used his political influence to force an armistice with Germany. Laval offered the new Vichy state to Phillipe Pétain, and as Pétain's deputy encouraged the Vichy government in full collaboration with the Nazi programs of oppression and genocide.
      By 1942, Laval had won the trust of Nazi leader Adolf Hitler, and the elderly Pétain became merely a figurehead in the Vichy regime. After the Allied liberation of France, Laval fled to German protection to the east. With the defeat of Germany in May of 1945, he escaped to Spain, but was expelled and went into hiding in Austria, where he finally surrendered to US authorities on 31 July. Extradited to France, Laval was convicted of treason by the High Court of Justice in a sensational trial. Condemned to death, he attempted suicide by poison, but was nursed back to health in time for his execution.
Lluís Companys
1940 Lluís Companys
, 58, afusellat al Castell de Montjuïc de Barcelona       ^top^

     Advocat sindicalista durant el primer terç del segle i dirigent d'Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya, participà en la victòria electoral del seu partit l'any 1931, al costat de Francesc Macià. Primer president del Parlament de Catalunya l'any 1932, en morir Francesc Macià l'any 1933 fou elegit President de la Generalitat. Hagué de governar en una època de grans commocions socials i polítiques, sobretot en el període de la guerra civil espanyola de 1936-1939. Refugiat a França, després de la victòria del general Franco, fou detingut a la Baule per la polícia militar alemanya, lliurat al Govern de Madrid i condemnat a mort per un tribunal militar.
1933 Raymond Poincaré, presidente francés.
1923 Angiolo (or Agniolo) Tommasi, Italian artist born in 1858.
Margaretha Mcleod1917 Margaretha Geertruida Zelle Macleod "Mata Hari" executed by firing squad       ^top^
      Mata Hari, the archetype of the seductive female spy, is executed for espionage by a French firing squad at the Vincennes barracks outside of Paris. Mata Hari first came to Paris in 1905, and found fame as a performer of exotic Indian-inspired dances in the Parisian salons. Mata Hari soon began touring all over Europe, telling the story of how she was born in a sacred Indian temple and taught ancient Indian dances by a priestess who gave her the name Mata Hari, meaning "eye of the dawn.”
      In reality, Mata Hari was born in a small town in northern Holland, and her real name was Margaretha Geertruida Zelle Macleod. However, regardless of the authenticity of her eastern origins, Mata Hari packed dance halls from Russia to America, largely due to her willingness to dance almost entirely naked in public. Mata Hari was also a famous courtesan in European society, and with the outbreak of World War I her catalogue of lovers began to include high-ranking French officers.
     . In February 1917, French authorities arrested Mata Hari for espionage and imprisoned her at St. Lazare Prison in Paris. In a military trial conducted in July, she was accused of revealing details of the Allies' new weapon, the tank, resulting in the deaths of thousands of soldiers. She was convicted and sentenced to death, and on October 15 she refused a blindfold and was shot to death by a firing squad at Vincennes.
      There is some evidence that Mata Hari acted as a German spy, and for a time as a double agent for the French, but the Germans had written her off as an ineffective agent whose pillow talk had produced little intelligence of value. Her military trial was riddled with bias and circumstantial evidence, and it is probable that French authorities trumped her up as "the greatest woman spy of the century" as a distraction for the huge losses the French army was suffering on the western front. Her only real crimes may have been an elaborate stage fallacy and a weakness for men in uniform.
Elle inspira écrivains et cinéastes pour devenir l’espionne la plus célèbre du centenaire. Mata Hari, de son vrai nom Margaretha Geertruida Zelle, est une séduisante Hollandaise initiée aux danses orientales en Indonésie aux côtés de son mari, officier de la coloniale néerlandaise, et qui a défrayé la chronique entre 1914 et 1917 en espionnant les puissances de l’Entente au profit de l’Allemagne. Dans sa villa du bois de Boulogne, dans la région parisienne, elle charme les officiers français et anglais, obtient habilement des secrets militaires de leur part et, durant trois années, les transmettait en Allemagne. Elle n’est démasquée qu’en 1917 quand les services secrets français la surprennent à Lisbonne avec un officier allemand. Traduite devant un tribunal militaire à Paris, elle est convaincue d’espionnage et fusillée le 15 octobre 1917. Elle n’a pas cessé de clamer son innocence. La belle Greta Garbo l’immortalisa au cinéma où son histoire fut adaptée en 1932 dans un film du réalisateur Fietzmaurice, en campant magistralement son personnage.
1892 Four members of Dalton gang. An attempt to rob two banks in Coffeyville, Kan., ends in disaster for the Dalton gang as four of the five outlaws are killed and Emmet Dalton is seriously wounded.
1880 Victorio, great Chiricahua Apache warrior, and over 100 of his braves.       ^top^
      The warrior Victorio, one of the greatest Apache military strategists of all time, dies in the Tres Castillos Mountains south of El Paso, Texas. Born in New Mexico around 1809, Victorio grew up during a period of intense hostility between the native Minbreño Apache Indians of the southwest and encroaching Mexican and American settlers. Determined to resist the loss of his homeland, Victorio began leading his small band of warriors on a long series of devastating raids against Mexican and American settlers and their communities in the 1850s. After more than a decade of evading the best efforts of the Mexican and American armies to capture him, the US Army managed to convince Victorio to accept resettlement of his people on an inhospitable patch of sunburnt land near San Carlos, Arizona, in 1869.
      But with summer temperatures reaching above 40ºC on the San Carlos reservation (an area also known as Hell's Forty Acres) and farming nearly impossible, Victorio decided the new reservation was unacceptable and moved his followers to more pleasant grounds at Ojo Caliente (Warm Springs), thus again becoming an outlaw in the eyes of the United States. In 1878, the US Army attempted to force the Apaches back to the San Carlos reservation, but Victorio eluded capture, disappearing into the desert with 150 braves. Surviving by raiding the towns and farms of Chihuahua, Mexico, Victorio and his men began to take bloody revenge against their enemies, ambushing US troops with devastating effect and killing any Mexican or American sheepherder unfortunate enough to cross their path.
      In 1880, a combined force of US and Mexican troops finally succeeded in tracking down the wily Apache and his warriors, surrounding them in the Tres Castillos Mountains of Mexico, just south of El Paso, Texas. Having sent the American troops away, the Mexican soldiers proceeded to kill all but 17 of the trapped Apaches, though the exact manner of Victorio's death remains unclear. Some claimed an Indian scout employed by the Mexican army killed the famous warrior. But according to the Apache, Victorio took his own life rather than surrender to the hated Mexicans. Regardless of how it happened, Victorio's death made him a martyr to the Apache people and strengthened the resolve of other warriors to continue the fight. The last of the great Apache warriors, Geronimo, would not surrender until 1886.
1875 Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Theodor Hosemann, German genre painter and lithographer born on 24 September 1807. — more with links to two images.
1863 Horace Lawson Hunley and 7 of crew of his sub, which sinks during tests.         ^top^
     For the second time, , the first successful submarine, the Confederate submarine H L Hunley sinks during a practice dive in Charleston Harbor, this time drowning its inventor along with seven crew members
      Horace Lawson Hunley developed the submarine from a cylinder boiler. It was operated by a crew of eight--one person steered while the other seven turned a crank that drove the ship's propeller. The Hunley could dive, but it required calm seas for safe operations. It was tested successfully in Alabama's Mobile Bay in the summer of 1863, and Confederate commander General Pierre G.T. Beauregard recognized that the vessel might be useful to ram Union ships and break the blockade of Charleston Harbor. The Hunley was placed on a railcar and shipped to South Carolina. The submarine experienced problems upon its arrival. During a test run, a crewmember became tangled in part of the craft's machinery and the craft dove with its hatch open; only two men survived the accident. The ship was raised and repaired, but it was difficult to find another crew that was willing to assume the risk of operating the submarine. Its inventor and namesake stepped forward to restore confidence in his creation. On October 15, he took the submarine into Charleston Harbor for another test. In front of a crowd of spectators, the Hunley slipped below the surface and did not reappear. Horace Hunley and his entire crew perished. Surprisingly, another willing crew was assembled and the Hunley went back into the water. On February 17, 1864, the ship headed out of Charleston Harbor and approached the USS. Housatanic. The Hunley stuck a torpedo into the Yankee ship and then backed away before the explosion. The Housatanic sank in shallow water, and the Hunley became the first submarine to sink a ship in battle. Unfortunately, its first successful mission was also its last--the Hunley sank before it returned to Charleston, taking yet another crew down with it. The vessel was raised on August 8, 2000, and will now reside in an exhibit at the Charleston History Museum.
1841 Diego de León, general fusilado en Madrid por su frustrado asalto al Palacio Real.
1829 Georges Dawe, English portrait painter and writer born on 08 February 1781. — MORE ON DAWE AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1813 Tecumseh. During the land defeat of the British on the Thames River in Canada, the Indian chief Tecumseh, now a brigadier general with the British Army (War of 1812).
1811 Sir Nathaniel Dance~Holland, English painter and politician, born on 18 May 1735 (1734?). — MORE ON DANCE~HOLLAND AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1719 Jan Mortel, Dutch artist born in 1650. —
1690 Adam Frans van der Meulen, Flemish painter, draftsman, and tapestry designer, active also in France, baptized as an infant on 11 January 1632. — MORE ON VAN DER MEULEN AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1690 Juan de Valdés Leal (Juan de Nisa), Spanish painter and engraver born on 04 May 1622. — MORE ON VALDÉS AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1676 Simon de Vos, Flemish artist born on 28 October 1603. — more with links to two images.
1655 Jews of Lublin, massacred.
1648 Simone Cantarini da Pesaro, Italian painter and engraver baptized as an infant on 21 August 1612 (born in April 1612?).— more with links to images.
1609 Joseph Heintz (or Heinz) Jr., Swiss painter born on 15 June 1564. — MORE ON HEINTZ AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1564 Andreas Vesalius, 49, anatomist
1389 Urbano VI, Papa.
Births which occurred on an October 15:
1997 Sidewalk, online entertainment guide       ^top^
      Microsoft Sidewalk, a series of local online entertainment guides, showcasing food, theater, fashion, and music, debuts in Denver and Houston on this day in 1997. Seattle, the first Sidewalk site, launched in April and New York Sidewalk followed soon thereafter. By 1998, Microsoft had implemented its Sidewalk effort in nine cities. However, in late 1998, the company redesigned the struggling Sidewalk to focus on Internet shopping, and the service became more like an Internet yellow-pages directory than a local entertainment guide.
1992 La XXI edición del Diccionario de la Real Academia Española de la Lengua, que incorpora cinco mil nuevas voces, es presentada en Madrid.
1966 The US Department of Transportation is created by a bill which President Lyndon B. Johnson signs.
1951 “I Love Lucy” premieres on CBS-TV.
1939 New York Municipal Airport is dedicated. Its name would be later changed to La Guardia Airport.
1938 Vidas Secas de Graciliano Ramos se publica.
1937 To Have and Have Not, novel by Ernest Hemingway, is published
1930 La rosa de los vientos de Juana de Ibarbourou se publica.
1927 Günter Grass escritor alemán.
1926 Agustín García Calvo, filósofo y filólogo español
1926 Michel Foucault, pensador francés.
1926 Evan Hunter [Ed McBain], US writer (Blackboard Jungle)
1924 Lido "Lee" A. Iacocca, mechanical engineer, automobile executive: CEO of Chrysler Corporation, then president of Ford Motor Company.
1923 Italo Calvino, Italian novelist.
1920 Mario Puzo, in "Hell's Kitchen" on Manhattan's (NY) West Side       ^top^
      Following military service in World War II, he attended New York's New School for Social Research and Columbia University. His best-known novel, The Godfather, was preceded by two critically acclaimed novels, The Dark Arena and The Fortunate Pilgrim. In 1978, he published Fools Die, followed by The Sicilian (1984) and The Fourth K (1991). He also wrote: , The Cotton Club, and Christopher Columbus: The Discovery
      Mario Puzo has also written several screenplays, including Earthquake, Superman, and all three Godfather movies, for which he received two Academy Awards. Mario's latest novel, 1996's The Last Don, was made into a CBS television miniseries in May 1997, starring Danny Aiello, Kirsty Ally and Joe Montegna. In 1997, Part II was aired.
      Mario died July 2, 1999, at his home in Bay Shore, Long Island. His last novel, Omerta, was released a year later. He was survived by his companion of 20 years Carol Gino and five children.
1917 Arthur Schlesinger Jr historian/author (1946 Pulitzer--Age of Jackson)
1915 Isaac Shamir, político israelí.
1914 Labor's "Charter of Freedom". The US House of Representatives approves "labor's charter of freedom"--the Clayton Anti-Trust Act, which sanctioned unions, removing them from the jurisdiction of anti-trust laws. No longer viewed as barriers to trade, unions are free to strike, boycott, and picket about their complaints with management.
1910 Torbjorn Oskar Caspersson, Swedish cytologist and geneticist.
1909 Bernhard Neumann, mathematician
1908 John Kenneth Galbraith, a strong proponent of Keynesian economics. In The Affluent Society, Galbraith laid out his economic philosophy, including the belief that increased production and a large GNP would provide the cure for various social ills. During his career, Galbraith also served in John Kennedy's administration, doling out fiscal wisdom, as well as serving as ambassador to India. He received the 1958 Hillman Award.
1907 John Cardinal Dearden US cardinal (1969-88)
1907 La patria chica, de los hermanos Serafín y Joaquín Álvarez Quintero, se estrena en el teatro de la Zarzuela.
1905 Charles Percy Snow England, novelist/scientist (Death Under Sail)
1901 Enrique Jardiel Poncela, escritor humorista español.
1896 Celestin Freinet, pedagogo francés.
1890 Jakob Nielsen, mathematician.
1888 S. S. VanDine, US critic, editor, and author of popular detective novels, who died on 11 April 1939.
1881 Pelham Grenville Wodehouse, comic novelist, creator of Jeeves the butler, in Surrey, England.       ^top^
      P. G. Wodehouse attended Dulwich College in London, then went to work as a humor columnist for the London Globe. He also worked as a freelance writer. After 1909, he spent extended periods of time in the United States and in France. He wrote numerous stories, and in 1915 published Extricating Young Gussie, the first story featuring kindhearted but dim Bertie Wooster and his "gentleman's gentleman," Jeeves.
      In numerous stories and novels, Jeeves condescends to extract Bertie from countless mishaps. The first collection of Jeeves stories, My Man Jeeves, was published in 1919, followed by The Inimitable Jeeves (1923) and Very Good, Jeeves (1930). A novel, Thank You, Jeeves, came out in 1934, followed by another, The Code of the Woosters (1938).
      In 1940, Wodehouse was living in France when the Germans invaded. He was arrested and spent most of the war imprisoned in Berlin. In 1941, he made five radio broadcasts to the United States, comically describing his dilemma as a prisoner. Because he used enemy radio equipment for his broadcasts, Wodehouse was unwelcome in Britain after the war. He moved to the United States, where he worked on plays and musicals with various musicians including George Gershwin. He also worked on screenplays. Wodehouse was knighted in 1975 and died on 14 February 1975. All told, he wrote more than 300 stories, 90 books, 30 plays or musicals, and 20 film scripts.
WODEHOUSE ONLINE: A Damsel in Distress , Piccadilly Jim, Psmith, Journalist, Something New
1877 Ricardo León y Román, novelista español.
1878 Edison Electric Company       ^top^
     It is funded in part by wealthy investors like J.P. Morgan, who thought Edison, the inventor of the telegraph, was a wise investment. Though electric light had eluded inventors for over fifty years, Thomas A. Edison had vowed that he would create the first incandescent lamp. He quickly made good on his promise. His company was soon flush with profits, and competitors hoping to cash in on the burgeoning market were springing up everywhere. Under the tutelage of Morgan, Edison adopted the aggressive tactics of vertical integration, buying his rivals and transforming his company into a model modern enterprise. Without anti-trust laws to put the breaks on the feeding frenzy, Edison's shop, re-christened the General Electric Company, dominated the field with just one major competitor, the Westinghouse Company.
1869 Francisco Largo Caballero, dirigente socialista español.
1855 Emilio Sánchez Perrier, Spanish artist who died on 13 September 1907. —
1846 Poretsky, mathematician
1844 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche, in Prussia, philosopher/anti-semite (übermensch). He died on 25 August 1900. — NIETZSCHE ONLINE: (in English translation): The Antichrist, On the Use and Abuse of History for Life, Thus Spake Zarathustra, Thus Spake Zarathustra.
1836 Jacques Joseph “James” Tissot, French painter, printmaker, and enamellist, who died on 09 August 1902. — MORE ON TISSOT AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1837 Königsberger, mathematician
1830 Helen Maria (Fiske) Hunt Jackson, poet. — HUNT JACKSON ONLINE: Between Whiles, A Calendar of Sonnets, Glimpses of California and the Missions, Ramona, Ramona; Sonnets and Lyrics, Verses (1888)
1829 Asaph Hall discovered satellites of Mars, Phobos and Deimos
1827 Ludwig Friedrich Wilhelm Riefstahl, German artist who died in the night of 11 to 12 October 1888.
1802 Widmer Johann Michael Wittmer, German artist who died on 09 May 1880.
1797 Finck, mathematician
1795 Federico Guillermo IV, Rey de Prusia.
1686 Allan Ramsay, Scottish poet who died on 07 January 1758. — RAMSAY ONLINE: (in English translation): The Gentle Shepherd: A Scotch Pastoral
1785 José Miguel Carrera president of Chile (1811-14)
1785 Giovanni Migliara, Italian artist who died on 18 April 1837.
1775 Alberto Rodríguez de Lista y Aragón, escritor y poeta español.
1776 Barlow, mathematician
1745 Jean-Baptiste Huet, French Rococo animal painter and engraver, who died on 27 August (January?) 1811. — more with links to images.
1735 Ramsden, mathematician
1678 Willem Grasdorp, Dutch artist who died on 28 May 1723.
1674 Robert Herrick Mass, British poet (Together). HERRICK ONLINE: Chrysomela: A Selection from the Lyrical Poems of Robert Herrick, The Common Lot, The Master of the Inn, The Memoirs of an American Citizen
1608 Evangelista Torricelli, Italian mathematician and physicist who died on 25 October 1647.
1542 Akbar Indian Mughal emperor (1556-1605)
--70 -BC- Virgil (Publius Vergilius Maro), in Mantua, Italy, poet, author. who would die on 21 September 19 BC. — VIRGIL ONLINE: (in Latin): The Aeneid, The Eclogues, The Georgics — (in English translation): The Aeneid, The Aeneid, The Aeneid, The Eclogues, The Georgics — Dante would make Virgil his companion into the afterworld in La Divina Commedia. — Virgil in paintings: by Ingres: Virgil Reading Aeneid to Augustus, Octavia, and Livia (1815) _ by Signorelli Virgil (1500) & Dante and Virgil Entering Purgatory, (1500) _ by Bouguereau Dante and Virgil in Hell _ by Blake Dante and Virgil at the Gates of Hell & Dante and Virgil Approaching the Angel Who Guards the Entrance of Purgatory (1825) & The Devils, with Dante and Virgil by the Side of the Pool (1825) & Virgil Girding Dante's Brow with a Rush (1825) _ by Simone Martini title page of Petrarch's Virgil (illuminated manuscript, 1336).
Holidays French Guiana : Cayenne Holiday / Tunisia : Evacuation Day

Religious Observances RC : St Teresa of Avila, 1st woman doctor of the church / Ang : Samuel Isaac Joseph Schereschewsky, bishop of Shanghai / Santas Teresa de Jesús y Tecla. / Sainte Thérèse d'Avila: Coquette jeune fille de la noblesse castillane, Thérèse entre chez les carmélites d'Avila en 1535, à 20 ans. Suite à plusieurs extases, elle fonde un nouveau couvent à la règle plus stricte: les carmélites «déchaussées». Elle mourra à Rome dans la nuit du 4 au... 15 octobre 1582. Ses écrits mystiques illustrent la Contre-Réforme catholique, quand le pape et les Jésuites entreprennent la reconquête de l'opinion séduite par le protestantisme. Ils lui valent d'être proclamée en 1970 docteur de l'Eglise.

UNÇÃO — erro de concordância muito frequente (o correto seria UM É)
Thought for the day :"He walks as if balancing the family tree on his nose.”   [big, strong nose?] [Who's he? Cyrano, no? — Cyrano's nose knows.]
“He doesn't have a family tree. He has a family weed.” [it's easier on the nose, unless you're allergic.]
“My dog thinks of your family tree as a substitute for a fire hydrant.”
“Time heals all wounds.”
“Wine seals all tombs.”
“Heels time all wounds.”
“Time wounds all heels.”
“Everyone knows that everyone's nose is wounded by balancing a tree on it.”
“Don't balance the family tree on your nose. Balance the family budget on your income.”
“We used to do things for posterity, now we do things for ourselves and leave the bill to posterity.”
“If you can't balance the family budget, leave the bill to posterity.”
“What has posterity done for us, that we should do anything for it?”
“Posterity did not leave the bill to us.”
“If you can't balance the family tree on your nose, try it on your posterior.”
updated Friday 17-Oct-2003 0:08 UT
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