| On an October 15:
2002 Ivory Coast government troops retake Daloa from the nerthern rebels who had captured the city of 160'000 two days earlier.
2002 Referendum in Iraq: YES for beloved Saddam Hussein to have another 7 years of dictatorship, or NO for the benighted voter to suffer the fate of the 0.04% who voted no on 15 October 1995 in the last such referendum. With those renegades out of the way, this time 99.9999917% of the 12 million voters enthusiastically choose yes, according to preliminary reports. The final official results would be announced on 16 October: there were 11'445'938 eligible voters, of which 11'445'938 cast their ballot, and there were 11'445'938 Yes votes, 0 abstention, and 0 No votes. What is not announced is that there was a 11'445'639th ballot, but it was invalidated because the voter died a few minutes after casting it, together with all the poll workers at that particular station. Not announced either is that 62 citizens did not vote, thus demonstrating that they were mentally ill and therefore not eligible voters; nor was it announced that the survivors among them were admitted for long-term treatment in psychiatric hospitals. Reporters covering the event ought to admit that freedom of speech is greater in Iraq than in the US. It is true that, in the US, without getting shot, you can stand in front of the President's mansion and yell that George Dubya Bush is a fool and a criminal for wanting to invade Iraq, but you run the risk of being hustled along by guards, or even arrested for disordely conduct. In contrast, in Baghdad or anywhere else in Iraq where Saddam Hussein has one of his multitudinous weapon caches.... er .... presidential palaces, you can yell exactly the same and be praised for it.
2002 Human world chess champion Vladimir Kramnik, with White, loses to computer program Deep Fritz, with Black, in the 6th of the 8 games in their match of 04, 06, 08, 10, 13, 15, 17, and 19 October 2002, evening the score 3 to 3.
1. d4 Nf6 / 2. c4 e6 / 2. Nf3 b6 / 4. g3 Ba6 / 5. b3 Bb4+ / 6. Bd2 Be7 / 7. Bg2 c6 / 8. Bc3 d5 / 9. Ne5 Nfd7 / 10. Nxd7 Nxd7 / 11. Nd2 0-0 / 12. 0-0 Rc8 / 13. a4 Bf6 / 14. e4 c5 / 15. exd5 cxd4 / 16. Bb4 Re8 / 17. Ne4 exd5 / 18. Nd6 dxc4 / [the position here >] / 19. Nxf7 Kxf7 / 20. Bd5+ Kg6 / 21. Qg4+ Bg5 / 22. Be4+ Rxe4 / 23. Qxe4+ Kh6 / 24. h4 Bf6 / 25. Bd2+ g5 / 26. hxg5+ Bxg5 / 27. Qh4+ Kg6 / 28. Qe4+ Kg7 / 29. Bxg5 Qxg5 / 30. Rfe1 cxb3 / 31. Qxd4+ Nf6 / 32. a5 Qd5 / 33. Qxd5 Nxd5 / 34. axb6 axb6 / White (Kramnik) resigns
/ A probable continuation: 35. Rxa6 b2 / 36. Ra7+ Kg6 / 37. Rd7 Rc1 / 38. Rd6+ Nf6 / 39. Rdd1 b1Q-+
UK imposes its rule on Northern Ireland.
At midnight (14 Oct 23:00 UT) Great Britain imposes direct rule, replacing Northern Ireland's Protestant-Catholic power-sharing administration and 108-member legislature, because Protestants have been doing what they do best: protest, and the IRA has been doing what it does best: arouse their ire.
After the decision was announced on 14 October, the prime ministers of Britain and Ireland, Tony Blair and Bertie Ahern, jointly said that they were "deeply saddened", but that British rule would prevent complete collapse of the coalition resulting from the Good Friday peace pact of 1998. They said that restoring Ulster Unionist-Sinn Fein relations would require a clear-cut end to IRA activity
There is rising Protestant hostility to sharing power with Sinn Fein, the Irish Republican Army-linked party that has grown increasingly popular among Catholics, thanks to the peace process.
[photo: Sinn Fein President Gerry Adams, 13 Oct 2002 >]
The major Protestant party, the Ulster Unionists, had threatened to withdraw from power-sharing because of alleged IRA spying. First Minister David Trimble, leader of the Ulster Unionists and the local administration, had set 15 October as a deadline for Britain to to expel Sinn Fein. As the UK takes power away from all four parties in the coalition, Trimble said that he accepted this "a poor second best," and offered to resume cooperation with Sinn Fein if the IRA disbanded.
Four persons, including Sinn Fein's top legislative aide, are in jail awaiting trial for espionage-related charges following 04 October police raids. The prisoners are accused of stealing from Reid's office documents that include details of potential IRA targets and records of talks between Britain and other key parties.
It is hoped that Great Britain may be able to return power to the Northern Ireland government before elections to Northern Ireland's legislature in May.
John Reid, a Scotsman appointed by Prime Minister Tony Blair in 2000, will oversee Northern Ireland's 12 government departments with help from four lawmakers from London. Reid said that he planned to consult regularly the powerless administration's top two men Trimble and the Catholic deputy leader, Social Democratic and Labor Party chief Mark Durkan.
This suspension of powers was the fourth ordered by Britain since Trimble's coalition took office in December 1999, following a US-brokered compromise. Under that plan, Sinn Fein received two administration posts on condition that the IRA began to disarm. Great Britain resumed sole control in February 2000, after disarmament officials confirmed that the IRA had yet to get rid of any weapons. Three months later, Britain switched power back to local hands after the IRA pledged to put its stockpiled weaponry "beyond use." When no disarmament followed, however, Trimble resigned as government leader in July 2001, and vowed not to return until the IRA moved. Britain used two short suspensions of power to extend the deadline for Trimble's re-election until the IRA secretly scrapped a few arms dumps in October 2001. But the belated IRA move did little to ease opposition to Trimble in the legislature, where Protestant hard-liners came within a few votes of blocking his return to power.
Protestant hostility to Sinn Fein has swelled un 2002, with police allegations against The IRA is largely observing a 1997 cease-fire but remains active in the most hard-line Catholic areas. The police alleges, and the IRA denies, that the outlawed IRA stole police documents detailing its informer network; keeps gathering intelligence and training for a potential end to its cease-fire; kills drug dealers, and wounds criminal rivals in its Catholic power bases; and directs mob attacks on police. The Protestants must feel that siding with drug dealers and criminals will gain them popular support.
| 2001 The marking on a package received from the US by
a retiree in Chemnitz, Germany, causes him to call the police, who call
experts in chemical and biological hazards. As they examine the package
cautiously, it dawns on them that the offending word is not the German word
meaning poison: GIFT, but is in English.
2000 Maruja Torres Manzanera recibe el premio Planeta de novela por su obra Mientras vivimos.
1999 Chechnya says that it shot down a third Russian warplane (CNN)
1999 The US Department of State submits its Initial Report of the USA to the UN Committee Against Torture. In October 1994 the US ratified the Convention Against Torture, and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. On November 20, 1994 the Convention entered into force for the US. The present report covers the situation in the US through September 1999.
1998 Carmen Posadas Mañe gana el premio Planeta por su novela Pequeñas infamias.
| 1997 Juan Manuel de Prada gana la XLVI edición del premio
Planeta de novela con la obra La tempestad.
1996 CSX Corp. announced plans to buy Conrail Inc. for $8.4 billion dollars to create the US's third-largest railroad.
1995 El periodista y escritor Fernando González Delgado gana el premio Planeta, dotado con 50 millones de pesetas, con su obra La mirada de otro.
1994 Camilo José Cela gana el premio Planeta con su novela La Cruz de San Andrés.
1993 The Norwegian Nobel Committee has decided to award the Nobel Peace Prize for 1993 to Nelson R. Mandela and Frederik Willem de Klerk for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa. Los dirigentes sudafricanos Frederik Willem de Klerk y Nelson Rolihalahla Dalibhunga Mandela obtienen el premio Nobel de La Paz. MORE
| 1986 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided
to award the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physics by one half to Professor. Ernst
Ruska, Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin, Federal
Republic of Germany, for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for
the design of the first electron microscope and the other half, jointly
to Dr Gerd
Binnig and Dr Heinrich
Rohrer, IBM Research Laboratory, Zurich, Switzerland, for their design
of the scanning tunnelling microscope.
1986 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the 1986 Nobel Prize in chemistry jointly to Professor Dudley R. Herschbach, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA, Professor Yuan T. Lee, University of California, Berkeley, USA and Professor John C. Polanyi, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes.. MORE
1985 Los estadounidenses Jerome Kasrle y Herbert Aaron Hauptman, logran el premio Nobel de Química. MORE
1985 El estadounidense Franco Modigliani gana el premio Nobel de Economía por sus estudios sobre el ahorro doméstico y el funcionamiento de los mercados financieros.
1985 José Antonio Vallejo Nágera obtiene el premio Planeta con la novela Yo, el rey.
1984 The Nobel Assembly of Karolinska Institutet has today decided to award the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 1984 jointly to Niels K. Jerne, Georges J.F. Köhler and César Milstein for theories concerning "the specificity in development and control of the immune system" and the discovery of "the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies". MORE
1984 Por primera vez en los cinco años de guerra civil, tiene lugar en El Salvador una reunión entre el Gobierno y los rebeldes.
1984 Francisco González Ledesma obtiene el premio Planeta por su novela Crónica sentimental en rojo.
1982 Jesús Fernández Santos obtiene el premio Planeta, con su novela Jaque a la dama.
1981 The Nobel Prize in Literature 1981 is announced to go to Elias Canetti (1905~1994), Bulgarian-born, of the UK "for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power" MORE
1981 Cristóbal Zaragoza gana el premio Planeta, con su novela Y Dios en la última playa.
1979 Manuel Vázquez Montalbán obtiene el premio Planeta de Novela con su obra Los mares del sur.
1977 Jorge Semprún Maura, premio Planeta con su novela Autobiografía de Federico Sánchez.
1976 1st debate of major-ticket VP nominees Mondale (D) vs Dole (R)
1975 Mercedes Salisachs Roviralta gana el premio Planeta, con La gangrena.
1974 National Guard mobilizes to restore order in Boston school busing
1974 Xavier Benguerel obtiene el premio Planeta por su novela Icaria, Icaria.
1973 Carlos Rojas Vila obtiene el premio Planeta por su novela Azaña.
1973 Thanom Kittikachorn es derrocado como consecuencia de los disturbios que sacuden el país (Tailandia?).
1972 Jesús Aguirre Ortiz de Zarate obtiene el premio Planeta por su novela La cárcel.
1971 El escritor José María Gironella obtiene el premio Planeta por su obra Condenados a vivir.
1970 El escritor argentino Marcos Aguinis Krutiansky obtiene el premio Planeta, con su novela La cruz invertida.
1969 Ramón J. Sender gana el premio Planeta, con la novela En la vida de Ignacio Morel.
1964 Kosygin and Leonid Brezhnev take the place of Soviet premier Nikita Krushchev.
1963 Luis Romero obtiene el premio Planeta, por la obra El cacique.
1962 Cuban Missile Crisis:: After analyzing the pictures from the previous day's overflight of construction sites in Cuba by a spy plane, the US National Photographic Interpretation Center finds what at first seems like more of the surface-to-air missile sites that they already know are there. But closer inspection reveals six much larger missiles each 18 to 20 meters long: SS-4 nuclear missiles!
1962 Ahmed Ben Bella y Fidel Castro Ruz piden a EE.UU. la inmediata evacuación de la base militar de Guantánamo
1962 Concha Alós Domingo, maestra nacional, obtiene el premio Planeta de novela, por El sol y las bestias.
1962 Byron R White appointed to the US Supreme Court
1961 Torcuato Luca de Tena obtiene el premio Planeta, con su novela La mujer de otro.
1960 Tomás Salvador Espeso obtiene el premio Planeta, por su novela El atentado.
1959 El investigador español Severo Ochoa y el bioquímico estadounidense Arthur Kurnberg ganan el premio Nobel de Medicina.
| 1959 La noche de Andrés Bosch Vilalta, obtiene
el premio Planeta.
1958 Se concede el premio Planeta de novela a Pasos sin huella, de Fernando Bermúdez de Castro.
1957 Emilio Romero Gómez obtiene el premio Planeta, por su novela La paz empieza nunca.
1956 Carmen Kurz obtiene el premio Planeta por la novela El desconocido.
1950 La lista unitaria del Frente Nacional gana en la elecciones generales en la República Democrática Alemana, que consigue una participación del 98,5%.
1950 First radio paging service. Subscribers were provided with a six-ounce pocket radio receiver. The first radio page was sent to a doctor on a golf course 40 km outside of New York City.
1950 President Harry Truman meets with General Douglas MacArthur at Wake Island to discuss UN progress in the Korean War.
1949 Tropas comunistas entran en Cantón en una de las maniobras de la Guerra Civil China.
1949 Administration of territory of Manipur taken over by Indian govt
1949 Billy Graham begins his ministry
1942 La URSS exige inmediato proceso judicial contra representantes nacionalsocialistas, especialmente contra Walter Rudolf Hess [1894-1987] prisionero en Inglaterra.
1941 Odessa, a Russian port on the Black Sea which has been surrounded by German troops for several weeks, is evacuated by Russian troops.
1941 Jews caught outside the Polish Ghetto walls face the death penalty. (soon those inside too).
1937 Inglaterra cierra la frontera entre Siria y Palestina a causa de los constantes desórdenes árabes.
1924 German ZR-3 flies 8000 km, the furthest Zeppelin flight to date.
1915 US banks arrange a $5 million loan to help the British and French governments engaged in WWI.
1915 El alto mando alemán ordena que se vacune contra el tétanos a todos los soldados heridos. .
1914 Congress passes the Clayton Anti-Trust Act, which labor leader Samuel Gompers calls "labor's charter of freedom. The act exempts unions from anti-trust laws; strikes, picketing and boycotting become legal; corporate interlocking
1907 La ciudad estaduounidense de Fontanet queda prácticamente destruida por la explosión de una fábrica de pólvora. directorates become illegal, as does setting prices which would create a monopoly.
1894 French Army Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a Jew, is arrested, falsely accused of betraying military secrets to Germany. El capitán judío francés Alfred Dreyfus es acusado de alta traición en el conocido como affaire Dreyfus.
1877 45th US Congress (1877-79) convenes
1860 Grace Bedell [04 November 1848 02 November 1936], of Westfield NY, writes a letter of support to presidential candidate Abraham Lincoln, including: if you let your whiskers grow ... you would look a great deal better for your face is so thin. Lincoln would answer on 19 October 1860, ending with: As to the whiskers, having never worn any, do you not think people would call it a piece of silly affection if I were to begin it now?. However, when Lincoln's train to Washington stopped in Westfiers on 16 February 1861 and he kissed Grace Bedell, he had his now-well-known beard.
1846 Dr. William Thomas Green Morton makes first public use of ether anesthesia.
1862 Skirmish at Neely's Bend on the Cumberland River in Tennessee
1821 Las Cortes españolas deciden crear la provincia de Logroño.
1783 Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier makes the first manned flight in a hot air balloon. The first flight reaches 25 m, but over the next few days the altitude would increased up to 2000 m. He made the balloon flight generally considered as first on 21 November 1783.
1722 Juan de Acuña y Bejarano sustituye como virrey de Nueva España a Baltasar de Zúñiga.
1641 Paul de Chomedy de Maisonneuve claims Montreal
1529 Ottoman armies under Suleiman end their siege of Vienna and head back to Belgrade.
which occurred on an October 15: |
2003 Joseph Bagarozza, 35; Pio Canini, 52; Vincent Ferrante, 26; Louis Robinson, 50; John Valinski, 40; all 5 from Staten Island -- John P. Healy, 44; Frank Sullivan, 46; both from Middletown NJ --Darios M. Marshall, 25, from Manhattan; --Guillermo Pagvay, 44, from Queens; and a 42-year-old woman; when 95-meter-long, 3335-ton, 22-year-old Manhattan to Staten Island ferry Andrew J. Barberi, carrying some 1500 passengers (its capacity is 6000), crashes its forward port side into pilings at its Staten Island terminal at 15:21 (19:21 UT). Some 45 persons are injured. The pilot, Assistant Capt. Richard J. Smith, 55, whose loss of consciousness caused the accident, flees 5 km to his home, slashes his wrists and shoots himself twice in the chest with a pellet gun; he survives.
2003 John Branchizio, 36; Mark T. Parson, 31; and John Martin Linde Jr., 30; US security guards in armored van torn in half and overtuned by a remote-controlled roadside bomb at 10:15 (07:15 UT) near Beit Hanoun, in the Gaza Strip, a couple of kilometers south of the Erez border checkpoint. One US security guard is wounded. The vehicle was the third in a convoy of four vehicles escorting US diplomats on their way to Gaza City to interview applicants for Fulbright scholarships. The security guards were employees of DynCorp, a Virginia-based security firm contracted by the US embassy in Israel. — [the van being examined >]. — A few hours later US investigators have to retreat when pelted by stones by a dozen youths in a crowd of some 200 Palestinians chanting “Allahu akbar”.
2003 A militant of the Popular Front from the Liberation of Palestine, shot by Israeli soldiers at roadblock at Enbata near Tul Karm, West Bank, when he tries to escape.
2003 The driver of concrete-mixer, after it overturns near West Bank enclave settlement Shavei Shomron.
2003 George Matar, 57, Christian Arab Israeli, injured in the 04 October 2003 suicide bombing of Maxim's Restaurant (of one of whose owners he was a relative), becomes the 21st killed by it.
2003 Moktar Ould Daddah, born in 1924, ruler of Mauritania from its 28 November 1960 independence (from France) to his 1978 overthrow by a military junta which jailed him for 15 months after which he went into exile in Tunisia and France.
2003 Benny Levy, of a heart attack, French Jewish philosopher and author. He was born in Cairo on 28 August 1945, was prominent Marxist-Leninist rebel student “Pierre Victor” in 1968, but later turned to Jewish piety and moved to Israel.
2002 Carla Bergamin, 40, her widowed mother Teresa Bergamin, brother Sergio Bergamin and his wife Margherita Bergamin, retired neighbors Decio Renato Guerra and wife Laura Guerra, one other man, and Mauro Antonello, 40, Carla's ex-husband (they separated in 2000), a night watchman, who at 08:45, with some 40 shots from four legal guns from his collection, kills the seven and then himself, in via Parini 5 and 3 [photo >], Chieri, 20 km south-east of Turin, Italy. Carla's and Mauro's daughter, 7, has left on the school bus a few minutes earlier to go to Borgo Venezia Elementary (the bus driver Antonio Lancellotti had instructions from Carla never to let Mauro take the girl off the bus). The neighborhood is known as Borgo Venezia, all the victims are of Venetian origin. La prima ad essere caduta è stata la ex moglie. Agli spari accorrono i coniugi Guerra che vengono a loro volta uccisi. Mauro Antonello salta poi la recinzione che separa il numero civico 5 dal numero 3 ed entra in un' officina laboratorio dei Bergamin, specializzata in lavorazioni tessili. Lì ammazza due donne, una è Margherita Bergamin, la moglie di Sergio, l'altra la persona di cui non si conoscono ancora le generalità. Poi, nel giardino fra le due case, incontra Sergio e Teresa Bergamin e li uccide. Infine sale in mansarda, si siede sul divano, si punta il revolver alla tempia e fa fuoco togliendosi la vita. Daniele e Andrea Bergamin, di 18 e 20 anni, figli di Sergio e Margherita, si sono salvati perchè sono usciti di casa pochi prima della strage: Daniele per andare a Castelnuovo Don Bosco (paese a pochi chilometri da Chieri), dove frequenta un istituto tecnico, Andrea per un corso di informatica.
2002 Condor, 5-months old, seen dead in a cave in the Sespe Condor Sanctuary, in the Los Padres National Forest, Calfornia. Its mother was found to have high levels of lead, which may have been passed on to the egg. It was among the first condor chicks hatched in the wild in nearly two decades; the first one was found dead on 04 October 2002. Captive breeding has incresed the number of California condors in the world from 22 (in 1982) to 205 (as of 01 September 2002), 73 of them in the wild in California and Arizona.
2001 Ahmed Marshoud, Hamas militant, by explosion in a car parked outside a Nablus office in view of an Israeli position on a nearby hilltop.
1999 David Saenz, 57, shot in the head by Ramon Cabrera, 48, because Saenz did not know the tune of El Guajolote which Cabrera had asked him to play, as Saenz was entertaining neighbors with his guitar and accordion in his yard, in Corpus Christi. On 9 March 2001, Cabrera would be sentenced to 99 years in prison, with possible parole after 30 years.
1990 Magnus, mathematician
1987 Thomas Sankara,. presidente de Burkina Faso, en un golpe de Estado dado por Blaise Compaoré.
1983 Five snipers at Beirut International Airport, shot by US Marine sharpshooters
1981 Rafael Dieste, escritor español.
1965 Fraenkel, mathematician
1964 Cole Porter composer
1959 Fejér, mathematician
1923 Angiolo (or Agniolo) Tommasi, Italian artist born in 1858.
1829 Georges Dawe, English portrait painter and writer born on 08 February 1781. MORE ON DAWE AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1813 Tecumseh. During the land defeat of the British on the Thames River in Canada, the Indian chief Tecumseh, now a brigadier general with the British Army (War of 1812).
1811 Sir Nathaniel Dance~Holland, English painter and politician, born on 18 May 1735 (1734?). MORE ON DANCE~HOLLAND AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1719 Jan Mortel, Dutch artist born in 1650.
1690 Adam Frans van der Meulen, Flemish painter, draftsman, and tapestry designer, active also in France, baptized as an infant on 11 January 1632. MORE ON VAN DER MEULEN AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1690 Juan de Valdés Leal (Juan de Nisa), Spanish painter and engraver born on 04 May 1622. MORE ON VALDÉS AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1676 Simon de Vos, Flemish artist born on 28 October 1603. — more with links to two images.
1655 Jews of Lublin, massacred.
1648 Simone Cantarini da Pesaro, Italian painter and engraver baptized as an infant on 21 August 1612 (born in April 1612?).— more with links to images.
1609 Joseph Heintz (or Heinz) Jr., Swiss painter born on 15 June 1564. MORE ON HEINTZ AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1564 Andreas Vesalius, 49, anatomist
1389 Urbano VI, Papa.
which occurred on an October 15:
1966 The US Department of Transportation is created by a bill which President Lyndon B. Johnson signs.
1951 I Love Lucy premieres on CBS-TV.
1939 New York Municipal Airport is dedicated. Its name would be later changed to La Guardia Airport.
1938 Vidas Secas de Graciliano Ramos se publica.
1937 To Have and Have Not, novel by Ernest Hemingway, is published
1930 La rosa de los vientos de Juana de Ibarbourou se publica.
1927 Günter Grass escritor alemán.
1926 Agustín García Calvo, filósofo y filólogo español
1926 Michel Foucault, pensador francés.
1926 Evan Hunter [Ed McBain], US writer (Blackboard Jungle)
1924 Lido "Lee" A. Iacocca, mechanical engineer, automobile executive: CEO of Chrysler Corporation, then president of Ford Motor Company.
1923 Italo Calvino, Italian novelist.
1915 Isaac Shamir, político israelí.
1914 Labor's "Charter of Freedom". The US House of Representatives approves "labor's charter of freedom"--the Clayton Anti-Trust Act, which sanctioned unions, removing them from the jurisdiction of anti-trust laws. No longer viewed as barriers to trade, unions are free to strike, boycott, and picket about their complaints with management.
1910 Torbjorn Oskar Caspersson, Swedish cytologist and geneticist.
1909 Bernhard Neumann, mathematician
1908 John Kenneth Galbraith, a strong proponent of Keynesian economics. In The Affluent Society, Galbraith laid out his economic philosophy, including the belief that increased production and a large GNP would provide the cure for various social ills. During his career, Galbraith also served in John Kennedy's administration, doling out fiscal wisdom, as well as serving as ambassador to India. He received the 1958 Hillman Award.
1907 John Cardinal Dearden US cardinal (1969-88)
1907 La patria chica, de los hermanos Serafín y Joaquín Álvarez Quintero, se estrena en el teatro de la Zarzuela.
1905 Charles Percy Snow England, novelist/scientist (Death Under Sail)
1901 Enrique Jardiel Poncela, escritor humorista español.
1896 Celestin Freinet, pedagogo francés.
1890 Jakob Nielsen, mathematician.
1888 S. S. VanDine, US critic, editor, and author of popular detective novels, who died on 11 April 1939.
1855 Emilio Sánchez Perrier, Spanish artist who died on 13 September 1907.
1846 Poretsky, mathematician
1844 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche, in Prussia, philosopher/anti-semite (übermensch). He died on 25 August 1900. NIETZSCHE ONLINE: (in English translation): The Antichrist, On the Use and Abuse of History for Life, Thus Spake Zarathustra, Thus Spake Zarathustra.
1836 Jacques Joseph “James” Tissot, French painter, printmaker, and enamellist, who died on 09 August 1902. MORE ON TISSOT AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1837 Königsberger, mathematician
1830 Helen Maria (Fiske) Hunt Jackson, poet. HUNT JACKSON ONLINE: Between Whiles, A Calendar of Sonnets, Glimpses of California and the Missions, Ramona, Ramona; Sonnets and Lyrics, Verses (1888)
1829 Asaph Hall discovered satellites of Mars, Phobos and Deimos
1827 Ludwig Friedrich Wilhelm Riefstahl, German artist who died in the night of 11 to 12 October 1888.
1802 Widmer Johann Michael Wittmer, German artist who died on 09 May 1880.
1797 Finck, mathematician
1795 Federico Guillermo IV, Rey de Prusia.
1686 Allan Ramsay, Scottish poet who died on 07 January 1758. RAMSAY ONLINE: (in English translation): The Gentle Shepherd: A Scotch Pastoral
1785 José Miguel Carrera president of Chile (1811-14)
1785 Giovanni Migliara, Italian artist who died on 18 April 1837.
1775 Alberto Rodríguez de Lista y Aragón, escritor y poeta español.
1776 Barlow, mathematician
1745 Jean-Baptiste Huet, French Rococo animal painter and engraver, who died on 27 August (January?) 1811. — more with links to images.
1735 Ramsden, mathematician
1678 Willem Grasdorp, Dutch artist who died on 28 May 1723.
1674 Robert Herrick Mass, British poet (Together). HERRICK ONLINE: Chrysomela: A Selection from the Lyrical Poems of Robert Herrick, The Common Lot, The Master of the Inn, The Memoirs of an American Citizen
1608 Evangelista Torricelli, Italian mathematician and physicist who died on 25 October 1647.
1542 Akbar Indian Mughal emperor (1556-1605)
--70 -BC- Virgil (Publius Vergilius Maro), in Mantua, Italy, poet, author. who would die on 21 September 19 BC. VIRGIL ONLINE: (in Latin): The Aeneid, The Eclogues, The Georgics (in English translation): The Aeneid, The Aeneid, The Aeneid, The Eclogues, The Georgics Dante would make Virgil his companion into the afterworld in La Divina Commedia. Virgil in paintings: by Ingres: Virgil Reading Aeneid to Augustus, Octavia, and Livia (1815) _ by Signorelli Virgil (1500) & Dante and Virgil Entering Purgatory, (1500) _ by Bouguereau Dante and Virgil in Hell _ by Blake Dante and Virgil at the Gates of Hell & Dante and Virgil Approaching the Angel Who Guards the Entrance of Purgatory (1825) & The Devils, with Dante and Virgil by the Side of the Pool (1825) & Virgil Girding Dante's Brow with a Rush (1825) _ by Simone Martini title page of Petrarch's Virgil (illuminated manuscript, 1336).