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Events, deaths, births, of 23 OCT
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On an October 23:
2002 The previous evening software-for-dentists company PracticeWorks (PRWK) reported 3rd quarter 2002 earnings of 12 cents per share, instead of the 78 cents per share it had in the 3rd quarter of 2001. It also foresees earnings of about 60 cents per share in 2003. PRWK is downgraded by Jefferies & Co. from Buy to Hold. On the NASDAQ (where it had started trading on 01 October 2002), the shares of PRWK drop from their previous close of 12.62 to an intraday low of $4.82 and close at $5.75. they had traded as high as $17.78 as recently as 30 September 2002, and $19.24 on 24 June 2002, after starting trading (on the AMEX from which it now seeks delisting) on 19 February 2001 at $9.75.
2002 Scheduled opening of the 8th session of the Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, to run through 01 November 2001.
2002 At 21:05 (17:05 UT), 53 armed Chechens demanding an end to Russia's aggression against Chechnya burst into the Moscow theater House of Culture during the performance of during the second act of the musical Nord-Ost (based on Veniamin Kaverin's romantic novel Two Captains, about two contrasting students during Soviet times and exploration of the Arctic). They let some 100 children and Muslims go, and take the remaining approximately 800 persons hostage. The attackers have automatic weapons, grenades, belts with explosives attached, mines, and canisters with gasoline. They attach explosives to theater chairs, support columns, walls, and along aisles. The Chechens say that they will kill themselves and all the hostages if Russian securty forces attempt to storm the theater. 18 the Chechen attackers are women, including some who say that they have been made widows by the Russian aggression. After the Chechens kill 3 hostages, Russian special forces would assault the theater before dawn on 26 October. 90 hostages, and 50 Chechen terrorists, including their leader, Movsar Barayev, would be killed.
2001 The Warhol foundation licenses his artwork to decorate consumer goods. — more
2000 Ansche Hedgepeth is arrested and placed in handcuffs for eating french fries in the Washington DC Metro (in violation of no-food rules). Later released to her mother Tracey Hedgepeth, the girl must perform community service and undergo counseling.
1999 Fighting Russian aggression, Chechens say they downed 2 jets; Moscow denies claim (CNN)
1999 El Tribunal de Palermo absuelve, por falta de pruebas, a Giulio Andreotti del grave delito de ser parte integrante de la Mafia siciliana.
1998 After nine days of tense negotiations at the Wye Conference Center in Queenstown, Md., Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat signed an agreement to revive the stalled Middle East peace process. — Israelíes y palestinos firman un acuerdo tras 19 meses de bloqueo en el proceso de paz de Oriente Próximo.
1998 WordPerfect for Linux
      Corel announced it would make a version of its WordPerfect word processor for the Linux operating system available for free over the Internet. Interest in Linux, a free system, grew as companies and individuals increasingly objected to the dominance of Microsoft's operating system. Corel had fared poorly in a battle against Microsoft to dominate the market for office suite software. The company said it would follow WordPerfect with a full suite of office applications for Linux.
1997 Las elecciones municipales y provinciales de Argelia dan la victoria a la Agrupación Nacional Democrática. Se levanta una fuerte polémica por las acusaciones de fraude.
1995 Joint US-Russian peacekeeping in Bosnia
      In a historic step in improved post-Cold War relations between Russia and the United States, US President Bill Clinton and Russian President Boris Yeltsin agree to a joint peacekeeping effort in Bosnia to follow the reaching of a peace settlement in the war-torn former Yugoslavia. The two leaders do not reveal the details of the possible coalition, such as whether Russian troops would serve under NATO command, but express confidence that a satisfactory arrangement will be met. The summit was held at former president Franklin D. Roosevelt's ancestral home in Hyde Park, New York.
1995 the US Defense Department ends a program helping minority-owned firms secure government contracts.
1992 Israel reconoce abiertamente que la OLP (Organización para la Liberación de Palestina) juega un papel preponderante en las negociaciones de paz para Oriente Próximo.
1991 Cambodia's warring factions and representatives of 18 other nations sign a peace treaty in Paris.
1991 The US announces that all parties invited to the Middle East peace conference have accepted.
1990 Iraq announces release of 330 French and 64 British hostages
1990 Motorola unveils wireless office technology
      Motorola announced it had developed technology to send data at high speeds within office buildings using digital radio transmission. The technology, powerful enough to transmit anywhere in a large building, would allow companies to move computers from one office to another without laying new wiring. While wireless communication for all kinds of computer devices became common in the late 1990s, most companies continued to rely on cable to connect in-office, desktop computers.
1989 Hungary formally declared an end to 40 years of communist rule
1987 The US Senate rejects, 58-to-42, the Supreme Court nomination of Robert H. Bork.
1986 Jean-Bedel Bokassa, ex-emperador de la República Centroafricana, es detenido al nada más llegar a su país tras vivir exiliado en Francia.
1984 NBC airs BBC footage of Ethiopian famine
1981 US national debt hits $1 trillion
1980 It is announced that Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin resigns, due to illness — Dimite, por motivos de salud, el jefe del Gobierno soviético Aleksey Nikolaievich Kosygin, sucediéndole Nikolai Tijonov en el cargo.
1980 Constitución en España del Consejo General del Poder Judicial, bajo la presidencia de los reyes y la asistencia del Gobierno.
1979 El político vasco Juanmari Bandrés denuncia al ministro del Interior la presunta existencia de torturas en el País Vasco (Euskadi).
1977 Panamanians vote 2--1 to approve the new Canal treaties
1977 Joan Josep Tarradellas, presidente de la Generalitat en el exilio, regresa a Cataluña.
1975 Ways and Means cuts taxes, not spending.
      House Ways and Means Committee Chairman Al Ullman, a Democrat from Oregon, had proposed a $12.7 million tax cut targeted to middle-income citizens. But Republican President Gerald Ford's wanted to tack spending cuts on to Ullman's tax measure. Democrats, and even some Republicans, argued that Ford placed short-term political gain ahead of the nation's economic well-being. House Democrats conducted a brief, but effective campaign to kill Ford's proposal. Shortly before the measures came up for a vote, Ullman flooded the press with economists' negative assessments of the spending cuts. The House Ways and Means Committee approves tax relief, but refuses the president's proposed spending cuts.
1973 A UN sanctioned cease-fire officially ends the Yom Kippur war between Israel and Syria.
1973 US President Nixon agrees to turn White House tape recordings requested by the Watergate special prosecutor over to Judge John J. Sirica.
1973 Oil Crisis: Toyota touts its fuel efficiency
      Only five days after eleven Arab oil producers increased oil prices and cut back production in response to the support of the United States and other nations for Israel in the Yom Kippur War, Toyota USA. holds its first national news conference in Los Angeles, California. Central on the agenda for the three-day conference was the discussion of the remarkable fuel efficiency of Toyota automobiles.
      In the days following the oil crisis, concerned American consumers suffered gasoline rationing, a quadrupling of prices, and huge lines at gas stations. The small percentage of Americans who owned a Toyota, a Honda, or a Nissan found themselves the envy of other domestic car owners, whose American automobiles typically averaged less than fifteen miles per gallon. Even after the oil embargo crisis was resolved, American consumers had learned an important lesson about the importance of fuel efficiency, and foreign auto manufacturers flourished in the large American market.
      The public turned to imports in droves, and suddenly Japan's modest but sturdy little compacts began popping up on highways all across America. The Big Three rushed to produce their own fuel-efficient compacts, but shoddily constructed models like the Chevy Vega and Ford Pinto could not compete with the overall quality of the Toyota Corollas and Honda Civics. It took years for the Big Three to bounce back from the blow, eventually winning back American consumers with their introduction during the 1980s of quality compacts like the Chevy Cavalier and Ford Escort, that proved on level with the quality of the foreign competition.
1972 Vietnam: US ask for further peace talks to satisfy Thieu
      Citing difficulties with South Vietnamese President Thieu, US negotiators cable Hanoi requesting further negotiations in Paris over the proposed draft peace accord. Thieu felt that he was being sold out by the United States to secure a peace agreement at any terms. President Richard Nixon and chief negotiator Henry Kissinger were attempting to craft a peace agreement that would satisfy Thieu but also bring the war to an end so that the rest of US forces could be disengaged. In an attempt to show good faith to the North Vietnamese, Nixon suspended the Linebacker raids against Hanoi and Haiphong that had been initiated when the North Vietnamese had launched their Easter Offensive earlier in the year.
1970 Gary Gabelich sets auto speed record of 1016 km/h average, in rocket-powered car.
1969 Richard Milhous Nixon anuncia la retirada estadounidense de Vietnam.
1965 Vietnam: US and South attack in Pleku Province.
      In action following the clash at the Plei Me Special Forces camp 50 km southwest of Pleiku earlier in the month, the 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile) launches Operation Silver Bayonet. US troops, in conjunction with South Vietnamese forces, sought to destroy North Vietnamese forces operating in Pleku Province in II Corps Tactical Zone (the Central Highlands). The operation concluded in November with a week of bitter fighting when fleeing North Vietnamese troops decided to protect an important staging area and supply base in the Ia Drang Valley. It was the bloodiest battle of the war to date. In one engagement, 1st Battalion, 7th Cavalry fought a desperate three-day battle at Landing Zone X-Ray with the North Vietnamese 33rd and 66th Regiments; when the fighting was over, 834 Communists lay dead on the battlefield. In an associated engagement, 500 North Vietnamese ambushed another battalion from the 1st Cavalry Division at Landing Zone Albany, wiping out almost an entire company. Reported enemy casualties for Operation Silver Bayonet totaled 1771. US casualties included 240 killed in action.
1962 Cuban Missile Crisis: OAS backs quarantine by US
      The Council of the Organization of American States (OAS) unanimously approves the US quarantine against Cuba, authorizing the US to use armed force to prevent the shipment of more offensive weapons to Cuba from the Soviet Union.
      US President Kennedy orders six Crusader jets to fly a low-level reconnaissance mission. Flying at 100 m altitude and at 350 knots, the planes take photos which show that the Soviets are testing the previously detected nuclear missiles for launch.
     In the early evening Kennedy signs a Proclamation of Interdiction to take effect at 10:00 on 24 October. By the end of the day US ships are on position along the “quarantine” line, 800 km from Cuba. They are instructed to use force to halt any ship that fails to stop.
     Sent by the President with a letter to Soviet leader Krushchev urging compliance, Robert Kennedy arrives at the Soviet embassy at 21:30 and berates the Soviet ambassador for having lied about the offensive missiles in Cuba. Ambassador Dobrynin replies that he knows of no such weapons. Shortly afterwards, Dobrynin writes a summary of the meeting for Khrushchev. Having no better means of communication, Dobrynin calls Western Union telegraph, and urges the utmost speed on its bike messenger.
1961 El presidente dominicano, Joaquín Balaguer, promete que los familiares de Rafael Leonidas Trujillo abandonarán el país.
1958 Soviet novelist Boris Pasternak, wins Nobel Prize for Literature . MORE
1958 USSR lends money to UAR to build Aswan High Dam
1956 Hungarian uprising against Soviet occupation begins
      After enduring nearly ten years of Communist terror by secret police and Soviet agents, Hungarian students and workers take to the streets of Budapest in demonstrations against Soviet domination and Communist rule. Within days, the uprising escalates into a full-scale national revolt, and the Hungarian government falls into chaos. When Hungarian Premier Imre Nagy joins the anti-Communist revolution, his minister Janos Kadar responds by forming a counter-regime, and asks the USS.R. to intervene. On November 4, a massive Soviet force of 200'000 soldiers and 2500 tanks enter Hungary. US Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., calls an emergency meeting of the UN Security Council to protest the Soviet invasion, but Britain and France, embroiled in the Suez Crisis, choose not to support the US resolutions. Nearly 200'000 Hungarians flee the country and thousands of people are arrested, killed, or executed, including Premier Nagy, before the Hungarian uprising is finally suppressed.
     Thousands of Hungarians erupt in protest against the Soviet presence in their nation and are met with armed resistance. Organized demonstrations by Hungarian citizens had been ongoing since June 1956, when signs of political reform in Poland raised the possibility for such changes taking place in their own nation. On October 23, however, the protests erupted into violence as students, workers, and even some soldiers demanded more democracy and freedom from what they viewed as an oppressive Soviet presence in Hungary. Hungarian leader Erno Gero, an avowed Stalinist, only succeeded in inflaming the crowds with praise for the Soviet Union's policies.
      Furious fighting broke out in Budapest between the protesters and Hungarian security forces and Soviet soldiers. In the next few days, hundreds of protesters in Budapest and other Hungarian cities were killed in these battles. Gero appealed for additional Soviet assistance and this was forthcoming in the form of an armored division that rolled into Budapest. Street fighting escalated in response to the Russian show of force. In an attempt to quell the disturbances, Communist Party officials in Hungary appointed Imre Nagy (who had earlier fallen out of favor with Party members) as the new premier. Nagy asked the Soviets to withdraw their troops from the capital so that he could restore order. Russian forces complied and withdrew from Budapest by November 1, but tensions remained high.
1954 In Paris, an agreement is signed providing for West German sovereignty and permitting West Germany to rearm and enter NATO and the Western European Union. -- Les accords de Paris, signés entre la France et la République fédérale d'Allemagne, ou RFA, mettent fin à l'occupation de la Sarre et autorisent la RFA et l'Italie à accéder à l'OTAN.
1953 El ejército de EE.UU. presenta en Maguncia (RFA) un nuevo cañón para disparar granadas atómicas.
1952 The Nobel Prize for Medicine is awarded to Ukranian-born microbiologist Selmart A. Waksman for his discovery of an effective treatment of tuberculosis. MORE
1947 NAACP petition on racism, "An Appeal to the World" presented to UN
1946 UN General Assembly (2nd session) convenes, in New York for the first time, at an auditorium in Flushing Meadow.-- A New York (USA), première assemblée générale des Nations Unies. L'organisation fut créée en 1945 en remplacement de la Socièté des Nations. Le siège permanent de l'O.N.U. est à New York où elle occupe depuis 1952, dans l'île de Manhattan, un gratte ciel de 39 étages.
1944 Soviet army invades Hungary
1944 The World War II Battle of Leyte Gulf begins.
1942 La bataille d'El-Alamein
     L'Afrikakorps du maréchal Rommel recule devant la VIIIe armée britannique du général Montgomery. C'est le premier coup d'arrêt infligé à l'armée allemande après une guerre-éclair qui lui a valu d'occuper la plus grande partie de l'Europe continentale et du bassin méditerranéen. Ce coup d'arrêt se produit devant l'oasis égyptienne d'El-Alamein, sur la côté méditerranéenne, à une centaine de kilomètres à l'ouest d'Alexandrie et du delta du Nil.
Rommel, le Renard du désert
      Très populaire auprès des jeunes Allemands et de l'armée, le maréchal Erwin Rommel avait été surnommé le "Renard du désert" après ses premiers succès sur le sol africain. Il sera rappelé en Allemagne six mois après la bataille d'El-Alamein, avant que son armée ne soit complètement chassée d'Afrique par les troupes de Montgomery. Affecté au front de l'Atlantique, Rommel se rendra compte que l'Allemagne a perdu toute chance de gagner la guerre. Il s'associera aux officiers qui complotent contre le Führer mais sera démasqué après l'attentat raté du 20 juillet 1944 et devra s'empoisonner. Hitler lui accordera des funérailles nationales.
— During World War II, Britain launched a major offensive against Axis forces at El Alamein in Egypt. In
1941 El general Charles André de Gaulle, para evitar represalias, pide la suspensión momentánea de las actividades guerrilleras en Francia.
1941 Zhukov heads Red Army's effort to stop Germans
      Chief of the Soviet general staff, Georgi K. Zhukov, assumes command of Red Army operations to stop the German advance into the heart of Russia. Zhukov's military career began during World War I, when he served with the Imperial Russian Army. He then joined the Red Army in 1918, taking time off to study military science in both the Soviet Union and Germany.
      By the outbreak of World War II, Zhukov was commander of the Soviet forces stationed on the Manchurian border and led a counteroffensive that beat back the Japanese attack in 1939. By the time of the German invasion of Russia, Zhukov had been promoted from chief of staff of the Soviet army during the "winter war" against Finland, to commander in chief of the western front. It was in this capacity that he now prepared to beat back the German invaders, first from Moscow, and then from central Russia altogether.
      He would eventually be promoted to general and become a key player in the planning or execution of virtually every major Soviet engagement until the end of the war. Ultimately, he would represent the USSR at Germany's formal surrender and take command of the Soviet occupation of Germany.
      Stalin's wise choice in handing so much power and responsibility to this one man was regretted only after the war, when Zhukov's popularity threatened his own. Stalin "rewarded" the general with obscure positions that wasted his talent and kept him out of the spotlight. Zhukov was finally made minister of defense after Stalin's death in 1953 in Premier Leonid Brezhnev's new government. But as the military attempted to remove itself from the iron grip of internal Communist Party politics, Zhukov, who supported autonomy for the army, began to butt heads with the premier, who wanted to keep the Red Army under the Central Committee's collective thumb.
      Ironically, when the Presidium, the "conservative" (in this case, Stalinist) legislative body that opposed certain "democratic" reforms proposed by Brezhnev, attempted to push the premier from power, it was Zhukov who flew Central Committee members to Moscow to tip the balance of power and keep Brezhnev's position secure. As a reward, Zhukov was made a full member of the Presidium, the first professional soldier ever to hold such an office (it also served to have a man who proved himself loyal on a body that was otherwise hostile). But Zhukov's renewed attempt to free the army from party control resulted in his dismissal by Brezhnev. Zhukov would once again be lost to public view-until Brezhnev's fall from power in 1964. Zhukov would eventually win the Order of Lenin medal (1966) and publish his autobiography (1969).
1940 Francisco Franco Bahamonde rechaza la propuesta de Adolf Hitler para que España entre en la Gran Guerra.
1939 El Gobierno español anula la ley de divorcio.
1934 Jean Félix Piccard, hermano gemelo de Auguste Piccard, y su esposa Jeanne, alcanzan en los EE.UU. una altitud de 18'672 metros con un globo aerostático.
1930 El rey Fuad de Egipto decreta una Constitución y se convierte en dictador del país.
1929 El presidente chileno, Carlos Ibáñez del Campo, sale ileso de un atentado cometido por el joven anarquista Luis Ramírez, que disparó varios tiros de revólver contra el general.
1929 The first transcontinental air service begins from New York to Los Angeles.
1927 León Trotski y George Zinoviev, quedan excluidos del comité central del Partido Comunista.
1924 Radio network broadcast received on the US Pacific Coast
      The first radio network broadcast to the US West Coast was received on this day in 1924. The broadcast was a 45-minute speech by President Calvin Coolidge at the dedication of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States Building in Washington, D.C. Some twenty-three stations, including some in Los Angeles, Portland, and Seattle, broadcast the speech.
1918 President Wilson feels satisfied that the Germans are accepting his armistice terms and agrees to transmit their request for an armistice to the Allies. The Germans have agreed to suspend submarine warfare, cease inhumane practices such as the use of poison gas, and withdraw troops back into Germany.
1918 Karl Liebknecht es puesto en libertad en Alemania.
1917 Lenin obtiene del Comité Central bolchevique el voto para la preparación inmediata de la insurrección armada.
1915 25'000 women march in New York City, demanding the right to vote.
1912 Battle of Kirk Kilissa, begins at night as the Bulgarians launched a bayonet attack on the Turkish trenches.
1908 El aerostato ligero del mayor August von Parseval se eleva a 1600 metros por encima de la ciudad de Berlín.
1906 El brasileño Alberto Santos-Dumont, con un pequeño aeroplano de su invención, realiza un vuelo de unos 70 metros, a una altura de tres metros.
1873 Le comte de Chambord rejette le drapeau tricolore et ruine les espoirs des monarchistes.
1869 The New York Stock Exchange put memberships up for sale for the first time in its 77-year history.
1861 President Abraham Lincoln suspends the writ of habeas corpus in Washington, D.C. for all military-related cases.
1855 Rival governments in Bleeding Kansas
      In opposition to the fraudulently elected pro-slavery legislature of Kansas, the Kansas Free State forces set up a governor and legislature under their Topeka Constitution, a document that outlaws slavery in the territory.
      Trouble in territorial Kansas began with the signing of the Kansas-Nebraska Act by President Franklin Pierce in 1854. The act stipulated that settlers in the newly created territories of Nebraska and Kansas would decide by popular vote whether their territory would be free or slave. In early 1855, Kansas' first election proved a violent affair as over 5000 so-called Border Ruffians invaded the territory from western Missouri and forced the election of a pro-slavery legislature. To prevent further bloodshed, Andrew H. Reeder, appointed territorial governor by President Pierce, reluctantly approved the election.
     In May 1856, Border Ruffians sacked the abolitionist town of Lawrence In retaliation a small Free State force was formed, armed by supporters in the North and under the leadership of militant abolitionist John Brown. It massacred five pro-slavery Kansans along the Pottawatomie Creek. Raids, massacres, and skirmishes follow the establishment of Kansas' second government, and the territory becomes popularly known as "Bleeding Kansas.” However, in 1861 the irrepressible differences in Kansas are swallowed up by the outbreak of full-scale civil war in America.
1813 American fur traders turn over Astoria, Oregon, to the British
      The Americans operating the Pacific Fur Company trading post in Astoria, Oregon, turn the post over to their rivals in the British North West Company, and for the next three decades Britons dominate the fur trade of the Pacific Northwest. The town and fur trading post at Astoria were founded in 1811 at the behest of John Jacob Astor, a German-born American immigrant who had hoped to beat out his British rivals and develop the Pacific Northwest fur trade for America. Unfortunately for Astor, the outbreak of the War of 1812 between the US and Great Britain threw the fate of his enterprise into doubt, raising the threat that at any moment a British warship might arrive and seize Astoria as a spoil of war. Astor's partners in the Pacific Fur Company were mostly Canadian, and they saw little reason to risk losing their entire investment in a British takeover so they sold their interests to the British North West Company in early October 1813. Just as they had feared, within weeks of the sale a man-of-war arrived and took possession of Astoria for Great Britain. In December 1813, the stars and strips came down, the Union Jack went up, and Astoria became Fort George.
      Although Great Britain gave the settlement of Astoria back to the United States after the War of 1812, the British maintained control of Fort George and the Pacific Northwest fur trade, primarily through the royally chartered Hudson Bay Company. For the next 20 years the Hudson Bay Company's British representatives ruled as benevolent despots over the traders, settlers, and Indians of the Pacific Northwest. By the 1840s, the beaver population had dwindled, while American settlement in the area was on the rise. Unwilling to protect the Hudson Bay Company's claim to the region, the British agreed to accept American control of the territory below the 49th parallel in 1846 and ceded to the US the territory encompassing the future states of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho.
1812 Les troupes de Napoléon évacuent Moscou brûlée, où il est resté plus d'un mois (un mois de trop). Les armées de Koutouzov le contraignent à reprendre la même route qu'à l'aller. Mais celle-ci n'est plus que ruines et terres brûlées. Un plus terrible ennemi attend la Grande Armée, l'hiver russe. -- "Fussé-je mort à Moscou, ma renommée serait celle du plus grand conquérant qu'on ait connu. Mais les sourires de la Fortune étaient à leur fin.” C'est en ces mots que Napoléon se souviendra à Sainte-Hélène de ce que fut le début de la retraite de Russie.
1790 Slaves revolt in Haiti (later suppressed)
1783 Virginia emancipates slaves who fought for independence during the Revolutionary War.
1775 Continental Congress approves resolution barring blacks from army
1709 Les religieuses de l'abbaye de Port-Royal sont conduites par leur abbesse, Mère Agnès Arnauld, et sont dispersées dans diverses institutions religieuses. Le philosophe Blaise Pascal écrit dans Les Provinciales à propos des jansénistes persécutés par le pouvoir royal : "C'est une étrange et longue guerre que celle où la violence essaie d'opprimer la vérité. Tous les efforts de la violence ne peuvent affaiblir la vérité et ne servent qu'à la relever davantage. Toutes les lumières de la vérité ne peuvent rien pour arrêter la violence, et ne font que l'irriter encore plus.”
1707 The first Parliament of Great Britain meets.
1705 El archiduque Carlos de Austria entra en Barcelona, donde es aclamado como rey.
1694 American colonial forces led by Sir William Phips, fail in their attempt to seize Quebec.
1679 Meal Tub Plot against James II of England
1520 Carlos I de España es coronado Emperador de Alemania, en Aquisgrán.
1518 Diego de Velázquez de Cuellar, gobernador de Cuba, nombra a Hernán Cortés para encabezar una expedición conquistadora a las tierras del imperio azteca.
1452 Don Carlos de Viana cae prisionero de su padre, Juan II, en Asturias.
1257 Saint Thomas Aquinas, 31, and his friend Saint Bonaventure, 36, are finally confered the doctorate of theology by the University of Paris, under orders from the pope to cease excluding friars.
1086 Se libra la Batalla de Zalaca en la que las huestes almorávides de Yusuf ibn Tashfin derrotan a la tropas leonesas del rey Alfonso VI.
--4004 BC According to 17th century James Ussher, Archbishop of Armagh, and Dr. John Lightfoot of Cambridge, the world was created on this day, a Sunday, at 09:00 UT. Ussher's Chronologies of he Old and New Testaments was first published 1650-54.
Deaths which occurred on an October 23:
2003 Soong Mei-ling (Madame Chiang Kai-shek), born on 05 March 1897, dies in New York to which she retired after the death of her husband, the 1928-1949 dictatorial head of the Nationalist government in China (and after 1949, in Taiwan), General Chiang Kai-shek [31 Oct 1887 – 05 Apr 1975], of which she was an able and influential political partner (and the second wife, married on 01 December 1927). Author of This is Our China (1944), Sure Victory (1955).
2002 Richard McGarrah Helms, of multiple myeloma, US spy, director of CIA in some of its most abusive times (June 1966 — 1973), convicted perjurer, ambassador to Iran (1973 – 1977), Middle East trade consultant, born on 30 March 1913. Author of his memoir A Look Over My Shoulder: a Life in the C.I.A. (2003)
2002 Elizabeth (née Harman) Pakenham Lady Longford, 96, British biographer, political activist, mother of writers Antonia Fraser, Rachel Billington, and Thomas Pakenham, and of poet Judith Kazantzis. Catholic convert (1946). Among her books: Points for Parents (1956), Jameson's Raid (1960), Victoria R. I. (1964), The Years of the Sword and Pillar of State (1969 + 1972; on the Duke of Wellington), Elizabeth R (1983), Queen Victoria (1999).
2001 Talaat Jaber, 19, and Badr Shaer, 50, Palestinians, by heavy machine-gun fire from Israeli troops in Tulkarem.
2001: Ustad Farooq and 21 other fighters of Harakat ul-Mujahedeen ("Movement of the Holy Warriors") by a US bomb striking the house where they were meeting in Kabul to "devise a plan for fighting against America." Banned Pakintani HUM is one of the largest militant organizations fighting Indian soldiers in Kashmir region and was declared a terrorist organization by the US years ago. It was among 27 groups and individuals whose assets were frozen by the US, Pakistan and other countries after the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks in the US.
1998 Dr. Barnett Slepian, abortionist, shot through a window in his home in Amherst, New York, by an anti-abortion terrorist, marking the fifth straight year that a doctor who was willing to perform abortions in upstate New York and Canada had been the victim of a sniper attack.
      Slepian and his family had just returned from religious services at their synagogue when a bullet from a high-powered rifle shattered the kitchen window and struck him in the back. Each of the five attacks, the first of which did not result in fatal wounds, occurred in late October or early November. It is believed that the dates were intentionally picked to center around Canada's Remembrance Day (11 November).
      Investigators in both Canada and the United States would discover that James Charles Kopp, 43, known among abortion opponents as "Atomic Dog," was responsible for Slepian's murder. Kopp, of St. Albans, Vermont, was a member of the terrorist group Army of God. He had been arrested in several states since 1990 for protesting abortion. His car was spotted in Slepian's neighborhood in the weeks before the shooting, and was found abandoned at the Newark, N.J., airport in December 1998. Kopp was charged in May 1999 in state and federal complaints with second-degree murder and with violating the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act by using deadly force against an abortion doctor. Both charges carry a penalty of up to life in prison. The federal charge also carries a fine of up to $250'000.
      Investigators said at the time that the discovery of a scope-equipped rifle buried near the Slepian home a few months after the shooting represented a major breakthrough. Slepian was shot with a rifle. Kopp also had been linked, through DNA testing, to a strand of hair found near where the sniper fired.
      In the aftermath of Slepian's murder, at least four abortion doctors in upstate New York quit practicing, and countless other clinic staff members left their jobs. Because groups such as the American Coalition of Life Activists have openly promoted violence against abortion providers, there is some reason to believe that the atmosphere of fear has limited women's ability to choose abortion in certain areas of the nation.
      Following Slepian's murder, a serious crackdown on anti-abortion terror helped to cut down the number of violent incidents. In 1999, for the first time in six years, there were no sniper attacks against any doctors during the course of the year. Kopp remained at large for nearly two and a half years, despite a $500'000 reward for information leading to his capture from the Justice Department and his place on the FBI's Ten Most Wanted List. He was arrested in France on 29 March 2001, and, on 05 June 2002, extradited to the US, after it promised not to seek the death penalty. Kopp maintains that he only intended to wound Slepian so as to dissuade him from performing any more abortion. In the non-jury trial Kopp would request, he would, on 18 March 2003, be convicted of second-degree murder, and, on 09 May 2003, be sentenced to 25-years-to-life in prison, the maximum.
      In Canada, Kopp is charged with the 10 November 1995 attempted murder of Hugh Short, an abortionist hit in the elbow by a bullet fired through a window in his home in Ancaster, Ontario, near Hamilton.
     He is also wanted for questioning in the shootings of Jack Fainman, an abortionist hit near the heart by a bullet fired through a window in his Winnipeg, Manitoba home on 11 November 1997; of Garson Romalis, an abortionist shot in the leg while eating breakfast at home in in Vancouver on 08 November 1994; and has been implicated in shooting, in Rochester NY (or its Brighton suburb?), at an abortionist who was cut by debris from a bullet shot into his home through a sliding glass door, on 28 October 1997
1994 El principal candidato opositor a la Presidencia de Sri Lanka y otras 50 personas, por la explosión de una bomba durante un mitin electoral en Colombo.
1992 Humberto Díaz Casanueva, poeta chileno.
1991 Two women using Dr Jack Kevorkian's suicide machine.
1989 Carol Stuart, “shot by a Black” (any Black will do), says her husband.
     On 03 Jan 1990 Matthew Stuart meets with Boston prosecutors and tells them that his brother, Charles, was actually the person responsible for murdering Charles's wife, Carol. The killing of Carol Stuart, who was pregnant at the time, on October 23, 1989, had touched off a national outrage when Charles Stuart told authorities that the couple had been robbed and shot by a Black man while driving through a poor Boston neighborhood. In the summer and fall of 1989, both Boston daily newspapers had been trumpeting a so-called crime explosion. Actually, the screaming headlines had more to do with a desire to sell papers than any actual crime wave, but the public was on edge. Charles Stuart, a fur salesman, used the public mood to his advantage when he planned the murder of his wife.
      "My wife's been shot! I've been shot!" screamed Stuart into his cell phone as he drove through the Mission Hill area of Boston. Paramedics responding to the call for help found that both Charles and his wife had been shot. Carol was barely hanging on to her life and Charles had a fairly serious wound to the stomach. Immediately, Charles identified a Black male in a black running suit as the perpetrator.
      The crime was the biggest story in Boston that day and even led some national newscasts. Across the country, the story was portrayed as an example of what could happen to affluent people traveling through bad neighborhoods. In many papers, liberal policies were attacked and held responsible for the tragedy. Carol Stuart died, and although doctors were able to save her baby temporarily, the child also died days later. Charles Stuart underwent intestinal surgery for 10 hours, but his life was not endangered.
      The Boston police began to comb the housing projects in Mission Hill. Black men were strip-searched on the streets on any pretense. Alan Swanson, a small-time drug dealer, was arrested on suspicion of being involved. However, there was absolutely no evidence against him, even after a warrant was falsified so that it would match what Charles Stuart had told investigators. He was later released with no apology from the police.
      Meanwhile, Stuart was showing unusual interest in a young female co-worker, asking that she phone him at the hospital where he was recovering. Detectives, fixated on finding the black perpetrator Stuart had described, didn't bother to find the ample evidence that Stuart was unhappy in his marriage and particularly upset with his wife for not having an abortion. Stuart had discussed both his obsession with the co-worker, and his desire to see his wife dead, with several friends and family members in the months before the murder.
      In December, Willie Bennett, a Black ex-convict, was arrested after his nephew jokingly bragged that he was responsible. Stuart picked Bennett out of a lineup in which the others were all clean-cut Boston police officers. This was the last straw for Matthew Stuart, who had assisted his brother in carrying out the scheme. Matthew thought he was helping Charles with an insurance scam when he carried a bag away from the murder scene. In it was the gun and the couple's wallets and jewelry. In return for immunity, Matthew testified against his brother.
      Charles Stuart found out that Matthew was going to turn him in and immediately fled. The next morning, Charles Stuart drove to the Tobin Bridge over the Mystic River, and jumped to his death. His suicide note said, "I am sorry for all the trouble.” Willie Bennett was released after witnesses told a grand jury that the police had pressured them into identifying him.
1985 John Greenlees Semple, mathematician
1983: 241 US and 58 French military, by a truck bombs, in Beirut.
      In the early morning, the First Battalion, 8th Marines Headquarters building is destroyed by a non-Lebanese, terrorist-driven truck, laden with compressed gas-enhanced explosives. This truck, like many others, had become a familiar sight at the airport and so did not raise any alarm on this morning. The resulting explosion and the collapse of the building kills 241 Marines, Sailors, and Soldiers.. and injures 80. Almost simultaneously, a similar incident occurs at French military headquarters, where 58 die and 15 are injured.
      A suicide bomber drives a truck packed with explosives into the US Marine barracks in Beirut, killing 241 US military personnel. That same morning, 58 French soldiers were killed in their barracks two miles away in a separate suicide terrorist attack.
      The US Marines were part of a multinational force sent to Lebanon in August 1982 to oversee the Palestinian withdrawal from Lebanon. From its inception, the mission was plagued with problems--and a mounting body count. In 1975, a bloody civil war erupted in Lebanon, with Palestinian and leftist Muslim guerrillas battling militias of the Christian Phalange Party, the Maronite Christian community, and other groups. During the next few years, Syrian, Israeli, and United Nations interventions failed to resolve the factional fighting, and on 20 August 1982, a multinational force including 800 US Marines was ordered to Beirut to help coordinate the Palestinian withdrawal.
      The Marines left Lebanese territory on 10 September but returned in strengthened numbers on 29 September, following the massacre of Palestinian refugees by a Christian militia. The next day, the first US Marine to die during the mission was killed while defusing a bomb. Other Marines fell prey to snipers. On 18 April 1983, a suicide bomber driving a van devastated the US embassy in Beirut, killing 63 people, including 17 Americans.
      Then, on 23 October 23, a Lebanese terrorist plowed his bomb-laden truck through three guard posts, a barbed-wire fence, and into the lobby of the Marines Corps headquarters in Beirut, where he detonated a massive bomb, killing 241 marine, navy, and army personnel. The bomb, which was made of a sophisticated explosive enhanced by gas, had an explosive power equivalent to 8 tons of dynamite. The identities of the embassy and barracks bombers were not determined, but they were suspected to be Shiite terrorists associated with Iran.
      After the barracks bombing, many questioned whether President Ronald Reagan had a solid policy aim in Lebanon. Serious questions also arose over the quality of security in the US sector of war-torn Beirut. The US peacekeeping force occupied an exposed area near the airport, but for political reasons the marine commander had not been allowed to maintain a completely secure perimeter before the attack. In a national address on 23 October President Reagan vowed to keep the marines in Lebanon, but just four months later he announced the end of the American role in the peacekeeping force. On 26 February 1984, the main force of marines left Lebanon, leaving just a small contingent to guard the US embassy in Beirut.
241 américains et 58 français, par des attentats à Beyrouth.
     A 6h20 du matin, un attentat terroriste frappe le Quartier Général des forces américaines à Beyrouth, où sévit la guerre civile entre factions libanaises. L'attentat fait 241 morts. Quatre minutes plus tard, à quelques dizaines de mètres, l'immeuble "Drakkar" explose! On compte 58 victimes parmi les parachutistes français de la 3ème Compagnie du 1er RCP. Les paras français et les fusillers marins américains, fraîchement débarqués au Liban, devaient faire respecter la paix civile dans le cadre d'une mission des Nations Unies. Mais ils n'étaient préparés ni à la guerre urbaine, ni au terrorisme des "Fous de Dieu" islamistes, soutenus par la Syrie et l'Iran. Leur mission ayant tourné au cauchemar, les Occidentaux se retirent du Liban.
1972 More than 10'000 people in Nicaragua earthquake
1963 Aldous Leonard Huxley, novelista británico.
1917 Eugène-Samuel Grasset, Swiss artist born on 25 May 1841.
1903 Francis Ellingwood Abbot, 66, theologian (Scientific Theism)
1890 Charles Michel MariaVerlat, Belgian artist born on 24 November 1824.
1879 Pierre Justin Ouvrié, French artist born on 19 January or May 1806.
1873 George-Henry Laporte, German painter born in 1799. — link to an image.
1872 Théophile Gautier, periodista, crítico dramático, poeta y novelista francés.
1864 Rebs raiders and Yanks at Battle of Westport, Missouri.
      Confederate General Sterling Price's raid on Missouri nearly turns into disaster when his army is pinned between two Union forces at Westport, near Kansas City. Although outnumbered two to one, Price managed to slip safely away after the Battle of Westport, which was the biggest battle west of the Mississippi River. Price's six-week raid on Missouri was intended to capture a state that had been firmly in Union hands during much of the war. Price hoped to divert attention from the East, where Confederate armies had not done well in the late summer of 1864. A blow against Northern territory could also hurt the Republicans in the fall elections, and it could raise much-needed supplies.
      Price entered Missouri from Arkansas in mid-September. His force moved through the state with little opposition, but Price failed to capture either St. Louis or Jefferson City. In mid-October, Price turned west up the Missouri River and captured several small Federal outposts. At Byram's Ford on 22 October, Price's men pushed aside a small Union force attached to General Samuel R. Curtis's army. The rest of Curtis's men waited at Westport to the northwest. Price also faced a threat to his rear because Yankee cavalry under Alfred Pleasonton were moving in from the southeast. In short, Union troops were converging on Price from two directions.
      On October 23, Price tried to fight his way out of his predicament by first attacking Curtis's troops along Brush Creek. The Confederates enjoyed some initial success as they drove the Federals across Brush Creek, but Price did not have sufficient reserves to continue the drive. Meanwhile, Pleasonton's men were attacking on the other side of the battlefield, placing Price in a dangerous position. As Pleasonton's men pushed the Confederates back, Curtis's men also turned the tide on the northwestern side of the battlefield. Price's troops broke, and a mad retreat to the southwest ensued. Price's army might have been completely destroyed if the two Union forces could have coordinated pursuit. Instead, the exhausted Yankees halted, hesitant to continue the fight.
      Price's force was soundly defeated, though each side lost about 1500 men. That was only about 10% of the Union troops, but it was 20% of the Rebel force. Price's men retreated into Kansas before the remnants of the force dispersed back into Texas and Oklahoma. In the end, Price's raid did little to disrupt the fall elections.
1851 Manuel Eduardo de Gorostiza y Cepeda, dramaturgo mexicano.
1805: 340 drowned in sinking of sailing ship "Aeneus" sinks off Newfoundland
1698 David Klocker “Ehrenstrahl”, German Baroque painter, active in Sweden, born on 23 September 1629. — MORE ON ERENSTRAHL AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1690 Anthonie Waterlo (or Waaterloo), Flemish artist born in 1609 or 1610.
1657 Rafel Govertsz. Camphuysen, Dutch artist born in 1598.
1641 Some 40'000 or more Protestants in Ireland, massacred by Catholics under Phelim O'Neil, who rise against the Protestants and massacre men, women and children to the number of 40'000 (some say 100'000).
--42 B.C. Marcus Junius Brutus, suicide.        ^top^
      Brutus, a leading conspirator in the assassination of Julius Caesar, commits suicide after his defeat at the second battle of Philippi, seing the Republican cause lost.
      Two years before, Brutus had joined Gaius Cassius Longinus in the plot against the Roman dictator Julius Caesar, believing he was striking a blow for the restoration of the Roman Republic. However, the result of Caesar's 15 March 44-BC assassination was to plunge the Roman world into a new round of civil wars, with the Republican forces of Brutus and Cassius vying for supremacy against Octavian and Marcus Antonius.
      In early October 42 BC Brutus and Cassius were defeated at the first Battle of Phillipi by the triumvirate of Lepidus, Marcus Antonius, and Octavian. Cassius commited suicide by ordering his freedman to kill him.
      Three weeks later, on 23 October, Brutus' army is crushed by Octavian and Antony at a second encounter at Philippi, and Brutus takes his own life. Antony and Octavian would soon turn against each other, and in 27 BC the Roman Republic would be lost forever with the ascendance of Octavian as Augustus Caesar, the first emperor of Rome.
Births which occurred on an October 23:
1989 El Mundo, nuevo diario nacional español, bajo la dirección de Pedro J. Ramírez, comienza a publicarse.
1955 La visita de la vieja dama, obra de teatro de Friedrich Dürrenmatt, se estrena.
1950 Tú una vez y el diablo diez, comedia de Jacinto Benavente y Martínez se estrena con gran éxito en Valladolid.
1942 Michael Crichton, in Chicago, US novelist (Jurassic Park, Andromeda Strain, )
     Crichton, the son of the executive editor of Advertising Age, was raised in Roslyn, Long Island. He graduated summa cum laude from Harvard, then taught anthropology at Cambridge in England. He returned to Harvard for medical school but wrote potboilers while working on his degree. By the time he graduated, he had published five novels under the name John Lange, and another under the name Jeffrey Hudson. Later, he collaborated on novels with his brother Douglas under the nom de plume Michael Douglas.
      During his final year of medical school, the 6'9" Crichton published The Andromeda Strain (1969) and decided to write full time instead of practicing medicine. Many of his bestselling novels, including The Andromeda Strain, The Terminal Man, Coma and The Great Train Robbery, became films. He directed the film version of his novels Binary (1972) and Westworld (1973). By 1993, he had four books on the bestseller list and two blockbuster films in the theater (Jurassic Park and Rising Sun). Crichton won the Edgar Award, the mystery writers' "Oscar," in 1968 and 1980. He also wrote Congo, and Looker.
1940 Edson Arantes do Nascimento "Pelé", legendary Brazilian soccer player who scored 1281 goals in 22 years
1938 John Heinz (Sen-R-Pa)
1925 Johnny Carson Corning Iowa, US television personality who hosted the Tonight Show. (also: Who Do You Trust)
1923 Ned Rorem Richmond Indiana, composer/author (Sky Music)
1920 Lygia Clark, Brazilian artist who died in 1988. — more
1919 Rodrigo Arenas Betancourt, escultor y escritor colombiano.
1910 Richard Mortensen, Danish artist who died in 1993.
1908 Tomás Vargas Osorio, poeta y periodista colombiano.
1905 Felix Bloch US physicist (Nobel 1952) . MORE ON HIS NOBEL PRIZE
1898 Werner Scholz, German artist who died in 1982.
1873 William Coolidge, inventor of the X-ray tube
1871 Edgar J. Goodspeed, American Greek N.T. scholar. He taught at the University of Chicago 1898-1937. In 1931, he co-authored with JMP Smith "The Bible: An American Translation," better known today as "Smith and Goodspeed.”
1868 Rama V [Chulalongkorn], leader of Thailand (-1910)
1865 Bohl, mathematician
1852 Jean-Louis Forain, French painter who died on 11 July 1931. — MORE ON FORAIN AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1849 Kinmochi Saionji
, 12th and 14th Prime Minister of Japan (07Jan1906-14Jul1908, 30Auc1911-21Dec1912), born in Kyoto Prefecture, who died on 24 November 1940.
1844 Louis Riel, Manitoba, leader of insurrection of French-Indian métis resisting the influx of English-speaking Canadians. He was hanged by the Canadians on 16 October 1885, even though he had become a US citizen in 1883..
Robert Bridges1844 Robert Seymour Bridges [photo >] poet laureate of England . In 1882 he abandoned medical practice to devote himself to writing. An excellent metrist, he wrote many beautiful lyrics and longer poems, noted for their refined simplicity and perfection of form. Although not a well-known poet, in 1913 he was made poet laureate. In 1929, on Bridges' 85th birthday, he published The Testament of Beauty, a philosophical poem on the evolution of the human soul. It achieved immediate popularity and is considered his greatest work. Long interested in prosody, Bridges published two important works on the subject, Milton's Prosody (1893) and John Keats (1895). He also published Poems of Gerard Manley Hopkins, his friend. Bridges died on 21 April 1930. — Individual poems by BRIDGES ONLINE: Spirits NightingalesA Passer-byAbsenceOn a Dead ChildPater FilioWinter NightfallWhen Death to Either shall come
1835 Adlai E. Stevenson, vice president under Grover Cleveland 1893 to 1897; grandfather of US presidential candidate, Adlai Stevenson (1952, 1956)
1805 John Bartlett, lexicographer best known for Familiar Quotations (1919), Familiar Quotations (1919), Familiar Quotations (1901).
1769 James Ward, English Romantic painter, specialized in animals. He died on 23 November 1859. — more with links to images.
1750 François Nicolas Appert French chef, confectioner, and distiller who invented the method of preserving food by enclosing it in hermetically sealed containers. Author of L'Art de conserver, pendant plusieurs années, toutes les substances animales et végétales. Appert also developed the bouillon tablet, devised a nonacid gelatin-extraction method, and perfected an autoclave. He died on 03 June 1841. (Britannica does not give an exact date of birth)
1715 (October 12 Julian) Peter II, Tsar of Russia (17270518-17300129), grandson of Peter the Great, son of Alexis (who had been tortured and killed in prison). As tsar he did not really rule. He was the influence of his chamberlain, Prince Ivan Alekseyevich Dolgoruky, whose family obtained a dominant position in the Supreme Privy Council. Pyotr Alekseyevich was to marry Dolgoruky's sister, but he died of smallpox on the day set for the wedding, 1730 January 29 (18 Julian)
1677 Giuseppe Petrini (or Pietrini), Italian artist who died in 1758..
0912 Otton 1er le Grand, futur empereur d'Allemagne.
Holidays Thailand : Chulalongkorn Day (1868) / US : United States Day / Afghanistan : Id-Qurban Day

Religious Observances Ang, Orth, Luth : St James of Jerusalem, "Brother" (meaning "relative") of Jesus / Santos Juan de Capistrano, Germán, Graciano, Román y Servando. / RC : St John of Capistrano, patron of military chaplains (Gouverneur et capitaine de Pérouse au XVe siècle, il entre chez les franciscains à la mort de sa femme et devient un remarquable prédicateur. Il meurt dans l'actuelle Croatie en prêchant la croisade contre les Turcs.) / Jewish : Sh'mini Atz-8th day of Succoth

O instituto que emite os certificados de qualidade ISO 9000 tem qualidade certificada por quem?
Thoughts for the day : “All who would win joy must share it, happiness was born a twin.”
“One in eighty births is of twins.”
“Misery loves company.”
[but company does not reciprocate].
“People can be divided into two groups: those that can be divided into two groups, and those that can't.”
“All people are the same: different.”
updated Sunday 26-Oct-2003 14:20 UT
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