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Events, deaths, births, of 28 OCT
[For Oct 28 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1582~1699: Nov 071700s: Nov 081800s: Nov 091900~2099: Nov 10]
On a 28 October:
2002 It is announced that, subject to shareholder approval, CardioTech International (CTE) will acquire Gish Biomedical (GISH) for 1.3422 shares of CardioTech per GISH share, which will require CardioTech to issue 4.82 million new shares. On the NASDAQ, 160'000 of the 3.6 million GISH shares are traded, surging from their previous close of $0.55 to an intraday high of $2.00 and close at $1.30. They had traded as low as $0.11 as recently as 13 August 2002, and had peaked at $5.69 on 96 March 2000.— CTE shares are traded, falling from their previous close of $1.59 to close at $1.29 (at which price it would make the GISH shares worth $1.73) — GISH makes heart and blood vessel surgery devices. CTE makes polyurethane synthetic blood vessels.
2001 Euskadi Ta Askatasuna says: «ETA bere indar guztiz ahaleginduko da beste hogei urtez luzatuko den gatazkarik izan ez dadin»
1999 Russian air campaign over Chechnya intensifies (CNN) -- UN sending humanitarian mission to Chechnya region (CNN)
1998 Clinton signs digital copyright law
      President Clinton signed a bill setting rules for digital copyright protection on 28 October 1998. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act imposed new safeguards for software, music, and written works and outlawed technologies capable of cracking copyright protection programs. The bill was introduced after treaties were signed at the World Intellectual Property Organization's conference on digital information and copyrights in Geneva.
1997 End of the Bull Run?
     The Conference Board, a Greenwich, Connecticut-based polling company, releases the news that consumer confidence in the economy has dipped during the past month. The news came just a day after the Dow lost a whopping 554 points and caused some nervousness on Wall Street. However, cooler heads eventually prevailed, with analysts stressing that the report had not been confirmed and that it was much too early to start to panic.
1996 Egghead to deliver software over the Internet
      Newspapers reported that Egghead, Inc. had started delivering software via the Internet directly to customers' computers. The move made Egghead the first major software retailer to deliver programs over the Internet. Egghead closed about half its retail stores in 1996, and in 1998, the company closed all its bricks-and-mortar stores and moved its entire sales operation to the Web.
1981 US budget deficit soars
      The US government made another announcement about the nation's ever-swelling budget deficit. According to an official report, the gap topped out at $57.93 billion during that year, shooting past the administration's projections by $2.3 billion. Amazingly enough, the deficit had shrunk slightly since the end of 1980. Still, the deficit was an embarrassment, as well as a political liability, for President Reagan. Members of the president's cabinet stepped in to perform damage control, vowing to balance the budget by 1984 with a program that leaned heavily on spending cuts. Ultimately, Reagan failed to make good on the pledge and the budget deficit soared to new heights throughout the decade.
1978 Donald Ritchie ran the fastest 100 Km ever, doing it in 7.2722 h.
1970 US/USSR sign an agreement to discuss joint space efforts
1966 Belgium's Gaston Roelants runs 20.5 km in 1 hour
1965 Pope Paul VI proclaims that Jews are not collectively guilty for the crucifixion of Jesus Christ [we have met the guilty, and they are us, because of our sins].
1965 Viet Cong commandos damage and destroy a number of allied aircraft in two separate raids on US air bases, including Chu Lai, on the coast of the South China Sea in Quang Tin Province, I Corps.
1964 US T-28 airplanes flown by Thai pilots bomb and strafe North Vietnamese villages in the Mugia Pass area. North Vietnam charges that US personnel participated in the raids, but US officials deny that any Americans were involved.
1962 Soviets missiles out from Cuba, US promises to stay out.
      Cuban missile crisis ends asSoviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev orders withdrawal of missiles from Cuba, and US President Kennedy pledges not to attack Cuba.
     In 1960, Khrushchev had launched plans to install medium and intermediate range ballistic missiles in Cuba that would put the eastern United States within range of nuclear attack. In the summer of 1962, US spy planes flying over Cuba had photographed construction work on missile facilities. President John F. Kennedy announced a naval blockade to prevent the arrival of more missiles and demanded that the Soviets dismantle and remove the weapons already in Cuba.
      The situation was extremely tense and could have resulted in war between the United States and the Soviet Union, but at the last minute, Khrushchev turned the Soviet ships around that were to deliver more missiles to Cuba and agreed to dismantle and remove the weapons that were already there. Kennedy and his advisers had stared the Soviets down and the apparent capitulation of the Soviet Union in the standoff was instrumental in Khrushchev's being deposed in 1964.
     The Cuban Missile crisis comes to a close as Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev agrees to remove Russian missiles from Cuba in exchange for a promise from the United States to respect Cuba's territorial sovereignty. This ended nearly two weeks of anxiety and tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union that came close to provoking a nuclear conflict.
      The consequences of the crisis were many and varied. Relations between Cuba and the Soviet Union were on shaky ground for some time after Khrushchev's removal of the missiles, as Fidel Castro accused the Russians of backing down from the Americans and deserting the Cuban revolution. European allies of the United States were also angered, not because of the US stance during the crisis, but because the Kennedy administration kept them virtually in the dark about negotiations that might have led to an atomic war. Inside the Soviet Union, hard-liners were appalled at Khrushchev's withdrawal of the weapons. Two years later, in 1964, Leonid Brezhnev and Aleksei Kosygin pushed him from power and proceeded to lead the Soviet Union on a massive military buildup.
      There was perhaps one positive aspect of the crisis. Having gone to the edge of what President Kennedy referred to as the "abyss of destruction," cooler heads in both nations initiated steps to begin some control over nuclear weapons. Less than a year after the crisis ended, the United States and Soviet Union signed an agreement to end aboveground testing; in 1968, both nations signed a non-proliferation treaty.
1962 Le général Charles De Gaulle fait adopter par référendum une réforme de la Constitution française qui instaure l'élection du Président au suffrage universel direct et non plus par un collège de notables. Il obtient 62% de Oui. La réforme renforce l'aspect présidentiel de la Vème République ; elle met fin au régime d'assemblée qu'avait connu la précédente République.
1958 Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, patriarch of Venice, is elected Pope, taking the name John XXIII
1949 US missionary martyr Jim Elliot, 22, writes in his journal: “He is no fool who gives what he cannot keep to gain that which he cannot lose.”
1948 Flag of Israel is adopted
1946 German rocket engineers begin work in USSR
1940 Mussolini foolishly invades Greece
      Mussolini's army, already occupying Albania, invades Greece in what will prove to be a disastrous military campaign for the Duce's forces. Mussolini surprised everyone with this move against Greece; even his ally, Adolf Hitler, was caught off-guard, especially since the Duce had led Hitler to believe he had no such intention. Hitler denounced the move as a major strategic blunder. According to Hitler, Mussolini should have concentrated on North Africa, continuing the advance into Egypt. Even Mussolini's own chief of army staff found out about the invasion only after the fact!
      But despite being warned off an invasion of Greece by his own generals, despite the lack of preparedness on the part of his military, despite that it would mean getting bogged down in a mountainous country during the rainy season against an army willing to fight tooth and nail to defend its autonomy, Mussolini moved ahead out of sheer hubris, convinced he could defeat the Greeks in a matter of days. He also knew a secret, that millions of lire had been put aside to bribe Greek politicians and generals not to resist the Italian invasion. Whether the money ever made it past the Italian fascist agents delegated with the responsibility is unclear; if it did, it clearly made no difference whatsoever--the Greeks succeeded in pushing the Italian invaders back into Albania after just one week, and the Axis power spent the next three months fighting for its life in a defensive battle. To make matters worse, virtually half the Italian fleet at Taranto had been crippled by a British carrier-based attack. Mussolini had been humiliated.
1922 Benito Mussolini takes control of Italy's government
1919 Volstead Act to enforce Prohibition of alcohol in US.
     The US Congress passes the Volstead Act over President Woodrow Wilson's veto. The Volstead Act provided for the enforcement of the 18th Amendment to the US Constitution, also known as the Prohibition Amendment.
      The movement for the prohibition of alcohol began in the early 19th century, when Americans concerned about the adverse effects of drinking began forming temperance societies. By the late 19th century, these groups had become a powerful political force, campaigning on the state level and calling for national liquor abstinence. In December 1917, the 18th Amendment, prohibiting the "manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors for beverage purposes," was passed by Congress and sent to the states for ratification. In January 1919, the 18th amendment achieved the necessary two-thirds majority of state ratification, and prohibition became the law of the land.
     The Volstead Act, passed nine months later, provided for the enforcement of prohibition, including the creation of a special unit of the Treasury Department. Despite a vigorous effort by law-enforcement agencies, the Volstead Act failed to prevent the large-scale distribution of alcoholic beverages, and organized crime flourished in America. In 1933, the 21st Amendment to the Constitution was passed and ratified, repealing prohibition.
1918 Czechoslovakia gains independence as Austria-Hungary breaks up -- La Tchécoslovaquie proclame son indépendance sur les ruines de l'empire austro-hongrois.
1918 Tatra is the new name of the Nesselsdorf Wagenbau car company
      The company later known as Tatra constructed its first automobile in 1897, a vehicle largely inspired by the design of an early Benz automobile. Based in the small Moravian town of Nesselsdorf in the Austro-Hungarian empire, Tatra began as Nesselsdorf Wagenbau, a carriage and railway company that entered automobile production after chief engineer Hugo von Roslerstamm learned of the exploits of Baron Theodor von Liebieg, an avid Austrian motorist who drove across Eastern Europe in a Benz automobile. The Baron himself took the Nesselsdorf Wagenbau's first automobile, christened the President, on a test drive from Nesselsdorf to Vienna. He was impressed with the design and pushed von Roslerstamm and Nesselsdorf Wagenbau to enter racing. The company put its faith in the talented young engineer Hans Ledwinka, and under his leadership the Rennzweier and the Type A racers were produced, demonstrating modest racing success and encouraging the beginning of large-scale production of the Type S in 1909. The company continued to grow until 1914, when, with the outbreak of World War I, it shifted to railroad car construction.
      On this day in 1918, just two weeks before the end of the war on the Western front, the Moravian town of Nesselsdorf in the old Austro-Hungarian empire became the city of Koprivnicka in the newly created country of Czechoslovakia, necessitating a name change for the Nesselsdorf Wagenbau. Soon after the war, Hans Ledwinka and the newly named Koprivnicka Wagenbau began construction of a new automobile under the marquee Tatra. The Tatra name came from the Tatra High Mountains, some of the highest mountains in the Carpathian mountain range. Ledwinka settled on Tatra in 1919 after an experimental model with 4-wheel brakes passed a sleigh on a dangerously icy road, prompting the surprised sleigh riders to reportedly exclaim: "This is a car for the Tatras.” In 1923, the first official Tatra automobile, the Tatra T11, was completed, and Ledwinka's hope for an affordable "people's car" had come to fruition. The rugged and relatively small automobile gave many Czechoslovakians an opportunity to own an automobile for the first time, much as Ford's Model T had in the United States. In 1934, Tatra achieved an automotive first with the introduction of the Tatra 77, an innovative model that holds the distinction of being the world's first aerodynamically styled automobile powered by an air-cooled rear-mounted engine.
1912 Battle of Lulé Burgas begins as advancing Bulgarians meet stiff Turkish resistance. The bloody battle would last a a week during which the Turkish infantry endured murderous barrages from the Bulgarian artillery. By November 3, the Turks would be in full retreat toward the lines of Tchataldja, the last line of defense before Constantinople 30 km to the south.
1904 St Louis police try a new investigation method--fingerprints
1886 Statue of Liberty dedicated by Pres Grover Cleveland, it is celebrated by the 1st confetti (ticker tape) parade in NYC
1864 Battle of Boydton Plank Road (Burgess' Mill), Virginia concludes
1863 Engagement at Wauhatchie, Tennessee
1793 Eli Whitney applies for a patent on the cotton gin
1790 New York gives up claims to Vermont for $30'000
1776 Battle of White Plains; Washington retreats to NJ
1646 At Nonantum, Mass., colonial missionary John Eliot ("Apostle to the New England Indians"), 42, conducted the first Protestant worship service for the Indians of North America. He also delivered the first sermon preached to the Indians in their native tongue.
1492 Christopher Columbus discovers Cuba
0312 Roman emperor Constantine, 32, defeated the army of Maxentius, a contender to the throne, at Milvian Bridge, after trusting in a vision he had seen of the cross, inscribed with the words, "In hoc signo vinces.” Constantine was converted soon after and became the first Roman emperor to embrace the Christian faith. -- Constantin bat son rival Maxence au Pont Milvius. Une légende postérieure assure qu'il aurait alors vu une Croix dans le ciel, avec ces mots: "Tu vaincras par ce signe"! Le futur empereur romain aurait alors choisi de défendre le christianisme.
Deaths which occurred a 28 October:
2002 Robin Rogers, 50, Cheryl McGaffic, 44, Barbara Monroe, 45, and Robert Stewart Flores Jr., 41, who shoots himself after shooting the three clinical nursing assistant professors. at the University of Arizona's School of Nursing in Tucson. Gulf War veteran Flores, an obnoxious nursing student (in his final semester to become a registered nurse) who had threatened to blow up the building, armed with 5 handguns and at least 200 rounds of ammunition, kills Rogers in her 2nd-floor office at 08:35, then goes to the 4th floor and enters classroom 467 at 08:40 (15:40 UT) during an Nursing-475 (Critical Patien Care) exam, saying "Make your peace with God." He tells McGaffic “I'm going to give you a lesson in spirituality," shoots her twice in the chest then once in the head (she was an ethics professor who studied the relationship between health and spirituality in seriously ill patients). Then Flores goes to Monroe, who was hiding behind a desk, and asks “Are you ready to meet your maker?” She says 'Yes,' and he shoots her three times. — A university police report of 24 April 2001 notes that instructor Melissa M. Goldsmith said that Robert S. Flores Jr. said that he was having problems with a paper but also had a lot of problems other than school: "He was depressed and thought about 'ending it all.'” and he “might put something under the college.”
Foley 27 Oct 20022002 Laurence Foley, 62 [27 Oct 2002 photo >], an employee of the US Agency for International Development mission in Jordan, which handles foreign aid and humanitarian programs, is about to get into his Mercedes in the garage of his home in Amman, at 07:30, when he is shot in the head and chest by at least seven 7mm-caliber bullet from a silencer-equipped pistol fired by Salem Saad bin Suweid, a Libyan, who is with his Jordanian accomplice Yasser Fatih Ibrahim. The two would be arrested by Jordanian police on 03 December 2002, confess to the crime and to being members of al-Qaida, and found in possession of plans, weapons, and money, which they had received from Ahmed al-Kalaylah (aka Abu Mussad al-Zarqawi), a fugitive Jordanian al-Qaida commander, for the purpose of carrying out more terrorist attacks in Jordan..
2001 Two Israelis waiting at a bus stop in Hadera, Israel, by automatic gun fire from two Islamic Jihad militants, who are then shot dead by Israeli plainclothes 12 other persons are wounded, 4 of them severely.
2001 An Israeli soldier in a drive-by shooting in Israel near the border with the West Bank.
2001 At least 10 Afghani civilians by US bombs smashing three mud houses in the Qali Hotair neighborhood on the northern edge of Kabul.
2001 (Sunday) Mohammad Salim, Muslim police officer guarding the gate of St. Dominic's Catholic Church in Behawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan, 100 km south of Multan, Father Emmanuel, protestant minister about to conclude a service, six other men, four children under 12, and four women, by 2 minutes of indiscriminate gunfire from four masked attackers at about 09:00. Many other are wounded. As usual, the Protestant congregation, not having its own church in the area, is given hospitality by the Catholic church. Christians are among the 3% non-Muslims in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
2001 Two soldiers and one civilian, as bomb explodes under a seat of a passenger bus passing through Rubber Market in a heavily guarded military subdivision of Quetta, Baluchistan, Pakistan. 25 other persons are wounded.
2001 Unnamed newborn girl Aldridge, early in the morning, in Norfolk, Virginia, immediately after unexpected birth in a hotel bathroom, drowned by mother Kuturah Aldrige [26 May 1983] while her mate and the newborn's father, Anton Johnson, was still sleeping. Kuturah confesses to the crime and would, on 20 February 2003, be convicted of first-degree murder and sentenced on 23 May 2003 (the maximum is 20 years in prison).
2000 Anthony Dwain Lee, 39. shot several times by Los Angeles police officer Tarriel Hopper (both are Black), at about 01:00. Lee was at a costumed Halloween party and had pointed a toy gun at Hopper, who was coming to investigate a noise complaint.
1991 John Korbal, 51, film historian (Marlene Dietrich)
1987 André Masson, 91, French Surrealist painter, sculptor, draftsman, printmaker, illustrator, stage designer, and writer, born on 04 January 1896. — MORE ON MASSON AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1986 Reiner, mathematician.
1980:: 10 children, as a result of a fire set by Leonard Kidd.
1965 Eisenhart, mathematician
1925 George William Joy, British artist born in 1844. — MORE ON JOY AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1918 Dini, mathematician
1900 Friedrich Max Müller, translator of The Dhammapada, The Upanishads (selections)
1900 Henry Sidgwick, author. SIDGWICK ONLINE: The Methods of Ethics
1893 Eduard Schleich II, German artist born on 15 February 1853.
1891 Some 7300 in quake at Mino-Owari, Japan.
1864 Rebs and Yanks as 2nd Battle of Fair Oaks concludes
      Union forces withdraw from Fair Oaks, Virginia, after failing to breach the Confederate defenses around Richmond. The assault was actually a diversion to draw attention from a larger Union offensive around Petersburg. The scene of one of the Seven Days' Battles in June 1862, Fair Oaks was located on the defensive perimeter around the Confederate capital of Richmond. General Robert E. Lee's army constructed five lines of trenches that stretched 40 kilometers south to Petersburg. For five months, Lee's troops had been under siege by the forces of Union General Ulysses S. Grant. The monotony of the siege was broken only periodically by a Union attempt to break Lee's lines. One such attack came at Hatcher's Run, southwest of Petersburg, on 27 October. At the same time, Grant ordered an attack at Fair Oaks, about 39 km from the assault at Hatcher's Run.
      The Richmond defenses were formidable, so any direct assault was unlikely to succeed. By attacking at Fair Oaks, Grant hoped to prevent Lee from shifting any troops along the Richmond-Petersburg line to reinforce the lines at Hatcher's Run. Troops from General Benjamin Butler's Tenth Corps moved north of the James River and conducted a two-pronged offensive against Richmond on 27 October. Confederate General James Longstreet, in charge of the Richmond section of the Confederate defenses, skillfully positioned troops to thwart the Yankees. Union General Godfrey Weitzel, commander of part of the attack, enjoyed some initial success but could not significantly penetrate the Rebel trenches. On 02 October, he determined that he had accomplished all that he could, and he withdrew his troops.
      Some 1100 Union men were killed, wounded, or captured during the attack, while the Confederates lost just 450. The planned diversion did not work--at the far end of the defenses, the Yankees failed to move around the end of the Confederate line at Hatcher's Run.
1856 Johann Peter Krafft, in Vienna, Austrian painter, teacher, and curator, born in Hanau, Germany on 15 September 1780. — MORE ON KRAFFT AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1806 Charlotte (Turner) Smith, author. CHARLOTTE SMITH ONLINE: Beachy Head: With Other Poems -- Elegiac Sonnets, and Other Poems -- The Emigrants book 1 + book 2
1704 John Locke
  • An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (6th edition)
  • An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
  • Further Considerations Concerning Raising the Value of Money
  • A Letter Concerning Toleration (translated)
  • Of the Conduct of the Understanding
  • Second Treatise of Government
  • Second Treatise of Government
  • Short Observations on a Printed Paper, Entitled "For Encouraging the Coining Silver Money in England, and After For Keeping it Here"
  • Some Considerations of the Consequences of the Lowering of Interest and the Raising the Value of Money
  • Some Thoughts Concerning Education
  • Some Thoughts Concerning Education
  • Two Treatises of Government (PDF)
  • 1703 John Wallis, mathematician
    1577 Michele Tosini di Ridolfo del Ghirlandaio, Italian artist born on 08 May 1503. — MORE ON TOSINI AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
    1531 fra Lorenzo, Bernardino Parenzano, Italian monk, prophet, and artist born in 1437, who is confused with another artist of the same names, born about 1450 and who died about 1500. — more with links to images.
    0900 Alfred the Great, English monarch
    Births which occurred on a 28 October:
    Gateway Arch1965 Gateway Arch in St. Louis
          Workers "top out" the final section of the Gateway Arch in St. Louis, Missouri, completing construction of the nation's tallest memorial after four years of work. A graceful 184-meter-high ribbon of gleaming stainless steel, the Gateway Arch spans 192 meters at the ground and is meant to symbolically mark the gateway from the eastern United States to the West. Architect Eero Saarinen's dramatic design was chosen during a 1947 competition, and has since become a landmark famous around the world.
         The Gateway Arch has foundations sunken 20 meters into the ground and is built to withstand earthquakes and high winds. An internal tram system takes visitors up to the top. Saarinen, who died in 1961, did not live to see the completion of his architectural masterpiece, but in 1967 his widow attended the formal dedication of the monument.
          The Gateway Arch is the most prominent feature of St. Louis's Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Park, which also includes an Underground Visitors Center featuring exhibits charting the 100-year history of America's westward expansion. Although St. Louis was by no means the only jumping-off point for emigrants moving westward, during much of the 19th century the city's advantageous location, just below the confluence of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers, made it an important hub for much of the nation's western expansion. Most famously, Lewis and Clark began their exploration of the newly acquired Louisiana Territory when they departed from St. Louis in May 1804, and Zebulon Pike also started his western explorations there in 1805. Once these famous trailblazers had shown the way, thousands of other followed in their footsteps.
          For a time, St. Louis was also a center for the fur trade, as the mountain men scoured the western streams and lakes for valuable animals and sent their skins back East through the city. As the tide of easterners emigrating West steadily grew, St. Louis also became a popular jumping-off point for the main overland trails to Santa Fe, California, and Oregon. The arrival of the first steamboat, the Pike, along the docks of St. Louis in 1817 began the city's role as a hub for steam-powered water transportation along the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers.
          Railroads, too, ensured that St. Louis would be an important transportation center for the second half of the 19th century. However, railroads also made it possible for the upstart city of Chicago to begin challenging St. Louis's role as the gateway to the West. With its easy access to the extensive network of eastern lakes, canals, and railroads, after 1850 Chicago began to supplant St. Louis as the major railway hub and economic center of the West.
    1955 William Henry Gates, in Seattle.
         Bill Gates and his childhood friend Paul Allen began programming computers in high school, when they created and sold a program to control traffic patterns in Seattle. Gates dropped out of Harvard in 1975 after he and Allen created a compiler for the BASIC computing language and sold it to fledgling PC company MITS.
          In 1977, Gates and Allen founded Microsoft and built the company by creating versions of BASIC for various personal computers. The company's biggest break came in 1981, when IBM introduced the IBM PC, running Microsoft DOS as its operating system. Microsoft's lock on the operating system market grew stronger (by illegal monopolistic methods), and Gates became one of the wealthiest men in the US by the time he turned thirty-five, and the wealthiest by far not long after that (who could and did afford more expensive lawyers than the government's).
    Salk1929 First child born in aircraft, Miami, Florida.
    1914 Dr Jonas Salk [photo >], NYC, medical researcher, made polio a fear of the past with the Salk polio vaccine; did AIDS research. Following small field trials, one was conducted with 440'000 US children; its positive results were announced on 12 April 1955. In 1970 Salk married the French painter and former mistress of Picasso, Francoise Gilot. In later years, Salk dabbled in painting, poetry, and writing on themes as much philosophical as scientific. He described himself as one of a few highly evolved people who shape and hasten evolution. Salk died on 23 June 1995. His books include Man Unfolding (1972) and The Survival of the Wisest (1973).
    1909 Francis Bacon, Irish English Expressionist painter, specialized in portraits. who died on 28 April 1992.
    MORE ON BACON AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to biography and images.
    1905 Mrs. Warren's Profession by Shaw performed, once only
          George Bernard Shaw's play Mrs. Warren's Profession, which dealt frankly with prostitution, is performed at the Garrick Theater in New York. The play, Shaw's second, had been banned in Britain. After only one performance, puritanical authorities in New York had the play closed. On October 31, the producer and players were arrested for obscenity, but a court case against the play failed to convict playwright, producer, or actors. Although some private productions were held, the show wasn't legally performed in Britain until 1926.
          Shaw was born on 26 July 1856 and died on 02 November 1950. He won the 1925 Nobel Literature Prize “for his work which is marked by both idealism and humanity, its stimulating satire often being infused with a singular poetic beauty.”
    . MORE
  • Man and Superman
  • Man and Superman
  • Pygmalion
  • You Never Can Tell
  • Misalliance
  • Mrs. Warren's Profession
  • Mrs. Warren's Profession
  • Major Barbara, with an Essay as First Aid to Critics
  • The Perfect Wagnerite: A Commentary on the Niblung's Ring
  • An Unsocial Socialist
  • 1903 Evelyn Arthur St.John Waugh London, author (Brideshead Revisited). He died on 10 April 1966.
    Give me your tired, your poor ...1886 The Statue of Liberty is dedicated.
          The Statue of Liberty, a gift of friendship from the people of France to the people of the United States, is dedicated in New York Harbor by President Grover Cleveland. [read New York Times article]
          Originally known as "Liberty Enlightening the World," the statue was proposed by the French historian Edouard de Laboulaye to commemorate the Franco-American alliance during the US War of Independence. Designed by French sculptor Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi, the 151-foot statue was the form of a woman with an uplifted arm holding a torch. Its framework of gigantic steel supports was designed by Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc and Alexandre-Gustave Eiffel, the latter famous for his design of the Eiffel Tower in Paris.
          In February 1877, Congress approved the use of a site on New York Bedloe's Island, which was suggested by Bartholdi. In May 1884, the statue was completed in France, and three months later the US laid the cornerstone for its pedestal in New York Harbor. In June 1885, the dismantled Statue of Liberty arrived in the New World, enclosed in more than 200 packing cases. Its copper sheets were reassembled, and the last rivet of the monument was fitted on 28 October 1886, during a dedication presided over by President Cleveland and attended by numerous French and US dignitaries.
          On the pedestal is inscribed The New Colossus, a sonnet by US poet Emma Lazarus that welcomed immigrants to the United States. In 1892, Ellis Island, adjacent to Bedloe's Island, opened as the chief entry station for immigrants to the United States, and for the next 32 years more than 12 million immigrants were welcomed into New York harbor by the sight of "Lady Liberty." In 1924, the Statue of Liberty was made a national monument, and in 1956 Bedloe's Island was renamed Liberty Island. The statue underwent a major restoration in the 1980s.
    La Liberté éclairant le monde
         "La Liberté éclairant le monde" est inaugurée à l'entrée du port de New York le 28 octobre 1886. Ce cadeau de la France aux Etats-Unis célèbre l'amitié franco-américaine. C'est la plus colossale statue jamais construite (35 mètres de haut et 93 avec le piédestal). Elle est l'oeuvre du sculpteur Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi.
    Auguste Bartholdi
         Né à Colmar en 1834, Auguste Bartholdi s'est fait connaître en sculptant le "Lion de Belfort". Pour figurer la "La Liberté éclairant le monde", le sculpteur a choisi comme modèle sa propre femme, Jeanne-Emilie de Puissieux, une ancienne couturière. La statue a été exécutée avec des plaques de cuivre et d'abord montée à Paris. Une armature intérieure en fer conçue par l'ingénieur Gustave Eiffel la rend apte à résister aux plus violentes tempêtes.
         Pour les millions d'immigrants qui débarqueront pendant des décennies à Ellis Island, la statue de la Liberté figurera longtemps l'espoir d'une vie meilleure.
    Emma Lazarus
         Le piédestal présente un poème d'Emma Lazarus, The New Colossus:
    NOT like the brazen giant of Greek fame,
    With conquering limbs astride from land to land;
    Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand
    A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame
    Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name
    Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand
    Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command
    The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame.
    "Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she
    With silent lips. “Give me your tired, your poor,
    Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
    The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
    Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,
    I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”
    1854 Lowell Birge Harrison, US artist who died in 1929.
    1846 Albert Dubois-Pillet, French artist who died on 18 August 1890.
    1846 Auguste Escoffier, king of chefs and chef of kings, who died on 12 February 1935. — Né à Villeneuve-Loubet, il est l'auteur du Livre des Menus.
    1831 Charles Colcock Jones, author. CHARLES JONES ONLINE: The Religious Instruction of the Negroes in the United States, The Siege of Savannah in December, 1864
    1823 William Simpson, British artist who died on 17 August 1899.
    {1818 28 October Julian: birth of Ivan Turgenev: go to 09 November (Gregorian)}
    1817 Henry Harbaugh, author. HARBAUGH ONLINE: The Heavenly Recognition
    1813 Johann Georg Meyer (von Bremen), German painter who died on 04 December 1886. — link to an image.
    1804 Verhulst, mathematician.
    1793 Eliphalet Remington, US firearms manufacturer and inventor, who died on 12 August 1861.
    1790 Bartholomeus-Johannes van Hove, Dutch artist who died on 08 November 1880. more
    1735 Simon Julien, French painter and engraver who died on 30 June 1798, or on 23 or 24 February 1800. more
    1703 Deparcieux, mathematician
    1619 Guillam Gabron, Belgian artist who died on 92 August 1678.
    1603 Simon de Vos, Flemish artist who died on 15 October 1676. — MORE ON DE VOS AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
    1585 Cornelius Otto Jansen, French Roman Catholic reform leader, who died on 06 May 1638.
    1467 Erasme, philosophe humaniste, à Rotterdam. -- Desiderius ERASMUS ONLINE: All the Familiar Colloquies of Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam, Concerning Men, Manners, and Things -- Complete On-Line Works. -- The Praise of Folie = Moriae Encomium -- The Praise of Folly -- The Praise of Folly
    1017 Henry III, Holy Roman emperor from 1046 to his 05 October 1056 death.
    Holidays Cuba : Loss of Major Camila Cienfuegas / Czechoslovakia : Foundation of the Republic Day (1918) / Greece, Cyprus : Ochi Day (1940)

    Religious Observances RC, Ang, Luth: Feast of SS Simon & Jude, apostles -- Simon et son frère Jude sont cités parmi les Douze apôtres qui accompagnent Jésus. Surnommé le Zélote, Simon devait venir de la secte du même nom. Elle était formée de nationalistes juifs partisans de chasser les Romains sans plus attendre. Avec son frère, il ira prêcher l'Evangile en Perse et c'est là qu'ils seront tous les deux martyrisés.

    Como foi que a placa "É proibido pisar na grama" foi colocada lá?
    Thoughts for the day : “No facts are sacred, none are profane.”
    “No profanity is fact, none is secured.”
    “No fax can make a sack red, none is prof Ayne's.”
    “He is no fool who gives what he cannot keep to gain that which he cannot lose.”
    “He has no gain who gives to a fool what he cannot keep.”
    “Even a fool cannot lose what he never gained.”
    “He is a fool who loses what he was given and cannot regain.”
    “He is no giver who fools those he wants to keep, but cannot but lose.”

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