| On an October 30:
2000 School stupidity: Brandi Blackbear, 15, was suspended for 15 days from her Tulsa high school in December 1999, for witchcraft, the ACLU reveals as it says it has filed a lawsuit on her behalf. Brandi, a Catholic, was accused of making a male teacher sick.
1999 Red Cross says Russian attack on Chechen refugees killed 2 of its workers (CNN)
1998 Para ayudar a los países con dificultades financieras, el Grupo de los 7 aprueba un fondo de 12,6 billones de pesetas, aportado por el Banco Mundial y el Fondo Monetario Internacional.
1997 Mary McAleese se convierte en la primera ciudadana del Ulster que gana las elecciones presidenciales en Irlanda desde la independencia.
1997 En Chile, El general Ricardo Izurieta es designado sucesor del General José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte, para los siguientes cuatro años.
1997 El cohete europeo " Ariane 5" realiza su segundo vuelo de ensayo tras la explosión del primer lanzamiento en junio de 1996 . El accidente del anterior vuelo supuso un retraso de más de dos años en la comercialización prevista del nuevo cohete.
1997 A jury in Cambridge, Massachusetts, convicts British au pair Louise Woodward of second-degree murder of 8-month-old Matthew Eappen. The judge would later reduce the verdict to manslaughter and set Woodward free.
1996 After a four-hour trial, a Chinese court sentences pro-democracy activist Wang Dan to 11 years in prison for "conspiring to subvert the Chinese government." (Wang would be freed in April 1998 and sent into exile in the United States.)
1992 Muslim Slav, Croatian soldiers and civilians were driven from the strategic Bosnian town of Jajce in fierce street battles with Serbian forces.
1991 The Middle East peace conference in Madrid, Spain, opens with addresses to the delegates by President George Bush (Sr.) and Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev.. The participants included Israel, Syria, Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan and Palestinians from the Israeli-occupied territories.
1991 30 países firman en Madrid el protocolo del Tratado Antártico, que protege a la zona de la explotación durante 50 años.
1989 Mitsubishi Estate Co., a major Japanese real estate concern, announced it was buying 51 percent of Rockefeller Group Inc. of New York.
1988 Philip Morris pays $13.1 billion to take over fellow industry giant Kraft. While Phillip Morris was sizeable even before the deal, acquiring Kraft made it the world's single biggest producer of consumer goods.
1988 Liberado, sano y salvo, Emiliano Revilla, tras pagar un rescate de unos dos mil millones de pesetas a ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna), que le mantuvo secuestrado durante 249 días.
1983 Raúl Ricardo Alfonsín Folukes gana las elecciones y es nombrado presidente de Argentina.
1985 El Consejo de Ministros español aprueba el reglamento del Impuesto sobre el Valor Añadido (IVA).
1980 Honduras and El Salvador settle their boundary dispute restablecen relaciones plenas tras la firma en Lima de un Tratado de Paz.
1980 Ahmed Ben Bella, presidente de Argelia de 1963 a 1965, es puesto en libertad tras permanecer 15 años encarcelado.
1979 US President Carter announced his choice of federal appeals judge Shirley Hufstedler to head the newly created Department of Education.
1978 Laura Nickel & Curt Noll find 25th Mersenne prime, 2 ^ 21701-1
1965 Souhayl Ben Barka, jefe de la oposición socialista marroquí, es secuestrado en París.
1965 In New York City, military veterans lead a parade in support of government policy in Vietnam. Led by five recipients of the Congressional Medal of Honor, 25'000 people march in support of the US's action in Vietnam.
1961 Soviet Union tests a 58 megaton hydrogen bomb
1956 Israel captures Egyptian militay post at El-Thamad
1954 US Defense Department announces elimination of all segregated regiments
1953 It is announced that the 1953 Nobel Peace Prize will go to US General George Catlett Marshall [31 Dec 1880 16 Oct 1959], General, President American Red Cross, ex-Secretary of State and of Defense, and Delegate to the UN, for originating, after World War II, the European Recovery Program (Marshall Plan), which he first suggested in a 05 June 1947 address.. MORE
1950 The First Marine Division is ordered to replace the entire South Korean I Corps at the Chosin Reservoir area.
1950 Gustavo VI de Suecia sube al trono.
1948 Victor Raul Haya de la Torre se refugia en la embajada de Colombia en Lima (Perú).
1945 US government announces end of shoe rationing.
1938 A radio staging of H.G. Wells' War of the Worlds (with simulated news reports) is broadcast by Orson Welles' Mercury Theatre at CBS. Many panic believing it is a newscast about a real Martian invasion
1938 Anexión de los Sudetes por Alemania y desmembramiento de Checoslovaquia.
1930 Turkey & Greece sign a treaty of friendship
1925 John Logie Baird consigue la primera transmisión televisiva de un objeto en movimiento.
1923 En Alemaña, Wilhelm Marx, jefe del partido centrista, forma nuevo
1922 Mussolini sends his black shirts into Rome. The Fascist takeover is almost without bloodshed. The next day, Mussolini is made prime minister. Mussolini centralized all power in himself as leader of the Fascist party and attempted to create an Italian empire, ultimately in alliance with Hitler's Germany. -- Les militants fascistes du parti de Benito Mussolini célèbrent par une "Marche sur Rome" la nomination deux jours plus tôt de leur chef à la tête du gouvernement. C'est la première victoire d'un parti non-démocratique en Europe occidentale. Benito Mussolini recibe el encargo de formar Gobierno en Italia..
1918 The Italians capture Vittorio Veneto and rout the Austro-Hungarian army.
1918 Estalla en Hungría la "revolución de las rosas de otoño", dirigida por el conde Miguel Karoly, que formó el primer Gobierno nacional, pues Hungría quedó separada de Austria.
1918 Turkey signs an armistice with the Allies, agreeing to end hostilities at noon, 31 October.
1918 Slovakia asks for creation of Czechoslovakian state
1915 Aristide Briand sustituye a Viviani en el cargo de primer ministro de Francia.
1912 Battle of Lulé Burgas enters its third day, as Bulgarians try to overcome stiff Turkish resistance. The bloody battle would last a a week during which the Turkish infantry endured murderous barrages from the Bulgarian artillery. By November 3, the Turks would be in full retreat toward the lines of Tchataldja, the last line of defense before Constantinople 30 km to the south.
1905 "October Manifesto" Russian Tsar Nicholas II grants civil liberties and elections in an attempt to avert the burgeonng support for revolution. -- Suite à la révolution de janvier et à la défaite des Russes face aux Japonais, le tsar Nicolas II doit publier un Manifeste par lequel il instaure un régime constitutionnel en Russie. Mais cette expérience ne durera pas plus de quelques mois et son échec conduira le tsarisme et le tsar à leur mort.
1905 Tras la superación de la crisis, se reorganiza el Gobierno español y lo preside Eugenio Montero Ríos.
1903 Revolución en Santo Domingo. Barcos de guerra americanos y europeos desembarcan tropas para proteger los consulados.
1902 Pope Leo XIII published the apostolic letter "Vigilantiae," which officially established the Pontifical Commission of Biblical Studies. Created to safeguard the authority of Scripture from outside secular criticism, in 1904 the Commission was empowered to confer academic degrees.
1899 Two battalions of British troops are cut off, surrounded and forced to surrender to General Petrus Joubert's Boers at Nicholson's Nek.
1864 La Paz de Viena pone fin a la guerra que venía sosteniendo Dinamarca con Prusia y Austria. Es la primera gran victoria del Canciller de Hierro.
1831 Afro-American Nat Turner is jailed in Jerusalem, Virginia, for a slave revolt he led a month earlier that killed 57 white Virginians. He was a lay preacher.
1822 En el Congreso de Verona, las potencias monárquicas europeas acuerdan la intervención armada en España a favor de Fernando VII, incómodo con los gobiernos liberales.
1817 Simon Bolivar established the independent government of Venezuela.
1813 Las tropas francesas capitulan en Pamplona. Termina así la Guerra de la Independencia española.
1697 The Treaty of Ryswick ends the war between France and the Grand Alliance.
1536 Thirteen years after Lutheran ministers came to bring spiritual renewal to its people, Denmark adopted Lutheranism as its official state religion.
1520 Carta de Hernán Cortés a Carlos I, desde México, en la que comunica al emperador que le ha dado el nombre de Nueva España al territorio donde se había establecido.
1485 Henry Tudor, 28, is crowned Henry VII of England. -- Première assemblée des Yeomen de la Garde qui auraient été créés, quelques mois plus tôt par Henry à la bataille de Bosworth où il vainquit Richard III, qui y trouva la mort. Aujourd'hui corps de vétérans, les Yeomen font partie de la Maison de la Reine, dont ils sont les gardes du corps dans certaines cérémonies. Ils portent toujours leur uniforme du XVème siécle.
1270 French King Saint Louis IX, having failed years before in the 7th Crusade, launches an 8th Crusade, which will be aborted when he dies of fever before Tunis.
0335 Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, meets Constantine outside Constantinople. Constantine flies into a rage when someone says Athanasius held up grain shipments from Egypt. This leads to one of Athanasius's many episodes of disfavor with ruling authorities.
which occurred on an October 30:|
2002 Julian Lewis, 51, and his son C.J. Lewis, 25, shot in their Keeling, Virginia, home by Rodney Fuller, 20, and Matthew Shallenberger, 22, killers hired by the wife of Julian and stepmother of C.J. Teresa Lewis, who wanted to collect their life insurance.After pleading guilty in May 2003, she would be sentenced to death on 03 June 2003, though her IQ of 72 is close to the 71 below which the death penalty would be unconstitutional, according to a 2002 ruling by the US Supreme Court. Fuller would enter into a plea agreement to testify against Shallenberger in exchange for avoiding the death penalty and getting a sentence of life in prison instead.
2002 Erika Marie Dalquist, born on 18 April 1981, is never seen alive again (except by an unidentified male brown-haied White male acquaintance and possibly by other secretive criminals) after leaving the Tropical Nites, a downtown Brainerd, Minnesota (near I-94), bar popular with students from Central Lakes College. She was waiting for a taxi after the bar closed at 01:00, when she saw a man she recognized. She told her friends, who did not know the man, to cancel her cab, and she walked away with him. She worked at a telemarketing company.
2000 Five members of the Ahmadiyya community, shot by several gunmen as they leave their mosque after early morning prayers in Ghatialian village, near Sialkot, Punjab, Pakistan. Among the victims is a 16 year-old boy. Ten others are injured. It seems that in the following days no one is arrested in connection with the attack. There was tension in the village over religious issues. In 1999, a truce had been reached between Ahmadis and non-Ahmadis but Islamist groups had continued to instigate random violence. The local authorities took no action to halt intermittant attacks on Ahmadis. Ahmadis are considered heretical by orthodox Muslims in Pakistan. The Ahmadiyya community was declared non-Muslim in 1974 and a number of laws were subsequently passed which makes it a criminal offense for Ahmadis to profess, practice, and preach their faith. Dozens of Ahmadis have been charged under religious sections of the Pakistan Penal Code. In Sialkot district alone, criminal cases based on religion were brought against 23 Ahmadis earlier in 2000. Some 20 Ahmadis have been killed since 1994 by those who oppose their faith. Religious organizations advocating violence against Ahmadis are permitted to function openly. Vernacular media spreading the message of hate and violence of such organizations are not restrained by the authorities.
1984 Rev. Jerzy Popieluszko is found dead; he had been abducted 11 days earlier by the Polish secret police, and his corpse shows marks of torture.
1975 Martha Moxley, 15 [photo >], bludgeoned with a golf club, and finished off by being stabbed in the neck with the broken golf club shaft, at about 22:00, after a night of pre-Halloween partying in the exclusive Belle Haven section of Greenwich, Connecticut. Michael Skakel, 15 at the time of the murder, would be arrested for it on 19 January 2000 and tried as an adult beginning on 07 May 2002 at state Superior Court in Norwalk, Connecticut. On 07 June 2002 he would be convicted and, on 16 July 2002, sentenced to prison for 20 years to life (eligible for parole in 11 years).
1974 Diez obreros, en el incendio de la factoría Fasa-Renault. Los heridos son más de treinta.
1972: 45 persons are killed as an Illinois Central Gulf commuter train collides with another train on Chicago's South Side.
1970: 293Vietnamese, killed by monsoon rains, the worst in six years. 200'000 are left homeless.Vietnam war fighting in the five northern-most provinces is almost halted.
1965: 48 Vietnamese civilians bombed by US, 55 wounded, in a friendly South Vietnamese village. An American civic action team is immediately dispatched to the scene, and a later investigation would disclose that a map-reading error by South Vietnamese officers was responsible
1956 Pío Baroja y Nessi, novelista español.
1950 Luis Carlos López, poeta y periodista colombiano.
1949 Ángel González Palencia, arabista y escritor español.
1948 20 die & 6000 made ill by smog in Donora Pennsylvania
1919 Ella Wheeler Wilcox, author of Custer, and Other Poems, Custer, and Other Poems, How Salvator Won and Other Recitations, Poems of Pleasure, Poems of Power, Shells
1917 Andrews, Elisha Benjamin: author of An Address Delivered... December 21, 1875, At His Inauguration as President of Denison University
1912 Graeme Mercer Adam, author of Canada, Historical and Descriptive, From Sea to Sea -- Prominent Men of Canada: A Collection of Persons Distinguished in Professional and Political Life, and in the Commerce and Industry of Canada -- co-author of An Algonquin Maiden: A Romance of the Early Days of Upper Canada
1895 Adolf Stademann, German artist born on 19 June 1824. links to two images
1893 Karl Bodmer, in Barbizon, France, Swiss painter specialized in the US West, born in February 1809. MORE ON BODMER AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1893 Sir John Abbott, 72, PM of Canada (C) (1891-1892)
1883 Dos de los cabecillas de la insurrección en Belgrado (Serbia) de 15 días de duración, ejecutados, así termina la insurrección.
1810 Francais Francais, mathematician
1799 Esteban de Arteaga, jesuita español dedicado a la Estética.
1739 Magnitsky, mathematician
1632 Henri II, duc de Montmorency, Maréchal de France, voulait que Gaston d'Orléans, frère du roi Louis XIII, monte sur le trône. En dépit des dix-sept blessures qu'il a reçues lors des combats de Castelnaudary, il est vivant. Il a été fait prisonnier et ce jour, à Toulouse, où il a été jugé et condamné à mort pour crime de lèse-majesté, il est conduit à l'échafaud. Il a refusé d'être soigné et pansé : "Non, l'heure est venue de guérir toutes mes plaies par une seule. Malgré l'ordre du roi qui dispensait qu'on lui lie les mains, il demande à ce qu'on les lui attache : "Je ne saurai mourir avec assez de honte.
1666 Willem Gilleszoon Kool, Dutch artist born in 1608. [he must have painted some Kool pictures, but I cannot find anything of or on him].
1661 Alexander Adriaenssen, Flemish painter baptized as an infant on 16 January 1587. — more
1632 Jean Armoux, teólogo y predicador francés.
1626 Willebrord Snell van Roijen, 35, Dutch mathematician
1429 Ambrogio di Baldese, Italian artist born in 1352.
| Births which occurred
on an October 30:
1956 Frédéric Berger, Swiss artist. His site.
1946 Thurston, mathematician
1928 Daniel Nathans, biólogo estadounidense, Nobel de Fisiología y Medicina 1978. The 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine would be awarded to Daniel Nathans, jointly with Werner Raber and Hamilton O. Smith, for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics. Nathans died on 16 November 1999. MORE
1922 John Craxton, British artist. — links to images.
1912 José Ferrater Mora, filósofo y escritor español.
1910 La Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) celebra en Barcelona su congreso constitutivo.
1910 Miguel Hernández, poeta español.
1907 Harold Davenport, mathematician
1906 Tikhonov, mathematician.
1885 Ezra Pound Hailey, Idaho, poet (Cantos)
1895 Dickinson Woodruff Richards, US Nobel Prize-winning physiologist (1956), who died on 23 February 1973.
1895 Mario Tozzi, Italian artist who died in 1979.
1893 Angelo Siciliano Charles Atlas as he would call himself after turning himself from a 97-pound weakling [< photo] into the World's Most Perfectly Developed Man. (in his own words). [photo >] He died in 1972. His mail-order Total Health and Fitness Program is still promoted at http://www.charlesatlas.com/
1888 First ballpoint pen patented
1885 Ezra Loomis Pound, US literary critic and poet who promoted Imagism, a poetic movement stressing free phrase rather than forced metric. He was imprisoned for his pro-Fascist radio broadcasts. Translator of Rémy de Gourmont's The Natural Philosophy of Love. Pound died on 01 November 1972.
1882 William F. Bull" Halsey, Jr., US admiral who played an instrumental role in the defeat of Japan during World War II. The Japanese surrender was signed on his flagship, the USS Missouri.
1873 Francisco Madero Mexico, revolutionary, president (1911-13)
1871 Paul Valéry France, poet/essayist/critic (La Jeune)
1864 Helena, Montana, is founded
The town of Helena, Montana, is founded by four gold miners who struck it rich at the appropriately named "Last Chance Gulch. The first major Anglo settlement of Montana had begun just two years before in the summer of 1862, when prospectors found a sizeable deposit of placer gold at Grasshopper Creek to the west. When other even richer deposits were soon discovered nearby, a major rush began as tens of thousands of miners scoured the territory in search of gold. In 1864, four prospectors spotted signs of gold in the Helena area while on their way to the Kootenai country, but they were eager to reach the reportedly rich gold regions farther to the north and did not to stop. But after striking out on the Kootenai, they decided to take "one last chance" on finding gold and returned. When the signs turned out to mark a rich deposit of placer gold, they staked their claims and named the new mining district Last Chance Gulch.
Eventually, Last Chance Gulch would prove to be the second biggest placer gold deposit in Montana, producing some $19 million worth of gold in just four years. Overnight, thousands of miners began to flood into the region, and the four original discoverers added to their fortunes by establishing the town of Helena to provide them with food, lodging, and supplies. But unlike many of the early Montana mining towns, Helena did not disappear once the gold gave out, which it inevitably did. Located on several major transportation routes, well supplied with agricultural products from an adjacent valley, and near to several other important mining towns, Helena was able to survive and grow by serving the wider Montana mining industry. In 1875, the city became the capital of Montana Territory, and in 1894, the capital of the new state of Montana.
1861 Horace Annesley Vachell, author of The Hill: A Romance of Friendship
1858 Louise Abbéma, French Artist who died in 1927.
1857 Gertrude Franklin (Horn) Atherton, novelist. ATHERTON ONLINE: Rezánov Rezánov
1853 Ottokar Walter, Austrian artist who died on 15 December 1904.
1844 Halphen, mathematician
1843 Henri Alexandre Georges Regnault, French painter specialized in Orientalism. He died on 19 January 1871. MORE ON REGNAULT AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1842 Thomas Jacques Somerscales, British artist, active in Chile, who died on 27 June 1927. MORE ON SOMERSCALES AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1840 Neuberg, mathematician
1839 Alfred Sisley, French painter who died on 29 January 1899. MORE ON SISLEY AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1827 Leopold Baron of Löffler-Radymno, Austrian Polish artist who died on 06 February 1898.
1799 Emilius-Ditlev Baerentzen, Danish artist who died on 14 February 1868.
1794 L'Ecole Normale Déjà le problème des instituteurs se pose et pour suppléer à ce manque, Lakanal, au nom du Comité d'instruction publique, crée l'Ecole Normale. Mille six cents citoyens " déjà instruits dans les sciences utiles " sont désignés par les administrateurs de districts et envoyés à Paris, où on leur apprendra l'art d'enseigner.
1789 Hiram Bingham, author. BINGHAM ONLINE: Story of the Morning Star, the Children's Missionary Vessel
1751 Richard Brinsley Sheridan playwright, author of The Rivals, SHERIDAN ONLINE: The School for Scandal The School for Scandal
1740 Angelica Catharina Maria Anna Kauffman, Swiss artist who died on 05 November 1807.
1737 Niklas Lafrensen, Swedish painter who died on 07 December 1807. MORE ON LAFRENSEN AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1735 John Adams, Braintree, Mass (F) 2nd US president (1797-1801). Before being president, he helped draft the Declaration of Independence and the Treaty of Paris, ending the American Revolution. John Adams died on the 50th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, 04 July 1826.
1712 Christian Wilhelm Ernst Dietrich, German painter who died on 23 April 1774. MORE ON DIETRICH AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1657 Jacques Autreau, French artist who died on 16 October 1745.