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Events, deaths, births, of SEP 08

[For Sep 08 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Sep 181700s: Sep 191800s: Sep 201900~2099: Sep 21]
On a 08 September:
2001 Kevin Funchess, 41, school teacher, is pulled out of an open manhole in a grassy area beneath a freeway near his home in Houston, into which he fell in the evening of 05 September as he was walking to get some fried chicken. His body wedged in just one meter below the surface, but he could not get out or move enough to reach the cell phone that was stuck beneath him in his backpack. His shouts for help went unheard and he was unable to answer the phone, which rang repeatedly as anxious family members tried to call him. He slept and prayed while hoping help would come. On this day, probably a bit thinner after three days without food and water, he is able to maneuver enough to reach the phone and call 911. Rescuers who pull him out say that he is dehydrated and sore, but in good condition [they don't mention him being soiled by urine and feces, as seems probable]. Funchess says: “[the experience] makes me look at certain things a lot differently now." [such as where he steps, I hope].

BIA seal2000 Bureau of Indian Affairs apologizes      ^top^
     Kevin Gover, a Pawnee Indian, head of the federal Bureau of Indian Affairs apologizes for the Bureau's "legacy of racism and inhumanity" that included massacres, forced relocations of tribes and attempts to wipe out Indian languages and cultures. "We accept also the moral responsibility of putting things right," he said.
     Since its creation as the Indian Office of the War Department in March 1824, the agency is believed responsible for the deaths of hundreds of thousands of Indians through "the deliberate spread of disease, the decimation of the mighty bison herds, the use of the poison alcohol to destroy mind and body, and the cowardly killing of women and children, [which] made for tragedy on a scale so ghastly that it cannot be dismissed as merely the inevitable consequence of the clash of competing ways of life."
     The atrocities continued after the BIA became part of the Interior Department in 1849. Children were brutalized in BIA-run boarding schools, Indian languages and religious practices were banned and traditional tribal governments were eliminated. The high rates of alcoholism, suicide and violence in Indian communities today are the result. "Poverty, ignorance and disease have been the product of this agency's work."
      Now, 90% of the BIA's 10'000 employees are Indian and the agency has changed into an advocate for tribal governments.
     The apology was made on behalf of the BIA only, not the whole US government, which, however, did not object. Canada's government has formally apologized for abuses in government-run boarding schools for Indians but has rejected calls for a broader apology. Australian Prime Minister John Howard also has rebuffed repeated calls for an apology to that country's Aboriginal population for similar abuses there.

2000 World leaders end the United Nations Millennium Summit with a pledge to solve humankind's problems, including poverty, war, AIDS, pollution and human rights abuses.
1997 AOL — WorldCom deal to acquire CompuServe.      ^top^
     America Online (AOL), the nation's largest Internet service provider, arranges a three-sided deal to acquire fast-fading CompuServe. Under the terms of the deal, WorldCom, a rising telecommunications company, anted up $1.2 billion in stock to acquire H&R Block's 80% stake in CompuServe. WorldCom then handed over CompuServe's base of 2.6 million subscribers in exchange for ASN, AOL's Internet telecommunications division. The addition of CompuServe's globally rich subscription base promised to fatten AOL's hefty lead in the US, as well as its presence abroad. AOL was also set to receive $175 million from WorldCom, a considerable sum for a company that had yet to turn a profit. The deal certainly strengthened WorldCom's technological capabilities: along with ASN, they got to hold on to some of CompuServe's key technology, including their speedy telecommunication lines and Internet connections.
     WorldCom bought CompuServe Corp. from its parent company, H&R Block. As part of the deal, WorldCom agreed to sell CompuServe's three million consumer customers to America Online. In exchange, AOL turned over its high-speed Internet access business. WorldCom, which kept CompuServe's twelve hundred corporate customers, became one of the largest networking companies in the industry. The deal boosted AOL's membership thirty percent, to twelve million people, making it six times as large as its closest competitor, the Microsoft Network.
1996 Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan gives one of his periodic updates. Though Wall Street felt that Greenspan was cautious, the ensuing months would be another period of unprecedented growth.
1996 Okinawans vote more than 10-1 in favor of a reduction of US military bases on their islands, in a referendum aimed at pressuring Washington to pull out its troops.
1994 Microsoft's coming operating system named Windows 95      ^top^
      Microsoft announces that its long-awaited operating system would be called Windows 95. Previously, the operating system had been referred to by its code name, Chicago. Some industry observers had expected the product to be called Windows 4.0, after its predecessor, Windows 3.1. The company said the product would be ready in the first half of 1995, but it was late August before the system actually shipped.
1994 Help-wanted ads online      ^top^
      Newspapers report that the New York Times Company would test online help-wanted ads. The six-month test would allow computer users to read ads without buying the print version of The New York Times. This effort followed the failure of an earlier attempt to allow job seekers to enter their resumes in a job database: the service shut down in June when the software developer running the system went out of business.
1988 Javier Sotomayer of Cuba high jumps world record 2.43 m
1986 Japan auto making goes to Europe      ^top^
      Continuing its enormous expansion of the 1970s and early 80s, the Nissan Motor Company Ltd. opened its Sunderland, England, plant, the first Japanese automobile factory in Europe. Established in 1933 as the Jidosha Seizo Company, Nissan remained a mid-size automobile manufacturer until it entered the world market in the 1960s, when its sales grew by leaps and bounds. Nissan, as well as several other Japanese manufacturers, continued to grow through the next decade, propelled by the increasing popularity of their fuel-efficient cars. Nissan eventually opened plants in Australia, Peru, Mexico, the United States, and Germany.
1975 Boston begins court ordered busing of public schools
1974 Ford pardons Nixon.      ^top^
      US President Gerald R. Ford preemptively pardons Richard M. Nixon for any crimes he may have committed or participated in while in office. Ford would later defend this action before the House Judiciary Committee, explaining that he wanted to end the national divisions created by the Watergate affair.
      On 17 June 1972, seven men, including two members of the Nixon reelection campaign, were arrested for breaking into and illegally wiretapping the Democratic National Committee headquarters in Washington DC's Watergate Hotel. Journalists and the Senate Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities discovered a higher-echelon conspiracy surrounding the incident, and a political scandal of unprecedented magnitude erupted.
      On 17 May 1973, the special Senate committee began televised proceedings on the rapidly escalating Watergate affair, and one week later, Harvard law professor Archibald Cox was sworn in as special Watergate prosecutor. During the Senate hearings, former White House legal counsel John Dean testified that the Watergate break-in had been approved by former Attorney General John Mitchell with the knowledge of chief White House advisers John Ehrlichman and H. R. Haldeman, and that the president had been aware of the cover-up.
      Meanwhile, Cox and his staff began to uncover widespread evidence of political espionage by CREEP, the Nixon reelection committee, illegal wiretapping of thousands of citizens by the administration, and corporate contributions to the Republican Party in return for political favors. In July, the existence of what were to be called the Watergate tapes, recordings of White House conversations between Nixon and his staff, was revealed during the Senate hearings. Cox subpoenaed these tapes, and after three months of delay, President Nixon agreed to send summaries of the recordings. Cox rejected the summaries, and Nixon fired him.
      His successor as special prosecutor, Leon Jaworski, leveled indictments against several high-ranking administration officials, including Mitchell and Dean, who were duly convicted. Public confidence in the president rapidly waned, and by July 30, 1974, the day that Nixon finally released the Watergate tapes under coercion from the US Supreme Court, the House Judiciary Committee had adopted three articles of impeachment against President Nixon: obstruction of justice, abuse of presidential powers, and hindrance of the impeachment process. On 09 August 1974, Richard M. Nixon became the first president in US history to resign from office.
1967 Uganda abolishes traditional tribal kingdoms, becomes a republic
1960 Penguin Books in Britain is charged with obscenity for trying to publish the D.H. Lawrence novel Lady Chatterly's Lover.
1958 Oman turns over Gwadur (on Balufchistan coast) to Pakistan
1957 Pope Pius XII encyclical On motion pictures, radio, TV
1955 The United States, Australia, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, the Philippines, Pakistan, and Thailand sign the mutual defense treaty that establishes the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO).
1954 Vietnam: 1954 SEATO established      ^top^
      Having been directed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower to put together an alliance to contain any communist aggression in the free territories of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia, or Southeast Asia in general, Secretary of State John Foster Dulles forges an agreement establishing a military alliance that becomes the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO). Signatories, including France, Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Pakistan, Thailand, and the United States, pledge themselves to “act to meet the common danger” in the event of aggression against any signatory state. A separate protocol to SEATO designated Laos, Cambodia, and “the free territory under the jurisdiction of the State of Vietnam [South Vietnam]” as also being areas subject to the provisions of the treaty.
      The language of the treaty did not go as far as the absolute mutual defense commitments and force structure of the NATO alliance, instead providing only for consultations in case of aggression against a signatory or protocol state before any combined actions were initiated. This lack of an agreement that would have compelled a combined military response to aggression significantly weakened SEATO as a military alliance. It was, however, used as legal basis for US involvement in South Vietnam. SEATO expired on 30 June 1977
1953 Continental Trailways offers the first transcontinental express bus service in the US The 5076 km ride from New York City to San Francisco lasts eighty-eight hours and fifty minutes, of which only seventy-seven minutes are non-riding time. The cost is $56.70. Nowadays, Greyhound charges $131.
1951 Japan signs treaty of peace with 48 countries, in San Francisco.
1950 The US Congress passes the Defense Production Act to adjust the economy to the Korean "police action". It includes wage and price controls.
1945 American troops occupy southern Korea.      ^top^
      US troops land in Korea to begin their postwar occupation of the southern part of that nation, almost exactly one month after Soviet troops had entered northern Korea to begin their own occupation. Although the US and Soviet occupations were supposed to be temporary, the division of Korea quickly became permanent. Korea had been a Japanese possession since the early 20th century. During World War II, the allies — the United States, Soviet Union, China, and Great Britain — made a somewhat hazy agreement that
      Korea should become an independent country following the war. As the war progressed, US officials began to press the Soviets to enter the war against Japan. At the Yalta Conference in February 1945, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin pledged that his nation would declare war on Japan exactly three months after Nazi Germany was defeated. A few months later, at the Potsdam Conference in July and August 1945, it was agreed that Soviet troops would occupy the northern portion of Korea, while American forces would take a similar action in southern Korea in order to secure the area and liberate it from Japanese control. The occupations would be temporary, and Korea would eventually decide its own political future, though no date was set for the end of the US and Soviet occupations. On August 8, the Soviets declared war on Japan. On August 9, Soviet forces invaded northern Korea. A few days later, Japan surrendered. Keeping to their part of the bargain, US forces entered southern Korea on 08 September 1945.
      Over the next few years, the situation in Korea steadily worsened. A civil war between communist and nationalist forces in southern Korea resulted in thousands of people killed and wounded. The Soviets steadfastly refused to consider any plans for the reunification of Korea. The United States reacted by setting up a government in South Korea, headed by Syngman Rhee. The Soviets established a communist regime in North Korea, under the leadership of Kim Il-Sung. In 1948, the United States again offered to hold national elections, but the Soviets refused the offer. Elections were held in South Korea, and Rhee's government received a popular mandate. The Soviets refused to recognize Rhee's government, though, and insisted that Kim Il-Sung was the true leader of all Korea.
      Having secured the establishment of a communist government in North Korea, Soviet troops withdrew in 1948; and US troops in South Korea followed suit in 1949. In 1950, the North Koreans attempted to reunite the nation by force and launched a massive military assault on South Korea. The United States quickly came to the aid of South Korea, beginning a three-year involvement in the bloody and frustrating Korean War. Korea remains a divided nation today, and the North Korean regime is one of the few remaining communist governments left in the world.
1944 Germany's V-2 offensive against England begins
1943 Italy's surrender made public      ^top^
      Gen. Dwight Eisenhower publicly announces the surrender of Italy to the Allies, secretly agreed to on September 3, hours before the British Eighth Army began the Allied invasion of the Italian peninsula, when the Italian military had signed the surrender document in Sicily.
      With Mussolini deposed from power and the earlier collapse of the fascist government in July, General Pietro Badoglio, the man who had assumed power in Mussolini's stead by request of King Victor Emanuel, began negotiating with General Eisenhower for weeks. Weeks later, Badoglio finally approved a conditional surrender, allowing the Allies to land in southern Italy and begin beating the Germans back up the peninsula.
      Operation Avalanche, the Allied invasion of Italy, was given the go-ahead, and the next day would see Allied troops land in Salerno.
      Ever since Mussolini had begun to falter, Hitler had been making plans to invade Italy to keep the Allies from gaining a foothold that would situate them within easy reach of the German-occupied Balkans. On 08 September Hitler launches Operation Axis, the occupation of Italy. As German troops enter Rome, General Badoglio and the royal family flee Rome for southeastern Italy to set up a new antifascist government.
      Italian troops began surrendering to their former German allies. Where they resisted, as had happened earlier in Greece, they were slaughtered (1646 Italian soldiers were murdered by Germans on the Greek island of Cephalonia, and the 5000 that finally surrendered were ultimately shot).
       One of the goals of Operation Axis was to keep Italian navy vessels out of the hands of the Allies. When the Italian battleship Roma headed for an Allied-controlled port in North Africa, it was sunk by German bombers. The Roma was the first ship ever sunk by a radio-controlled guided missile. More than 1500 crewmen drowned. The Germans also scrambled to move Allied POWs to labor camps in Germany in order to prevent their escape. In fact, many POWS did manage to escape before the German invasion, and several hundred volunteered to stay in Italy to fight alongside the Italian guerillas in the north.
     On September 13, Nazi commandos rescue Fascist leader Benito Mussolini from his prison in the Abruzzi Mountains. Ten days later, Mussolini proclaims the Italian Social Republic, with its headquarters in northern Italy.
      On October 13, the Italian government, refusing to recognize Mussolini's puppet state, would declare war against Nazi Germany. Since the beginning of the war, the Italian Resistance visibly opposed Italy's Fascist regime and its cooperation with the Nazis, organizing mountain guerilla units, workers' strikes, and industrial sabotages. The Resistance gained momentum after a government coup toppled Mussolini, and during the Allied liberation, soldiers of the Resistance provided invaluable aid to Allied troops.
1943 US forces seize more of New Guinea      ^top^
      Gen. Douglas MacArthur's 503rd Parachute Regiment land and occupy Nazdab, just east of Lae, a port city in northeastern Papua New Guinea, situating them perfectly for future operations on the islands. New Guinea had been occupied by the Japanese since March 1942. Raids by Allied forces early on were met with tremendous ferocity, and they were often beaten back by the Japanese occupiers.
      Much of the Allied response was led by forces from Australia, as they were most threatened by the presence of the Japanese in that sphere. The tide began to turn in December 1942, as the Australians recaptured Buna—but despite numerical superiority, the Japanese continued to hang on, fighting to keep every square mile they had captured. Many Japanese committed suicide, swimming out to sea, rather than be taken prisoner.
      In January 1943, the Americans joined the Aussies in assaults on Sanananda, which resulted in huge losses for the Japanese—7000 killed—and the first land defeat of the war. As Japanese reinforcements raced for the next Allied targets, Lae and Salamauam, in March, 137 American bombers destroyed the Japanese transport vessels, drowning 3500 Japanese, as well as their much-needed fuel and spare parts. On 08 September almost 2000 American and Australian Airborne Division parachutists landed and seized Nazdab, which held a valuable airfield. The Allies quickly established a functioning airstrip and prepared to take the port city of Lae, one more step in MacArthur's strategy to recapture New Guinea and the Solomons—and eventually go back for the Philippines.
1941 Siege of Leningrad begins.      ^top^
      Nazi Germany's siege of Leningrad would last 900 days. Some citizens were forced to subsist on bread made from sawdust while others worked through the winter in makeshift military factories without heat. Although many perished from starvation, bombings, and the cold, the city's determined resistance held the German troops at bay and helped turn the tide of World War II. When the siege finally ended in January of 1944, Leningrad's population had been reduced from 2'500'000 to 600'000.
     During World War II, German forces begin their siege of Leningrad, a major industrial center and the USSR's second-largest city. The German armies were later joined by Finnish forces that advanced against Leningrad down the Karelian Isthmus. The siege of Leningrad, also known as the 900-Day Siege though it lasted a grueling 872 days, and resulted in the deaths of some one million of the city's civilians and Red Army defenders.
      Leningrad, formerly St. Petersburg, capital of the Russian Empire, was one of the initial targets of the German invasion of June 1941. As German armies raced across the western Soviet Union, three-quarters of Leningrad's industrial plants and hundreds of thousands of its inhabitants were evacuated to the east. More than two million residents remained, however, and the evacuated were replaced by refugees who fled to Leningrad ahead of the German advance. All able-bodied persons in the city — men, women, and children — were enlisted to build antitank fortifications along Leningrad's edge. By the end of July, German forces had cut the Moscow-Leningrad railway and were penetrating the outer belt of the fortifications around Leningrad. On 08 September German forces besieged the city, but they were held at bay by Leningrad's fortifications and its 200'000 Red Army defenders. That day, a German air bombardment set fire to warehouses containing a large part of Leningrad's scant food supply.
      Aiming to tighten the noose around Leningrad, the Germans launched an offensive to the east in October and cut off the last highways and rail lines south of the city. Meanwhile, Finnish forces advanced down the Karelian Isthmus (which had been seized from Finland by the Soviets during the Russo-Finnish War of 1939 to 1940) and besieged Leningrad from the north. By early November, the city was almost completely encircled, and only across Lake Ladoga was a supply lifeline possible.
      German artillery and air bombardments came several times a day during the first months of the siege. The daily ration for civilians was reduced to 125 grams of bread, no more than a thick slice. Starvation set in by December, followed by the coldest winter in decades, with temperatures falling to -40 degrees Fahrenheit. People worked through the winter in makeshift armament factories without roofs, building the weapons that kept the Germans just short of victory.
      Residents burned books and furniture to stay warm and searched for food to supplement their scarce rations. Animals from the city zoo were consumed early in the siege, followed before long by household pets. Wallpaper paste made from potatoes was scraped off the wall, and leather was boiled to produce an edible jelly. Grass and weeds were cooked, and scientists worked to extract vitamins from pine needles and tobacco dust. Hundreds, perhaps thousands, resorted to cannibalizing the dead, and in a few cases people were murdered for their flesh. The Leningrad police struggled to keep order and formed a special division to combat cannibalism.
      Across frozen Lake Ladoga, trucks made it to Leningrad with supplies, but not enough. Thousands of residents, mostly children and the elderly, were evacuated across the lake, but many more remained in the city and succumbed to starvation, the bitter cold, and the relentless German air attacks. In 1942 alone, the siege claimed some 600'000 lives. In the summer, barges and other ships braved German air attack to cross Lake Ladoga to Leningrad with supplies.
      In January 1943, Red Army soldiers broke through the German line, rupturing the blockade and creating a more efficient supply route along the shores of Lake Ladoga. For the rest of the winter and then during the next, the "road of life" across the frozen Lake Ladoga kept Leningrad alive. Eventually, an oil pipeline and electric cables were laid on the lake bed. In the summer of 1943, vegetables planted on any open ground in the city supplemented rations.
      In early 1944, Soviet forces approached Leningrad, forcing German forces to retreat southward from the city on January 27. The siege was over. A giant Soviet offensive to sweep the USSR clean of its invaders began in May. The 872-day siege of Leningrad cost an estimated one million Soviet lives, perhaps hundreds of thousands more. The Soviet government awarded the Order of Lenin to the people of Leningrad in 1945, paying tribute to their endurance during the grueling siege. The city did not regain its prewar population of three million until the 1960s.
1939 FDR declares "limited national emergency" due to war in Europe
1935 Huey P. Long is shot.      ^top^
     He is shot at point-blank range, in the corridor outside the main hall of the state capitol in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, by Dr. Carl Austin Weiss, Jr, who is then killed on the spot by Long's bodyguards. Mortally wounded, Long would die two days later. Apparently Dr. Weiss was avenging his father-in-law, who had had lost his job as a Louisiana judge, because he was not part of the Long political machine and Long publicly slandered him.
      Huey Long, nicknamed the "Kingfish" after a character on the popular Amos 'n' Andy radio show, and called a demagogue by critics, was a larger-than-life populist leader who boasted that he bought legislators "like sacks of potatoes, shuffled them like a deck of cards."
      In 1928 Long had become the youngest governor of Louisiana at age 34. His brash style alienated many people, including the heads of the biggest corporation in the state, Standard Oil. Long preached the redistribution of wealth, which he believed could be done by heavily taxing the rich. One of his early propositions, which met with much opposition, was an "occupational" tax on oil refineries. Later, Long would develop these theories into the Share Our Wealth society, which promised a $2500 minimum income per family.
      Long also abolished the state's poll tax on voting and gained free textbooks for every student. His motto was "Every Man a King." His populism led to an impeachment attempt, but he successfully defeated the charges. In 1930, he won the election for US senator but declined to serve until the successor he picked for governor was elected in 1932.
      Soon after vigorously campaigning for Franklin Roosevelt in 1932, Long, with his own designs on the office, began loudly denouncing the new president. In response, many of his allies in the Louisiana legislature turned against him and would no longer vote for his candidates. In an effort to regain power in the state, Long managed to pass a series of laws giving him control over the appointment of every public position in the state, including every policeman and schoolteacher.
1930 NYC public schools begin teaching Hebrew
1928 Pius XI issues the encyclical Rerum Orientalium, promoting study of the history, doctrine and liturgy of Eastern Orthodoxy. He recommends that priests apply themselves to special studies at the Oriental Institute in Rome, founded in 1917 by Benedict XV.
1925 Germany is admitted into the League of Nations.
1920 US Air Mail service begins (NYC to SF)
1915 Germany begins a new offensive in Argonne on the Western Front.
1892 1st appearance of "The Pledge of Allegiance" (Youth's Companion)
1864 George McClellan accepts nomination as Democratic candidate for President
1863 Confederate Lieutenant Dick Dowling with 47 Texas volunteers thwarts a Union naval landing at Sabine Pass (Fort Griffin), northeast of Galveston, Texas.
1858 Lincoln makes a speech about when you can fool people
1845 Oxford Movement leader, John Henry Newman, 44, resigns from the Church of England — convinced that it had severed itself from its ancient episcopal moorings and true apostolic succession — and became a Roman Catholic.
1845 A French column surrenders at Sidi Brahim in the Algerian War
1810 The Pacific Fur Company's first ship leaves for Oregon      ^top^
      The sailing ship Tonquin leaves New York with 33 employees of Jacob Astor's new Pacific Fur Company on board. Six months later, the Tonquin would arrive at the mouth of the Columbia River, where Astor's men establish the town of Astoria and begin trading for furs with the Indians. Thus began the first major American involvement in the lucrative far western fur trade.
      During the colonial era, the powerful British Hudson's Bay Company, along with several French companies based in Montreal, had dominated the North American fur trade. But slowly and timidly, Americans began to establish their own fur companies in the early nineteenth century, particularly after Thomas Jefferson doubled the size of the United States with the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, and the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-6) reported that the vast new American territory was rich in beaver. Based on their explorations, Lewis and Clark suggested that furs could be carried over the Rockies by horse to the Columbia River and from there shipped to the Orient more cheaply than the British or French could move furs eastward to Europe.
      Recognizing a rare business opportunity, the German-born immigrant John Jacob Astor organized his Pacific Fur Company and dispatched the Tonquin for the Oregon coast to try and make Lewis and Clark's proposal a reality. But while the small trading post of Astoria initially quickly proved a success, the American control of the Pacific Northwest fur trade did not last. By late 1813, Astor's partners, who were mostly Canadian, decided to sell out to the British North West Company, and during the War of 1812 the British Navy took control of Astoria.
      With the British temporarily dominating the region, Astor decided to dissolve the Pacific Fur Company and focus his efforts on his American Fur Company, an enterprise that eventually came to control three-quarters of the American fur trade. Despite the loss of his first Pacific coast outpost at Astoria, Astor's profits from his American Fur Company, the War of 1812, and large investments in real estate, eventually made him the wealthiest American of his day and established one of the great enduring family fortunes.
1796 Battle of Bassano — French beat Austrians
1760 Montréal surrendered by the French to the British.
1755 Battle of Lake George: British forces under William Johnson defeat the French and the Indians..
1664 New Amsterdam surrenders to the British.      ^top^
      Dutch Governor Peter Stuyvesant surrenders New Amsterdam (about 120 houses and 1000 inhabitants), the capital of New Netherland, to an English naval squadron under Colonel Richard Nicolls with 300 soldiers. Stuyvesant had hoped to resist the English, but he was an unpopular ruler, and his Dutch subjects refused to rally around him. Five years later, New Amsterdam's name was changed to New York, in honor of the Duke of York, who organized the mission.
      The colony of New Netherland was established by the Dutch West India Company in 1624 and grew to encompass all of present-day New York City and parts of Long Island, Connecticut, and New Jersey. A successful Dutch settlement in the colony grew up on the southern tip of Manhattan Island and was christened New Amsterdam.
      To legitimatize Dutch claims to New Amsterdam, Dutch governor Peter Minuit formally purchased Manhattan from the local tribe from which it derives it name in 1626. According to legend, the Manhattans — Indians of Algonquian linguistic stock — agreed to give up the island in exchange for trinkets valued at only $24. However, as they were ignorant of European customs of property and contracts, it was not long before the Manhattans came into armed conflict with the expanding Dutch settlement at New Amsterdam. Beginning in 1641, a protracted war was fought between the colonists and the Manhattans, which resulted in the death of more than 1000 Indians and settlers.
      In 1664, New Amsterdam passed to English control, and English and Dutch settlers lived together peacefully. In 1673, there was a short interruption of English rule when the Netherlands temporary regained the settlement. In 1674, New York was returned to the English, and in 1686 it became the first city in the colonies to receive a royal charter. After the US War of Independence, it became the first capital of the United States.
1636 Harvard College (later University) is founded by the Massachusetts Puritans at New Towne. It was the first institution of higher learning established in North America, and was originally founded to train future ministers.
1628 John Endecott arrives with colonists at Salem, Massachusetts, where he will become the governor.
1565 Turkish siege of Malta broken by Maltese and Knights of Saint John.
1529 Ottoman Sultan Suleiman re-enters Buda and establishes John Zapolyai as the puppet king of Hungary.
1522 Spanish navigator Juan de Elcano returns to Spain, completes the first circumnavigation of the globe, expedition begins under Ferdinand Magellan.
1380 Russians defeat Tatars at Kulikovo, beginning decline of Tatars.
0070 Following a six-month siege, Jerusalem surrenders to the 60'000 soldiers of Titus' Roman army. Over a million Jewish citizens perished in the siege and, following the city's capture, another 97'000 are sold into slavery.
Deaths which occurred on a 08 September:      ^top^
2003 Vijay Kumar Tudu (police officer in charge), Ramdeo Prasad (ASI), Ramashish Singh (havildar), Chandramohan Singh, Vijay Narain Tiwari, Mukesh Kumar Singh, Parashuram Mandal, Vivekanand Singh (all district police constables), Rajkeshwar Prasad and Ganesh Shah (Bihar Military Police constables), Bigan Ram (chowkidar) and civilian driver Parwal Singh, who are all those aboard a civilian vehicle under which a terrorist landmine explodes, near Dabua Mod, in Bihar state, India. Tudu was the Officer-in-Charge at the Chutia police station on his way to his new post at Tilauthu. The terrorists take away six rifles, a revolver, and a large quantity of ammunition.
2002 Cardinal Lucas Moreira Neves, 76 [photo >], in Rome, after suffering from diabetes complications, which had made him resign in 2000. Born in 1925, he was made cardinal of São Salvador da Bahia in 1988.
2001 Dozens of victims of Muslim vs. Christian riots in Jos, Nigeria. Churches and homes are burned. A 18:00-to-06:00 curfew did not stop the fighting, which broke out the previous evening (Friday) at the time of Muslim prayers. The introduction of Sharia, or Islamic law, in several northern Nigerian states last year sparked bloody clashes between Christians and Muslims. Hundreds were killed. Jos, a hilltop city of 4 million people whose government leaders are mainly Christian, has rejected the possibility of implementing Sharia. Religious tensions in the city had been rising following the recent appointment of a Muslim Hausa politician as chairman of a state poverty-alleviation committee. Some witnesses said the fighting began when a Christian woman tried to cross a road filled with Muslims engaged in their Friday evening prayers. An argument ensued, escalating into armed clashes between Muslim and Christian youths.
2001 Ten persons at Saturday evening prayers in mosque in Arzew, Algeria, by automatic weapon fire from gunmen. More than 100'000 Algerians have been killed in the insurgency which started in 1992, when the military canceled elections that an Islamic fundamentalist party was set to win.
1994 All 132 aboard. a USAir Boeing 737 crashing into a ravine as it approaches Pittsburgh International Airport.
1991 More than 40 persons in factional fighting around Johannesburg, South Africa.
1981 Roy Wilkins, 80, in New York, civil rights activist, longtime executive director of NAACP.
1969 Gordon Thomas Whyburn, of a heart attack, US topologist born on 08 September 1969. Author of Analytic Topology (1942), Topological analysis (1958).
1968 Vietnam: Troung Quang An, South Vietnamese general, as his aircraft is shot down.
      He is the first South Vietnamese general killed in action. The commander of the US 1st Infantry Division (more popularly known as the ‘Big Red One”), Maj. Gen. Keith L. Ware, would suffer a similar fate when his helicopter is shot down on September 13. Maj. Gen. Ware was one of two US division commanders killed during the war; the other was Maj. Gen. George W. Casey of the 1st Cavalry Division who was killed in a helicopter crash on 07 July 1970.
1962 Mané-Katz, in Tel Aviv, French painter of Jewish life, born in the Ukraine on 05 June 1894. MORE ON MANÉ~KATZ AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER Portrait of a Young Jewish Woman (ZOOM) Rabbi StudyingFather and SonChaim Soutine peintre de plein airRed GladiolasPlace de la ConcordeRussian ShtetlHassidic ChildThe Yeshiva Boy The RabbiSnowy LandscapeRabbi in a Yellow Gown
1941 Entire Jewish community of Meretsch, Lithuania is exterminated
1934 134 die in a fire aboard the liner Morro Castle off NJ
1913 William Carew Hazlitt, author. HAZLITT ONLINE: Characters of Shakespear's PlaysLiber Amoris: or, The New Pygmalion — translator of: The Table Talk of Martin Luther
1903 Some 40'000 Bulgarian children, women, and men, massacred in Monastir by Turkish troops seeking to check a threatened Macedonian uprising
1900: 6000 killed by the most deadly hurricane in US history, which, together with the accompanying tidal wave destroys two-thirds of Galveston, Texas      ^top^
     Even as the waters begin to rise in the morning, residents continue about their daily business. Children play in the flood waters, which began rising as early as dawn. People disregard warnings to flee to high ground, which anyhow hardly exists: the highest house in the city is at an elevation of about 2.5 meters.
    At the worst of the storm, in the evening, it would be estimated that wind speeds reached some 220 km/h. The 4.7 m storm surge rolls over the island from gulf to bay. People thrown into the waves struggled in the dark from 20:00 to midnight, many did not make it. Ten nuns lashs themselves each to a group of the 90 orphans in their care, only three boys would survive.
      Houses collapse, and as the surge continues, a wall of debris at least two-stories high pushes across the island. This wall destroys everything in its path, building force as it moved across the island. When it finally stopped, the wall of debris served to protect those buildings behind it from total destruction, but few buildings escape without damage, and practically no one of the 31'000 survivors (out of 37'000 inhabitants of the city in the morning) escapes loss of property or family.
      The area from First Street to Eighth Street and from the beach to the harbor was destroyed, as was the area west of 45th Street to the end of the city. Between those two areas, the destruction stretched at an angle from Ninth Street to 45th Street. Houses were bulldozed flat for up to 15 blocks from the beach
1894 Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz, Prussian mathematician and mathematical physicist born on 31 August 1821.
1882 Joseph Liouville, French mathematician born on 24 March 1809. He is best known for his work on the existence of a transcendental number in 1844 when he constructed an infinite class of such numbers.
1879 William Morris Hunt, US painter, printmaker, sculptor, born on 21 March 1824. — MORE ON HUNT AT ART “4” SEPTEMBERLINKSGovernor's Creek, FloridaPeasant GirlAgnes Elizabeth ClaflinCaptain William MadiganLa Marguerite
1863: 28 Yanks in 2nd Battle of Sabine Pass..     ^top^
      A small Confederate force thwarts a Federal invasion of Texas at the mouth of the Sabine River on the Texas-Louisiana border. In November 1862, Confederate General John Bankhead Magruder assumed command of the District of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. The Union controlled most of the harbors along the Texas coast, but Magruder quickly changed that with two major assaults on Union defenses. He captured Galveston on 01 January 1863, and then drove off a Yankee force at Sabine Pass later that month. After Magruder's forces drove the Union ships away, the Rebels were left with two harbors from which to operate.
     In the summer of 1863, the Union commander in the region, General Nathaniel Banks, launched an expedition to retake Sabine Pass. He placed General William B. Franklin in charge of an amphibious force that included four gunboats, 18 transports, and nearly 6'000 soldiers. They set sail from New Orleans, Louisiana, and arrived off Sabine Pass on 07 September. The next day, Franklin called for an invasion of the Confederate band of 47 Irish immigrants commanded by Lieutenant Richard W. "Dick" Dowling, which was holed up inside of Fort Griffin, a stronghold armed with six old smoothbore cannons.
     Dowling's men had one major advantage: Their guns were fixed on the narrow channel of Sabine Pass, through which the Yankees would have to sail in order to approach Fort Griffin. The battle commenced in the afternoon, and the Confederate cannons quickly cut into the Union flotilla. The first two ships to go through the pass were badly damaged and ran aground. The troop transports ran into trouble, and one Union ship turned around without firing a shot. Franklin called off the attack and returned to New Orleans.
     While the Confederates did not lose a single man, 28 Yankees were killed, 75 were wounded, and 315 were captured. The loss was humiliating for the Union. Franklin was ridiculed, and Dowling's Rebels became heroes. Banks rejected plans for an invasion of east Texas and focused his attention on the Rio Grande Valley.
1845 William James Müller, British painter born in 1812.MORE ON MÜLLER AT ART “4” SEPTEMBERLINKS The Statuette SellerPiazetta And The Doge's Palace, VeniceView of Bologna: Capriccio with Eastern Figures30 works at the Tate
1715 Balthasar van den Bossche, Flemish artist born on 06 January 1681.
1656 Joseph Hall, bishop, author. JOSEPH HALL ONLINE: Characters of Virtues and Vices
1627 fray Juan Sánchez y Cotán, Spanish painter born on 25 June 1560.MORE ON SANCHEZ AT ART “4” SEPTEMBERLINKSStill-life —a different Still-lifeSan Sebastián. — Quince, Cabbage, Melon, Cucumber
1100 Clement III 1st antipope (1084-1100), birth date unknown)
Births which occurred on a 08 September:
1963 Quintuplet boys given birth by Ines Cuervo de Prieto, 34
1952 The Old Man and the Sea, by Ernest Hemingway, is published
1947 Ann Beattie, short story writer and novelist, in Washington, D.C.      ^top^
      After finishing college at American University in 1969 and graduate school at the University of Connecticut, Beattie quickly established herself as an important short story writer. Her first stories appeared in the early 1970s in the New Yorker. Her first collection of short stories, Distortions, and her first novel, Chilly Scenes of Winter, were both published in 1976. Her stories and novels explored characters whose values, formed in the 1960s, were at odds with the lives they led in the 1970s and 1980s.
      Her minimalist style was widely imitated. Beattie married Newsweek writer and singer David Gates and had a son. The couple later divorced. She also taught at University of Virginia in Charlottesville, then at Harvard. In 1985, she married painter Lincoln Percy and settled in Charlottesville.
      Her other novels include Falling in Place (1980), Picturing Will (1989), and My Life, Starring Dara Falcon (1998). Story collections include The Burning House (1982), Where You’ll Find Me (1986), and Park City (1999).
Pedro Cubino1946 Pedro Cubino-Neila [photo of 980510 >] (ICQ # 2947776) e-mail
1933 Michael Frayn, playwright (A Very Private Life, Noises Off)
1922 Lyndon LaRouche, extremist US presidental candidate (1980)
1910 Nathan “Jake” Jacobson, US mathematician, this is his incorrect official birth date. His real birth date is 05 October 1910.
1900 Claude D. Pepper, Democratic senator (1936-1951) and congressman (1963-1989) from Florida, champion of senior citizens rights. He died on 30 May 1989. From his diaries he published his autobiography Pepper: Eyewitness to a Century in 1987.
1889 Robert A Taft (Sen-R-Ohio, Taft-Hartley Act) unsuccessfully sought the presidential nomination from the 1940s until 1952
1886 Siegfried Sassoon, British author and poet famous for his anti-war writing about World War I. SASSOON ONLINE: Counter-Attack, and Other Poems, The Old Huntsman, and Other Poems, Picture~Show
1861 Percy John Heawood, English mathematician who died on 24 January 1955. Heawood, he would spend 60 years of his life working on the four color theorem.
1841 Antonin Dvorak Nelahozeves, Czech, violinist and composer (New World Symphony)
1837 Cincinnatus Heine "Joaquin" Miller, author. JOAQUIN MILLER ONLINE: The Complete Poetical Works of Joaquin MillerThe Danites, and Other Choice Selections from the Writings of Joaquin Miller, "The Poet of the Sierras" Light: A Narrative PoemShadows of ShastaSongs of Summer LandsSongs of the SierrasSongs of the Soul — co~author of Twilight Stories
1830 Frédéric Mistral Provençal poet (Nobel 1904)
1811 James Shepherd Pike, author. PIKE ONLINE: The Prostrate State: South Carolina Under Negro Government
1811 Francis Bowen, author. BOWEN ONLINE: The Principles of Metaphysical and Ethical Science Applied to the Evidences of Religion
1787 Abraham Cooper, British painter specialized in horses. He died on 24 December 1868. — LINKS Mr. Stillwell with his Favorite Hunter (a horse, of course) — 7 works at the TateDraught Horses The Day FamilyBattle Piece
1785 Maximilien de Meuron, Swiss painter who died on 27 February 1868. — more
1706 chevalier Antoine de Favray, French painter, active and famous in Malta, who died on 26 February 1798. — Portrait of de Favray in the regalia of a Knight of Malta MORE ON DE FAVRAY AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER Grandmaster Philippe Viliers de L'Isle AdamGrand Master Jean Parisot de La ValetteGrand Master PintoGrand Master De RohanMaltese Woman Visiting her Friend
1679 Frans Breydel, Flemish artist who died on 24 November 1750.
1636 Cambridge College is founded by the General Court of Massachusetts Bay. It is the first college founded in what will be the US. Two years later it would change its name to Harvard College in honor of the Reverend John Harvard, who bequeathed the institution three hundred books and a substantial sum of money.
click for photos of Michelangelo's David1635 Gaspar Pieter (Petter) Verbruggen, Flemish artist who died on 16 April 1687.
1633 Ottmar Elliger I, Swedish artist who died on 31 December 1679.
1604 Christian Couwemberg, Dutch artist who died on 04 July 1667.
1588 Marin Mersenne, French Minim friar, mathematician, musician, Cartesian philosopher, who died on 01 September 1648. He is best known for his role as a clearinghouse for correspondence between eminent philosophers and scientists and for his work in number theory. Mersenne numbers are of the form 2p – 1, where p is prime. He made a few mistakes in identifying which of them are prime for p < 248, which are now known to be exactly those for which p = 2, 3, 5, 7, 13, 17, 19, 31, 61, 89, 107, 127. This last one is 170'141'183'460'469'231'731'687'303'715'884'105'727. More of those Mersenne primes have been discovered using computers, including those for which p = 521, 607, 1279, 2203, 2281, 3217, 4253, 4423, 9689, 9941, 11'213, 19'937, 21'701, 23'209, 44'497, 86'243, 110'503, 132'049, 216'091, 756'839, 859'433, 1'257'787, 1'398'269, 2'976'221, 3'021'377, 6'972'593, 13'466'917.
1584 Gregorius Saint-Vincent, Belgian Jesuit priest, mathematician who died on 27 January 1667. His main work is a 1250-page book covered many topics, including a study of circles, triangles, geometric series, ellipses, parabolas, and hyperbolas; a method of squaring the circle which is essentially integration; the integration of 1/x in a geometric form.
1565 St. Augustine, Florida, founded by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés. It is the first permanent European settlement in what is now the United States, with its first Roman Catholic parish, founded by Father Don Martin Francisco Lopez de Mendozo Grajales. Built on the site of an ancient Native American village and near the place where Ponce de Léon, the discoverer of Florida, landed in 1513, Saint Augustine has been continuously inhabited since its founding.
1504 David by Michelangelo, 4.34-meter marble statue of David is unveiled in Florence. — READ ALL ABOUT IT AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER
click for portrait by Palma Sr.1474 Ludovico Ariosto, Italy, poet      ^top^
      Ludovico Ariosto nacque a Reggio Emilia nel 1474. Dopo avervi studiato legge, entrò fra gli stipendiati della Corte di Ferrara, presso la quale conobbe Pietro Bembo. Nel 1500 gli morì il padre e la numerosa famiglia passò sotto la sua responsabilità, tre anni dopo gli nacque un figlio da una non meglio nota Maria.
      Negli anni successivi fu al servizio del cardinale Ippolito II D'Este per il quale compì varie ambascerie e con il quale ebbe un rapporto alquanto contrastato; nel frattempo uscirono le sue prime commedie e gli nacque un altro figlio da Orsolina Sassomarino. Dopo aver inutilmente tentato di ottenere benefici dall'elezione di papa Leone X e dopo la prima stesura del Furioso, lasciò il servizio presso il cardinale Ippolito e divenne uno stipendiato del duca Alfonso D'Este.
      Proprio al servizio del duca, fu commissario ducale in Garfagnana dove, dopo un periodo di forte scoramento, riuscì a ben districarsi all'interno della difficile situazione di quella regione. Rientrato a Ferrara, assolse incarichi a lui più graditi come organizzatore di spettacoli di Corte. Nel 1527 sposò segretamente Alessandra Benucci. Morì nel 1533 a Ferrara.
      Molto si è discusso sul carattere di Ludovico Ariosto, un autore fin troppo soffocato da una fuorviante tradizione della critica: Ariosto sornione, appartato, contemplativo, concentrato esclusivamente sui suoi universi fantastici. Oggi questa visione può dirsi abbandonata a favore di un'analisi della saggezza dell'autore in termini di conquista sofferta e ottenuta tramite una continua pratica: un'analisi che pone sotto una diversa luce la sua stessa opera.
ARIOSTO ONLINE: Orlando furiosoOrlando furioso (zipped) — Orlando furioso (txt zipped) — Satire (txt zipped)
(in English translations): Orlando Furioso, Supposes.
1157 Richard I [Richard the Lion Hearted], King of England (1189-99)
Holidays Andorra : National Day / Guinea-Bissau : Independence Day (1974) / Lichfield, England : Sheriff's Ride Ceremony (1533) / Malta : Commemoration of Regatta Day/Commemoration of 2 Sieges (1565) / Mauritius : Mid Autumn Festival / North Korea : National Day (Established Govt) (1948) / South Korea : Thanksgiving Day / Uganda : Republic Day (1967)

Religious Observances RC-Vatican City : Mary's Nativity

Thoughts for the day: "One family builds a wall, two families enjoy it.”
“One country closes its border, two countries suffer.”

“Whoever in the pursuit of science, seeks after immediate practical utility may rest assured that he seeks in vain.” — Hermann von Helmholtz
“Of the two leading candidates, how can you tell who is most honest? — The one who loses the election.”
“An honest politician is one who, when bought, stays bought.”
"Censorship is the height of vanity." -
Martha Graham, American modern dance pioneer (1893-1991).
“Don't censor vanity, expose it!”.
updated Tuesday 09-Sep-2003 1:49 UT
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