<< Sep 12|        HISTORY “4” “2”DAY         |Sep 14 >>
Events, deaths, births, of SEP 13

[For Sep 13 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Sep 231700s: Sep 241800s: Sep 251900~2099: Sep 26]
video stillOn a 13 September:
2002 Not too good Toogood: a surveillance camera in the parking lot of a Kohl's department store in Mishawaka, Indiana, catches Madelyne Gorman Toogood, 25, losing her temper and, as she places her daughter Martha Toogood, 4, in the back seat of her SUV, beating her violently for some 25 seconds [image >]. Something similar probably happens thousands of times every day, but is not filmed and shown on national TV. Authorities seem to overeact. They arrest Madelyne's sister Margaret Daley, who was standing by during the incident, for not reporting child abuse and for “assisting a criminal”. They institute a high-profile manhunt for Mrs. Toogood. When she surrenders to police on 21 September, charged with battery to a child (3 year in prison maximum penalty), they take Martha away from her and place the child in temporary foster care with strangers, instead of entrusting her to her father or other relatives. They have little Martha examined in a hospital and it turns out that she is fine. Mrs. Toogood also has two sons. Prosecutor Christopher Toth had says that he will not offer agree to a plea bargain with Toogood, but he would lose his re-election bid in November.
— On 14 February 2003, under a plea agreement, Mrs. Toogood would plead guilty to a felony battery and be given her a one-year suspended prison sentence, with a year on probation and a $500 fine. As part of the plea agreement, prosecutors drop charges of battery of a child and of giving police officers a false address. Mrs. Toogood must undergo counseling and to take classes in parenting and rage control. By then Martha Toogood is living with her maternal grandmother.
2002:: 209 illegal immigrants coming from Belize, are captured at Kilometer 28 of the road to Santa Elena, by the police of San Benito, departamento del Petén, Guatemala, who also arrest Moisés Morataya Noriego, driver of the pickup in which he was bringing the 209 chicken without the Health Department documents required (to prevent an avian flu epidemic).
2001 The Xinhua news agency reports that farmers in Gulao, near Chongqing, have appealed for 5000 snakes, 20'000 sparrows and 200'000 frogs to fight swarms of locusts without resorting to environmentally unfriendly pesticides.
2001 With a life expectancy of mere days, Tom Christerson, 70, becomes the second person to have his diseased heart removed and replaced by an AbioCor artificial heart. He would be able to leave the hospital and go home in April 2002, and, by the time of his 07 February 2003 death, have become the longest survivor among AbioCor recipient.
2000 With the US government dropping over fifty counts against him, former Los Alamos scientist Wen Ho Lee pleaded guilty in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to a single count of mishandling nuclear secrets; he was then set free with an apology from US District Judge James Parker, who said the government's actions had "embarrassed our entire nation."
1998 The NY Times web site is hacked         ^top^
      The New York Times Web site closed down for more than nine hours following a hacker attack. Users trying to view the Starr report online at The New York Times Web site instead saw a manifesto supporting convicted hacker Kevin Mitnick and insulting Times reporters. The company shut down the site and reported the incident to the FBI.
1996 Gillette — Duracell merger         ^top^
      The Gillette Company announces its merger with battery giant Duracell. Starting in the mid-'80s, Gillette had gone vertical, snapping up major players in the toothbrush and writing instrument industries. Not only did the merger with Duracell jive with Gillette's business philosophy, it made good fiscal sense: with sales of $2.3 billion, Duracell's batteries became Gillette's second best-selling product line. And the transaction, valued at roughly $7 billion in stock, didn't exactly hurt Duracell, which had failed to meet earnings estimates in recent months. Not only would it provide a quick return for shareholders, but the merger gave Duracell access to Gillette's mighty global distribution capabilities. After suffering a post-announcement dip, Gillette's stock eventually rebounded to post a gain for the day.
1996 Wall Street sees the news that sales and prices were flat in August of 1996 as clear signs that inflation is in check. The Dow-Jones Industrial Average closes at a record 5838.52.
1995 Ransom insurance         ^top^
      With the threat of terrorism growing, small and medium-sized companies started buying kidnapping and ransom insurance to protect workers heading overseas to conduct business. According to a New York Times report from 1995, companies were choosing to cover all their employees, though in most cases even foreign-bound employees stood little chance of falling prey to kidnappers and extortionists.
1995 Las fuerzas croatobosnias toman 1500 Km. cuadrados de Bosnia central y controlan el baluarte serbio de Jajce. Huyen 50'000 serbios.
1995 FBI searches and seizes child porno from AOL users         ^top^
      FBI agents raided more than one hundred homes and arrested a dozen people on suspicion of trafficking child pornography through America Online. The arrests resulted from a two-year investigation originating from the disappearance of a ten-year-old Maryland boy. Detectives discovered that a neighbor had allowed the boy to play on his computer, where investigators found obscene photos of children and pornographic writings by the neighbor, an AOL customer. Although the neighbor was not convicted of the crime, the incident drew public attention to the issue of child pornography on the Internet.
1994 Aprobado el programa demográfico de la Organización de las Naciones Unidas (ONU), para veinte años, en la Conferencia sobre Población celebrada en El Cairo, con reservas del Islam y de El Vaticano.
1993 Israel — PLO agreement         ^top^
      The first major agreement between Israel and Palestine was signed during a ceremony at the White House in Washington, D.C. With US President Bill Clinton presiding, Israeli prime minister Yitzhak Rabin and Israeli foreign minister Shimon Peres shook hands with Yasser Arafat, chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), after signing the accord which granted Palestine limited self-government in the Gaza Strip and in Jericho on the occupied West Bank. The historic agreement was hammered out during secret talks in Oslo, Norway, between representatives of Israel and the PLO. In 1995, Arafat, Rabin, and Peres shared the Nobel Peace Prize for their peace efforts.
    After decades of bloody animosity, representatives of Israel and Palestine meet on the South Lawn of the White House and sign a framework for peace. The "Declaration of Principles" was the first agreement between the Israelis and Palestinians towards ending their conflict and sharing the holy land between the River Jordan and the Mediterranean Sea that they both claim as their homeland.
      Fighting between Jews and Arabs in Palestine dates back to the 1920s when both groups laid claim to the British-controlled territory. The Jews were Zionists, recent emigrants from Europe and Russia who came to the ancient homeland of the Jews to establish a Jewish national state. The native Arabs (they did not yet call themselves Palestinians) sought to stem Jewish immigration and set up a secular Palestinian state.
      In May 1948, the State of Israel was proclaimed, and five Arab nations attacked in support of the Palestinian Arabs. The outnumbered Israelis fought off the Arab armies and seized substantial territory originally allocated to the Arabs in the 1947 United Nations partition of Palestine. In 1949, U.N.-brokered cease-fires left the State of Israel in permanent control of this conquered territory. The departure of hundreds of thousands of Palestinian Arabs from Israel during the war left the country with a substantial Jewish majority. Israel restricted the rights of the Arabs who remained. Most Palestinian Arabs who left Israeli territory retreated to the West Bank, then controlled by Transjordan, and others to the Gaza Strip, controlled by Egypt. Hundreds of thousands of exiled Palestinians moved permanently into refugee camps.
      By the early 1960s, the Palestinian Arab diaspora had formed a cohesive national identity. In 1964, the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) was formed as a political umbrella organization of several Palestinian groups and meant to represent all the Palestinian people. The PLO called for the destruction of the State of Israel and the establishment of an independent Palestinian state.
      In the Six-Day War of 1967, Israel seized control of the West Bank, East Jerusalem, the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, and the Golan Heights. Israel permanently annexed East Jerusalem and set up military administrations in the occupied territories. Israel let it be known that Gaza, the West Bank, the Golan Heights, and the Sinai might be returned in exchange for Arab recognition of the right of Israel to exist and guarantees against future attack. The Sinai was returned to Egypt in 1979 as part of an Israeli-Egyptian peace agreement, but the rest of the occupied territories remained under Israeli control. A faction of Israelis called for permanent annexation of these regions, and in the late 1970s nationalist Jewish settlers moved into the territories as a means of accomplishing this aim.
      After the 1967 war, the PLO was recognized as the symbol of the Palestinian national movement, and PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat organized guerrilla attacks on Israel from the PLO's bases in Jordan and, after 1971, from Lebanon. The PLO also coordinated terrorist attacks against Israelis at home and abroad. The Palestinian guerrilla and terrorist activity provoked heavy reprisals from Israel's armed forces and intelligence services. By the late 1970s, Arafat had won international acceptance of the PLO as the legitimate representative of the Palestinian people.
      Violence mounted in the 1980s, with Palestinians clashing with Jewish settlers in the occupied territories. In 1982, Israel invaded Lebanon to dislodge the PLO. In 1987, Palestinian residents of Gaza and the West Bank launched a series of violent demonstrations against Israeli authorities known as the intifada, or the "shaking off." Shortly after, Jordan's King Hussein renounced all administrative responsibility for the West Bank, thereby strengthening the PLO's influence there. As the intifada raged on, Yasser Arafat proclaimed an independent Palestinian state in the West Bank and Gaza Strip in November 1988. One month later, he denounced terrorism, recognized the State of Israel's right to exist, and authorized the beginning of "land-for-peace" negotiations with Israel.
      Israel refused to open direct talks with the PLO, but in 1991 Israeli diplomats met with a joint Jordanian-Palestinian delegation at the Madrid peace conference. In 1992, Labor Party leader Yitzhak Rabin became Israeli prime minister, and he vowed to move quickly on the peace process. He froze new Israeli settlements in the occupied territory and in January 1993 authorized secret negotiations between Israel and the PLO in Oslo, Norway.
      These talks resulted in several important agreements and led to the historic peace accord of 13 September 1993. On the South Lawn of the White House that day, Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres and PLO foreign policy official Mahmoud Abbas signed the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements. The accord called for the withdrawal of Israeli troops from the Gaza Strip and the West Bank town of Jericho and the establishment of a Palestinian government that would eventually be granted authority over much of the West Bank. President Bill Clinton presided over the ceremony, and more than 3000 onlookers, including former presidents George Bush and Jimmy Carter, watched in amazement as Arafat and Rabin sealed the agreement with a handshake. The old bitter enemies had met for the first time at a White House reception that morning.
      Rabin, a former top-ranking Israeli army general, told the crowd: "We the soldiers who have returned from the battle stained with blood; we who have seen our relatives and friends killed before our eyes; we who have fought against you, the Palestinians; we say to you today in a loud and clear voice: Enough of blood and tears. Enough!" And Arafat, the guerrilla leader who for decades was targeted for assassination by Israeli agents, declared that "The battle for peace is the most difficult battle of our lives. It deserves our utmost efforts because the land of peace yearns for a just and comprehensive peace."
      Despite attempts by extremists on both sides to sabotage the peace process with violence, the Israelis completed their withdrawal from the Gaza Strip and Jericho in May 1994. In July, Arafat entered Jericho amid much Palestinian jubilation and set up his government — the Palestinian Authority. In October 1994, Arafat, Yitzhak Rabin, and Shimon Peres were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts at reconciliation.
      In September 1995, Rabin, Arafat, and Peres signed a peace agreement providing for the expansion of Palestinian self-rule in the West Bank and for democratic elections to determine the leadership of the Palestinian Authority. Just over a month later, on November 4, 1995, Rabin was assassinated by a Jewish extremist at a peace rally in Tel Aviv. Peres became prime minister and pledged to continue the peace process. However, terrorist attacks by Palestinian extremists in early 1996 swayed Israeli public opinion, and in May Benjamin Netanyahu of the right-wing Likud Party was elected prime minister. Netanyahu insisted that Palestinian Authority Chairman Arafat meet his obligation to end terrorism by Palestinian extremists, but sporadic attacks continued and the peace process stalled. In May 1999, Ehud Barak of the Labor Party defeated Netanyahu in national elections and pledged to take "bold steps" to forge a comprehensive peace in the Middle East. However, extended negotiations with the PLO ended in failure in July 2000, when Barak and Arafat failed to reach an agreement at a summit at Camp David, Maryland. In September 2000, the worst violence since the intifada broke out between Israelis and Palestinians after Likud leader Ariel Sharon visited the Temple Mount, the holiest Islamic site in Jerusalem. Seeking a strong leader to suppress the bloodshed, Israelis elected Sharon prime minister in February 2001. A permanent cease-fire and return to the peace process remain elusive.
1991 The Soviet Union and the United States agree to cut off arms supplies to the warring sides in Afghanistan.
1990 Iraqi troops storm the residence of French ambassador in Kuwait
1987 La milicia shií Amal y los guerrilleros palestinos acuerdan poner fin a la guerra de los campos libaneses, que costó 3500 muertos en los tres últimos años.
1984 Formación del Gobierno israelí de unión nacional, entre laboristas y conservadores, que preside Simón Peres.
1983 US mint strikes 1st gold coin in 50 years (Olympic Eagle)
1979 South Africa declares Venda “independent”. (Not recognized out of S Afr)
1976 The United States announces it will veto Vietnam's UN bid. America is not alone. The Vietnamese people are pressuring Hanoi to account for their 300'000 MIAs, as well.
1976 Book says war with USSR is greatest threat to US.         ^top^
      A new book by two Brookings Institution scholars declares that the Soviet Union still poses the greatest danger to the security of the United States. The appearance of the study suggested that the period of "detente" between America and the Soviet Union was nearing its end. Since the end of World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union had been locked in a contest for world power known as the Cold War. During the early 1970s, however, the administration of President Richard Nixon began to pursue a policy of "detente"-literally a lessening of tensions — toward the Russians. This was a policy strongly supported by both Richard Nixon and National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger, and their diplomatic overtures to the Soviet Union were climaxed by a summit meeting in Moscow that both attended in May 1972. At the meeting, the SALT-I agreement was signed, setting limits on a variety of nuclear weapons.
      By 1976, however, the spirit of detente seemed to have evaporated. Since the SALT-I agreement, the United States grappled with its humiliating defeat in Vietnam, hostilities continued to simmer in the Middle East, and Africa (particularly Angola) was becoming a new site of Cold War confrontations between the United States and the Soviet Union. In light of this change, the publication of the book Setting National Priorities in September 1976, by Brookings Institution scholars Henry Owen and Charles Schultze was not entirely surprising. Owen and Schultze argued that the Soviet Union remained "determined to continue to dominate Eastern Europe and to extend its influence in the world, whatever we may do.” The arms race, they declared, would continue. Their conclusion was definite: "The worst threat to our well-being remains what it has been ever since World War II — a clash between US and Soviet armed forces.” Only increased defense spending could protect the United States from disaster.
      Throughout the late 1970s and early 1980s, the last vestiges of detente continued to evaporate. The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, a successful Marxist revolution in Nicaragua, and the election of Ronald Reagan — who declared that the Soviet Union was an "evil empire" — were all signs that the Cold War was back in full swing. It was not until Mikhail Gorbachev took power in Russia and reawakened the dormant policy of detente in the mid-1980s that US-Soviet relations notably improved.
1975 El famoso cuadro de Rembrandt La ronda de noche, expuesto en el Rijksmuseum de Amsterdam, sufre daños de consideración al ser acuchillado por un desequilibrado.
1970 IBM announces System 370 computer
1968 Vietnam: Large US and South Viet attack into DMZ         ^top^
      The largest sustained operation inside the DeMilitarized Zone (DMZ) begins as US and South Vietnamese infantry and armored troops, supported by planes, artillery, and US Navy ships, move 3 km into the buffer zone to relieve enemy pressure on Allied bases along the 60 kilometers of South Vietnam’s northern frontier. The operation was also meant to prevent an anticipated offensive by two North Vietnamese divisions thought to be currently operating within the DMZ.
      On 17 September, an additional 2000 US Marines were airlifted into the area and B-52 bombers, striking for the first time in a month, hit targets on both sides of the Ben Hai River, part of the demarcation between North and South Vietnam. Ten days later, an additional 4000 US Marines attacked into the buffer zone in a coordinated pincer movement designed to trap remaining communist forces. The operation achieved the desired objectives and resulted in 742 North Vietnamese killed; US losses were 65 killed and 77 wounded.
1964 Vietnam: South Viet coup fails        ^top^
      Dissident South Vietnamese army officers attempt to overthrow General Nguyen Khan’s government in Saigon, calling their movement the People’s Council for the Salvation of the Nation. General Lam Van Phat, who had been dismissed as interior minister on 03 September, and General Duong Van Duc, commander of 4th Corps, led the attempt. Government troops loyal to Khanh moved against the coup’s main base near Tan Son Nhut, but the final blow to the coup came when Air Marshall Nguyen Cao Ky sent air force planes to fly over the insurgent generals’ headquarters and threatened to bomb them if they did not surrender. This incident was part of the long-running political turbulence in South Vietnam that followed the assassination of former President Ngo Dinh Diem.
1955 The Soviet Union and West Germany agree to establish diplomatic relations.
1949 ONU acuerda poner bajo su control la ciudad de Jerusalén.
1948 Republican Margaret Chase Smith of Maine is elected to the US Senate, becoming the first woman to serve in both houses of the US Congress.
1945 Iran demands the withdrawal of Allied forces.
1945 Vietnam: British troops disarm Japanese, rearm French POWs.         ^top^
      In accordance with the Potsdam Agreements at the end of WWII, 5000 British troops of the 20th Indian Division, commanded by Gen. Douglas Gracey, arrive in southern Indochina to disarm the defeated Japanese forces.
     In August, hours after the Japanese surrender was announced, Ho Chi Minh and the Viet Minh had seized power in Hanoi and proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and independence from French colonial rule. However, Gracey, who detested the Viet Minh, rearmed some 1400 French soldiers who had been imprisoned by the Japanese. This effectively was the first step in the re-establishment of French colonial rule and set the stage for the conflict between the French and the Viet Minh that led to a bloody nine-year war which would not end until the Viet Minh inflicted a humiliating defeat on the French at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954.
1944 II Guerra Mundial: unidades militares soviéticas llegan a la frontera de Checoslovaquia.
1943 Chiang Kai-shek becomes president of China.
1943 Daring rescue of Mussolini         ^top^
      Otto Skorzeny, Adolf Hitler's commando leader, snatches Fascist leader Benito Mussolini from the Italian resistance forces that held him in a villa in the Abruzzi Mountains. Skorzeny and his men landed gliders and a small plane on the on the edge of the mountain, seized Mussolini, and whisked him back to Germany where he was greeted by Hitler on 13 September 1943. Skorzeny, who was acquitted by the Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal, said he was proud to have served Hitler.
1942 The German army begins an all-out attack on Stalingrad against stiff Soviet resistance
1940 Italian troops invade Egypt         ^top^
      Mussolini's forces finally cross the Libyan border into Egypt, achieving what the Duce calls the "glory" Italy had sought for three centuries.
      Italy had occupied Libya since 1912, a purely economic "expansion.” In 1935, Mussolini began sending tens of thousands of Italians to Libya, mostly farmers and other rural workers, in part to relieve overpopulation concerns.
      So by the time of the outbreak of the Second World War, Italy had enjoyed a long-term presence in North Africa, and Mussolini began dreaming of expanding that presence—always with an eye toward the same territories the old "Roman Empire" had counted among its conquests. Chief among these was Egypt. But sitting in Egypt were British troops, which, under a 1936 treaty, were garrisoned there to protect the Suez Canal and Royal Navy bases at Alexandria and Port Said.
      Hitler had offered to aid Mussolini in his invasion, to send German troops to help fend off a British counterattack. But Mussolini had been rebuffed when he had offered Italian assistance during the Battle of Britain, so he now insisted that as a matter of national pride, Italy would create a Mediterranean sphere of influence on its own—so as not to be a junior partner of Germany.
      As the Blitz began, and the land invasion of Britain by Germany was "imminent" (or so the Duce thought), Mussolini believed the British troops in Egypt were particularly vulnerable, and so announced to his generals his plans to make his move into Egypt. Gen. Rodolfo Graziani, the brutal governor of Ethiopia, another Italian colony, disagreed, believing that Italy's Libya forces were not strong enough to wage an offensive across the desert. Graziani also reminded Mussolini that Italian claims of air superiority in the Mediterranean were nothing more than propaganda. But Mussolini, a true dictator, ignored these protestations and ordered Graziani into Egypt—a decision that would disprove the adage that war is too important to leave to the generals.
1939 Cabinet de guerre Daladier
1923 Se produce un golpe de Estado en España, comandado por el General Miguel Primo de Rivera, que contaba con el beneplácito de la monarquía y de la burguesía catalana.
1922 58ºC, El Aziziyah, Libya, in shade (world record)
1918 US and French forces take St. Mihiel, France in America's first action as a standing army.
1916 Transcontinental round-trip promotes Super Six engine         ^top^
      The Hudson Motor Car Company’s first engine, the “Super Six,” was an astounding success. It was the auto industry’s first balanced, high-compression L-head motor, and it became so popular that the name “Super Six” became the unofficial brand name of Hudson. Initially, Hudson launched a series of publicity stunts to promote its new engine, including a “Twice Across America” run from San Francisco to New York and back, which began on this day.
1906 1st airplane flight in Europe NO! Clement Ader approx. 1875.
1905 US warships head to Nicaragua on behalf of American William Albers, who was accused of evading tobacco taxes.
1882 Britain invades Egypt
1868 Una rebelión en España hace que la reina Isabel II huya a Francia.
1867 Gen E R S Canby orders SC courts to impanel blacks jurors
1863 The Loudoun County Rangers route a company of Confederate cavalry at Catoctin Mountain in Virginia.
1862 Reb battle plans discovered.         ^top^
      Union troops near Frederick, Maryland, discover General Robert E. Lee's Special Order No. 191, his attack plans for the invasion of Maryland, wrapped around a pack of cigars. They give the plans to General George B. McClellan who does nothing with them for the next 14 hours.
     Union soldiers find a copy of Confederate General Robert E. Lee's orders detailing the Confederates' plan for the Antietam campaign near Frederick, Maryland. But Union General George B. McClellan was slow to act, and the advantage the intelligence provided was lost. On the morning of 13 September, the 27th Indiana rested in a meadow outside of Frederick, Maryland, which had served as the site of a Confederate camp a few days before. Sergeant John Bloss and Corporal Barton W. Mitchell found a piece of paper wrapped around three cigars. The paper was addressed to Confederate General D.H. Hill. Its title read, "Special Order No. 191, Headquarters, Army of Northern Virginia.”
      Realizing that they had discovered a copy of the Confederate operation plan, Barton and Mitchell quickly passed it up the chain of command. By chance, the division adjutant general, Samuel Pittman, recognized the handwriting on the orders as that of a colleague from the prewar army, Robert Chilton, who was the adjutant general to Robert E. Lee. Pittman took the order to McClellan. The Union commander had spent the previous week mystified by Lee's operations, but now the Confederate plan was clear. He reportedly gloated, "Here is a paper with which if I cannot whip Bobbie Lee, I will be willing to go home.” McClellan now knew that Lee's forces were split into five parts and scattered over a 50-km stretch, with the Potomac River in between.
      At least 12 km separated each piece of Lee's army, and McClellan was just some 20 km from the nearest Confederate unit at South Mountain. Bruce Catton, the noted Civil War historian, observed that no general in the war "was ever given so fair a chance to destroy the opposing army one piece at a time.” Yet McClellan squandered the opportunity. His initial jubilation was overtaken by his caution. He believed that Lee possessed a far greater number of troops than the Confederates actually had, despite the fact that the Maryland invasion resulted in a high rate of desertion among the Southerners. McClellan was also excruciatingly slow to respond to the information in the so-called Lost Order. He took 18 hours to set his army in motion, marching toward Turner's Gap and Crampton's Gap in South Mountain, a 80-km long ridge that was part of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Lee, who was alerted to the approaching Federals, sent troops to plug the gaps, allowing him time to gather his scattered units.
1861 Campaign of Cheat Mountain, Virginia (now West Virginia) concludes
1861 Siege of Lexington, Missouri continues
1847 General Winfield Scott storms Chapultepec         ^top^
      General Winfield Scott wins the last major battle of the Mexican-American War, storming the ancient Chapultepec fortress at the edge of Mexico City.
      The war between the US and its southern neighbor began the year before when President James Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to advance to the disputed Rio Grande border between the newly-minted American state of Texas and Mexico. The Mexican government had once controlled Texas and refused to recognize the US claim on the state or the validity of the Rio Grande as an international border. Viewing Taylor's advance as an invasion of Mexican soil, the Mexican army crossed the Rio Grande and attacked the US forces in Texas in April 1846. By mid-May the two nations were formally at war.
      The Mexican army was larger than the American army, but its leadership, training, and supplies were all inferior to those of the US forces. Mexican gunpowder was notoriously weak, and cannon balls from their guns often just bounced slowly across battlefields where the American soldiers simply stepped out of the way. As a result, by January 1847, General Taylor had conquered California and the northern Mexican territories that would later make up much of the American southwest. But Taylor was reluctant to take the war into the heart of Mexico, and Polk instead turned to General Winfield Scott to finish the job.
      In March, Scott landed nearly 12'000 men on the beaches near Vera Cruz, Mexico, captured the town, and began to march inland to Mexico City. Flanking the Mexican defenses at Cerro Gordo Pass, Scott stabbed southward below Mexico City, taking the towns of Contreras and Churubusco. When a final attempt at peace negotiations failed in August, Scott advanced north on the Mexican capital. After Scott's forces stormed the fortress at Chapultepec, the last significant Mexican resistance was eliminated. The next day, 14 September, Scott marched his army into Mexico City and raised the American flag over the Mexican National Palace—the "Halls of Montezuma" later celebrated in the famous Marine's Hymn. For the first time in US history, the Stars and Stripes flew over a foreign capital.
1813 Se celebra el Congreso de Chilpancingo de los Bravos, primera asamblea constituyente mejicana, convocada por José María Morelos y Pavón, en la que se fijaron los objetivos de la revolución.
1802 Disgrâce de Fouché. Il a trop poussé les surveillances des hauts dignitaires de l'Empire. Talleyrand, Joseph et Lucien Bonaparte, sont las d'être espionnés sans cesse par les hommes de la police de Fouché. Ils obtiennent de Bonaparte sa disgrâce. L'empereur supprime le ministère de la Police.
1791 Luis XVI sanciona la primera Constitución francesa.
1789 First loan to US Govt (from NYC banks)
1788 First US federal election set for February 1789         ^top^
      The Constitutional Convention decrees that the first federal election would be held on the first Wednesday in February of the following year.
      On 04 February 1789, George Washington, the US revolutionary leader, would be unanimously elected the first president of the United States by all sixty-nine presidential electors, chosen by popular vote on 07 January 1789, representing ten of the eleven states that had ratified the US Constitution.
      In 1774, Washington, a former member of the Virginia colonial militia, represented Virginia at the Continental Congress, which was convened in protest of Britain's repressive policies in the colonies. After the US War of Independence started in 1775, Washington, who had served in the Seven Years' War between Britain and France, was appointed commander-in-chief of the newly established Continental Army. With this inexperienced and poorly equipped army of civilian soldiers, Washington led an effective war of harassment against British forces in America, while employing his extraordinary diplomatic skills to encourage the intervention of the French into the conflict on behalf of the colonists.
      On 19 October 1781, British General Charles Lord Cornwallis surrendered his massive British army at Yorktown, Virginia, and General George Washington had succeeded in defeating one of the most powerful nations on earth. After the war, the victorious revolutionary general retired to his estate at Mount Vernon, but, in 1787, heeded his nation's call and returned to politics to preside over the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. On 30 April 1789, after being unanimously elected the first president of the United States, Washington was inaugurated, and, in 1792, was elected to a second term. While in office, he sought to unite the nation and protect the interests of the new republic at home and abroad. In 1797, Washington retired to Mount Vernon, where he died of natural causes two years later.
1788 New York City becomes capital of the United States
1782 Gibraltar: the British fortress comes under attack by French and Spanish forces.
1774 Turgot, the new controller of finances, urges the king of France to restore the free circulation of grain in the kingdom. — “La guerre des farines” — Turgot, contrôleur général des Finances du roi Louis XVI, publie un édit par lequel il établit la liberté du commerce des grains à l'intérieur du royaume. Contrairement à ses espoirs, loin de favoriser les paysans auxquels il voulait donner accès à de nouveaux marchés car les récoltes des années précédentes avaient été fort mauvaises, et en particulier celle qui a eu lieu quelques mois plus tôt, la spéculation l'emporte et provoque une flambée des prix du pain. Celle-ci provoque les émeutes que l'on nomme la “guerre des farines”.
1759 Battle of Plains of Abraham         ^top^
      During the Seven Years' War, a worldwide conflict known as the French and Indian War in America, the British under General James Wolfe achieve a dramatic victory when they scale the cliffs over the city of Québec, defeating the Marquis Louis Montcalm's French forces on the Plains of Abraham. Wolfe himself is fatally wounded during the battle, but his victory insures British supremacy in Canada. Montcalm also suffers a fatal wound during the battle.
     In the early 1750s, French expansion into the Ohio River valley repeatedly brought France into armed conflict with the British colonies. In 1756 — the first official year of fighting in the Seven Years War — the British suffered a series of defeats against the French and their broad network of Native American alliances. However, in 1757, British Prime Minister William Pitt (the older) recognized the potential of imperial expansion that would come out of victory against the French and borrowed heavily to fund an expanded war effort. Pitt financed Prussia's struggle against France and her allies in Europe and reimbursed the colonies for the raising of armies in North America.
     By 1760, the French had been expelled from Canada, and by 1763 all of France's allies in Europe had either made a separate peace with Prussia or had been defeated. In addition, Spanish attempts to aid France in the Americas had failed, and France also suffered defeats against British forces in India.
     The Seven Years War ended with the signing of the treaties of Hubertusburg and Paris in February 1763. In the Treaty of Paris, France lost all claims to Canada and gave Louisiana to Spain, while Britain received Spanish Florida, Upper Canada, and various French holdings overseas. The treaty ensured the colonial and maritime supremacy of Britain and strengthened the 13 American colonies by removing their European rivals to the north and the south. Fifteen years later, French bitterness over the loss of most of their colonial empire contributed to their intervention in the American Revolution on the side of the Patriots.
   —  Le Québec cette province française d'Amérique est attaqué par les anglais. Le corps expéditionnaire britannique commandé par le jeune général Wolfe (30 ans). Les anglais sont parvenus, après de durs combats, à enlever de nuit les hauteurs qui dominent le Saint Laurent. Cette action surprend les français qui sont mis en déroute. Le siège de Québec et le " Grand Dérangement " ne font que commencer. Mais, blessé dans les combats, Wolfe mourut peu après.
1663 1st serious slave conspiracy in colonial America (Virginia)
1635 The Massachusetts General Court banishes Separatist preacher Roger Williams, 32, for criticizing the Massachusetts Bay Company charter and for perpetually advocating a separation of church and state. Williams went on to found Rhode Island and the first Baptist church in the American colonies.
1625 Rabbi Isiah Horowith and 15 other rabbis arrested in Jerusalem
1564 On the verge of attacking Pedro Menendez's Spanish settlement at San Agustín, Florida, Jean Ribault's French fleet is scattered by a devastating storm.
1549 Council of Bologna's first session closed by Pope Paul III.
1541 Calvin receives an uproarious welcome as he returns to Geneva, at the request of city authorities who banished him three years earlier. He will spend the rest of his life there, trying to establish a theocratic society
1376 Pope Gregory XI steps over his father to return the papacy to Rome.
0604 Sabinian begins his reign as Pope.
0122 Building begins on Hadrian's Wall.
Deaths which occurred on a 13 September:
2002 Curtis Cuffie
, 47, of a heart attack, New York street “sculptor” of trash.
2002 Miguel Angel Orozco Díaz
, agente de la Policía Nacional Civil de Guatemala, lapidado y quemado vivo por un grupo de pobladores, por haber, en estado de ebriedad disparado su arma y una bala perdida mató a la señora Delia López, en Coatepeque, departamento de Quetzaltenango.
2002 Delia López, en Coatepeque, Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, por una bala perdida cuando Miguel Angel Orozco Díaz, agente de la Policía Nacional Civil, borracho, disparó su arma.
2002 Salomón Jiménez Castro
, Honduran lawyer and politician born on 22 October 1910. During the Julio Lozano Díaz presidency, he had been president of Congress, and then ambassador to Nicaragua. He had been ministro de Gobernación y Justicia in the military government of general Juan Alberto Melgar Castro, and again (1990-1994) in the government of Rafael Leonardo Callejas.
2001 Balqis Alarda, 14, killed by Israelis, in Araba near Jenin. Her brother Sofian Alarda is wounded, Israeli troops arrest him and prevent Palestinian paramedics from helping him for three hours before taking him to an unknown destination. The next day he is announced dead in the Israeli hospital of Afula north of Jenin.
1998 George C. Wallace, 79, former Alabama governor.         ^top^
     Wallace, one of the most controversial politicians in US history, dies in Montgomery, Alabama, at the age of 79. George Corley Wallace was born in Clio, Alabama, the son of a farmer. He worked his way through the University of Alabama Law School and after World War II served as assistant state's attorney for Alabama and a judge. In 1958, he made his first bid for Alabama's gubernatorial seat. The NAACP endorsed him while the KKK endorsed his opponent in the primary. Wallace was defeated by a wide margin. Four years later, Wallace ran again, this time as a fiery segregationist, and won election to the governor's office in a landslide victory. In his 1963 inaugural address, Wallace promised his white followers: "Segregation now! Segregation tomorrow! Segregation forever!" However, the promise lasted only six months. In June 1963, under federal pressure, he was forced to end his blockade of the University of Alabama and allow the enrollment of African American students.
      Despite his failures in slowing the accelerating civil rights movement in the South, Wallace became a national spokesman for resistance to racial change and in 1964 entered the race for the US presidency. Although defeated in most Democratic presidential primaries he entered, his modest successes demonstrated the extent of popular backlash against integration. In 1968, he made another strong run as the candidate of the American Independent Party and managed to get on the ballot in all 50 states. On Election Day, he drew 10 million votes from across the country.
      In 1972, Governor Wallace returned to the Democratic Party for his third presidential campaign and, under a slightly more moderate platform, was showing promising returns when Arthur Bremer shot him on 15 May 1972. Three others were wounded in Bremer's attack on a Wallace rally in Maryland, and Wallace was permanently paralyzed from the waist down. The next day, while fighting for his life in a hospital, he won major primary victories in Michigan and Maryland. However, Wallace remained in the hospital for several months, bringing his third presidential campaign to an irrevocable end.
      After his recovery, he faded from national prominence and made a poor showing in his fourth and final presidential campaign, in 1979. During the 1980s, Wallace's politics shifted dramatically, especially in regard to race. He contacted civil rights leaders he had so forcibly opposed in the past and asked their forgiveness. In time, he gained the political support of Alabama's growing African American electorate and in 1983 was elected Alabama governor for the last time with their overwhelming support. During the next four years, the man who had promised segregation forever made more African American political appointments than any other figure in Alabama history.
      He announced his retirement in 1986, telling the Alabama electorate in a tearful address that "I've climbed my last political mountain, but there are still some personal hills I must climb. But for now, I must pass the rope and the pick to another climber and say climb on, climb on to higher heights. Climb on 'til you reach the very peak. Then look back and wave at me. I, too, will still be climbing."
1981 William Loeb, 75, publisher of Manchester Union Leader, NH
1980 José María Gil Robles y Quiñones, político español.
1975 Shiko Munakata, Japanese printmaker born on 05 September 1903. MORE ON MUNAKATA  AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with Barahi no SakuSnow in the MountainsWoman with HawkFox and WolfMonjû Bosatsu
1974 Once personas por la explosión de una bomba en una cafetería frecuentada por policías nacionales en la calle del Correo, Madrid.
1971: 31 prisoners and 9 hostage guards at Attica Prison.         ^top^
      1500 state police and National Guardsmen storm the complex in a hail of gunfire, ending the four-day revolt at the maximum-security Attica Correctional Facility near Buffalo, New York.— Four days into a rebellion by 1281 prisoners demanding humane treatment — more than 500 state troopers assault the prison compound, under orders from Governor Nelson Rockefeller. The troopers' gunfire killed 29 inmates as well as 10 guards being held hostage.
     The four-day revolt at the maximum-security Attica Correctional Facility near Buffalo, New York, ends when hundreds of state police officers storm the complex in a hail of gunfire. Thirty-nine people were killed in the disastrous assault, including 29 prisoners and 10 prison guards and employees held hostage since the outset of the ordeal.
      On September 9, prisoners rioted and seized control of the overcrowded state prison. One prison guard was fatally beaten. Later that day, state police retook most of the prison, but 1281 convicts occupied an exercise field called D Yard, where they held 39 prison guards and employees hostage for four days. After negotiations stalled, New York Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller ordered the state police to regain control of the prison by force.
      On the rainy Monday morning of 13 September an ultimatum was read to the inmates, calling on them to surrender. They responded by putting knives against the hostages' throats. At 09:46, helicopters flew over the yard, dropping tear gas as state police and corrections officers stormed in with guns blazing. The police fired 3000 rounds into the tear gas haze, killing 29 inmates and 10 of the hostages and wounding 89. Most were shot in the initial indiscriminate barrage of gunfire, but other prisoners were shot or killed after they surrendered.
      In the aftermath of the bloody raid, authorities said that the inmates had killed the slain hostages by slitting their throats. One hostage was said to have been castrated. However, autopsies showed that these charges were false and that all 10 hostages had been shot to death by police. The attempted cover-up increased public condemnation of the raid and prompted a Congressional investigation.
      The Attica riot was the worst prison riot in US history. A total of 43 people were killed — prison guard William Quinn, the 39 killed in the raid, and three inmates killed by other prisoners early in the riot. In the week after its conclusion, police engaged in brutal reprisals against the prisoners, forcing them to run a gauntlet of nightsticks and crawl naked across broken glass, among other tortures. The many injured inmates received substandard medical treatment, if any.
      In January 2000, New York State settled a 26-year-old class-action lawsuit filed by the Attica inmates against prison and state officials. For their suffering during the raid and the weeks following, the former and current inmates accepted $8 million.
1971 Lin Piao, militar y político chino.
1951 Korean “Police Action”: The first of 3700 US casualties of the month-long US Army assault on Heartbreak Ridge, as it begins.
1912 Joseph Furphy, author. FURPHY ONLINE: Such is Life: Being Certain Extracts from the Diary of Tom Collins (that's the author's pseudonym)
1907 Emilio Sánchez Perrier, Spanish artist born on 15 October 1855.
1903 Karl Schuch, Austrian artist born on 30 September 1846.
1899 Henry Bliss, 68, first automobile victim         ^top^
      The first recorded fatality from an automobile accident occurred on this day, after an oncoming vehicle fatally struck Henry Bliss on the streets of New York. Bliss, a real estate broker, had just alighted from a southbound streetcar at the corner of Central Park West and 74th Street when driver Arthur Smith ran him over. Smith was arrested and held on $1000 bail while Henry Bliss was taken to Roosevelt hospital, where he died.
1891 Johannes Bosboom, Dutch artist born on 18 February 1817. — LINKSChurch in Hague
1885 Henri Charles Antoine Baron, French artist born on 23 June 1816. — more
1877 Alexandre Herculano de Carvalho Araújo, narrador, historiador y político portugués.
1873 Eduardo Rosales y Martínez, Spanish realist painter, born in 1836.— MORE ON ROSALES AT ART “4” SEPTEMBERQueen Isabella's willPresentación de don Juan de Austria a Carlos V en Yuste.
1872 Feuerbach, an atheist philospher of religion.
1847 Prosper Georges Antoine Marilhat, French Academic painter specialized in portraits and orientalism, born on 20 March 1811. — LINKSAu bord du NilPalm TreesThe Erechtheum, AthensBeni Suef on the Nile
1806 Charles James Fox, author. FOX ONLINE: The American Text Book of Practical and Scientific Agriculture
1803 Commodore John Barry, in Philadelphia, considered by many the father of the American Navy..
1789 Some 90 bakery looters shot by guardsmen in Orléans, France.
1677 André Simon Bernard de Saint, French artist born in 1613 or 1614.
1625 Tommaso (“Mao”) Salini, Italian artist born in 1575.
1598 Felipe II, 71, King of Spain (1556-98)
1592 Seigneur Michel Eyquem de Montaigne, French philosopher and essayist born on 28 February 1533. — MONTAIGNE ONLINE: (en français) Essais , Essais, Essais (1588) — (in English translation): Essays, Essays
1515: 14'000 Swiss, 2500 French and Venitians, at the Battle of Marignano (north Italy):         ^top^
      King Francis of France defeats the Swiss army under Cardinal Matthias Schiner. — . Ce jour commence une bataille décisive dans la reconquête du Milanais par un roi de France qui n'a que vingt et un ans. Le chevalier Bayard l'adoube avant la bataille, et celui-ci lance à ses soldats: “Je suis votre roi et votre prince... Je suis délibéré de vivre et mourir avec vous. Voici la fin de notre voyage, car tout sera gagné ou perdu.” Le lendemain soir tout est gagné. A sa mère, François 1er écrit: “Et tout bien débattu, depuis deux mille ans n'a point été vue une si fière ni si cruelle bataille.” Au cours de ce que les chroniqueurs ont appelé une “bataille de géants”, 14'000 Suisses et 2500 Français et Vénitiens sont morts. C'était la bataille de Marignan.
1506 Andrea Mantegna, Italian painter and engraver born in 1431. — MORE ON MANTEGNA AT ART “4” SEPTEMBERLINKS AltarpieceThe Protonary Carlo de' Medici aka Portrait of a Cardinal (1466, 54x42cm) — Christ the RedeemerThe Adoration by the ShepherdsAgony in the GardenSan Luca AltarpieceDeath of the VirginProfile of a Man (1460; 1010x787, 174kb) — Presentation at the Temple _ detailSaint GeorgeCrucifixionSaint Sebastian with arrows in head and neck — Saint Sebastian without arrows in head or neck — The Madonna of the CherubimJudith and HolofernesParnassusCeiling OculusThe Court of Mantua _ (detail 1) _ (detail 2)Suite of Cardinal Francesco (detail)
1321 Dante Alighieri, author of the Divine Comedy (in the night of 13 to 14 Sep) [covered in History for 14 September]
Births which occurred on a 13 September:
1993 Mortal Kombat video game         ^top^
      A home version of the ultra-violent video game Mortal Kombat went on sale on this day in 1993. Acclaim, maker of the game, said it had shipped two million copies of the game and that it expected the game to generate $150 million in sales by the following August. Although Nintendo of America required Acclaim to tone down the graphic violence — including decapitations and splattering gore — Sega of America offered the more violent version with a rating label to warn parents of the game's graphic content.
1977 GM's lousy diesels         ^top^
      General Motors introduced the first diesel automobiles in America on this day, the Oldsmobile 88 and 98 models. A major selling point of the two models was their fuel efficiency, which GM claimed to be 40% better than gasoline-powered cars. By compressing air, rather than an air-fuel mixture, the diesel engine achieves higher compression ratios, and consequently higher theoretical cycle efficiencies. In addition, the idling and reduced power efficiency of the diesel engine is much greater than that of its spark engine cousin. However, the diesel engine’s greater efficiency is balanced by its higher emission of soot, odor, and air pollutants. The GM diesels, unlike Volkwagen's, were poorly designed and suffered from many problems
1945 Javier Gómez-Navarro Navarrete, empresario y ex ministro español.
1941 Óscar Arias Sánchez, president of Costa Rica (1986-1990), of moderate socialist Partido de Liberación Nacional. (Peace Nobel 1987 for his Central American peace plan).
1928 Robert Clark “Indiana”, US pop artist. — MORE ON “INDIANA” AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER LINKSSex anyone? (red lips) — Americans in Paris (big 4, words) — Untitled (1964, 45x41 cm, eternal hexagon) — untitled, plate on pp. 140-41 in the book 1¢ Life (curved arrows)
1918 Rosemary Kennedy, born 15 months afer her brother John F. who would be US president. She was mentally retarded, subjected to a lobotomy (a later discredited operation, which, of course, was a failure) and was institutionalized in 1941. She inspired the Kennedy family to charitable work on behalf of the mentally impaired.
1916 Roald Dahl, in South Wales.         ^top^
     He would be the author of Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (1964) and James and the Giant Peach (1961). [NOT the creator of Roald MacDoald]
      Dahl’s childhood was filled with tragedy. His father and sister died when Dahl was three, and he was later brutally abused at his boarding school. After high school, he traveled widely, joining an expedition to Newfoundland and later working in Tanzania. In World War II, he joined the Royal Air Force and became a fighter pilot. He flew missions in Libya, Greece, and Syria, and was shot down in the Libyan desert, suffering serious injuries. (He saved a piece of his femur, removed in an operation after the accident, and later used it as a paperweight in his office.)
      After he recovered, Dahl was sent to Washington, D.C., as an attaché. There, the writer C.S. Forester suggested he write about his war experiences, and 10 days later Dahl had his first publication, in the Saturday Evening Post. Dahl wrote his first book, The Gremlins, for Walt Disney, in 1943, and the story was later made into a Disney film.
      He wrote several popular adult books, including Someone Like You (1953), a collection of stories, and Kiss Kiss (1959), and began writing stories for his own four children in 1960. James and the Giant Peach and Charlie and the Chocolate Factory became bestsellers.
      He also wrote the screenplay for Charlie (with a title change—the movie was called Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory), Chitty Chitty Bang Bang (1968), and a James Bond film, You Only Live Twice (1967). Dahl did most of his writing on the family farm, writing two hours every morning, two hours every afternoon, and tending to the animals in between. He was divorced from his wife, Oscar-winning actress Patricia Neal, in 1983, and remarried. He died in 1990 at age 74.
1894 J(ohn) B(oynton) Priestly British novelist and playwright. (Good Companions)/wed Jessica Hawkes
1886 Alain Locke, writer and first African-American Rhodes scholar.
1885 Blaschke, mathematician
1876 Sherwood Anderson Winesburg, Ohio, author/publisher. ANDERSON ONLINE: Winesburg, Ohio, Winesburg, Ohio: A Group of Tales of Ohio Small Town Life
1874 Arnold Schonberg Vienna Austria, composer (Second Quartet)
1873 Constantin Carathéodory, mathematician
1863 Arthur Henderson Britain, socialist/disarmament worker (Nobel 1934)
1863 Franz von Hipper, German naval commander at the Battle of Jutland in World War I.
1861 Frederick Judd Waugh, US painter specialized in Maritime Scenes, who died in 1940. — Photo of Waugh MORE ON WAUGH  AT ART “4” SEPTEMBERLINKSThe Knight of the Holy GrailLate AfternoonBreakers at Floodtide
1860 General John J. “Blackjack" Pershing who led the campaign against Pancho Villa in Mexico and Commanded the American Expeditionary Force in France during World War I.
1857 Milton Snavely Hershey , American manufacturer and philanthropist who founded the Hershey Chocolate Corporation and was instrumental in popularizing chocolate candy throughout much of the world. He died on 10 (13?) October 1945, in Hershey, PA.
1851 Walter Reed, in Gloucester County, Virginia, US Army Surgeon, proved mosquitoes transmit yellow fever. He died on 23 November 1902.
1842 Guglielmo Ciardi, Italian artist who died in 1917.
1838 Anton Mauve, Dutch painter specialized in landscapes. He died on 05 February 1888. — LINKSMorning Ride on the BeachRiders in the Snow of the Woods at The HagueIn the Pasture
1830 Cristino Martos, político y jurista español.
1829 Henry Stacy Marks, British painter who died on 09 January 1898. — moreLINKSScience is MeasurementA Select Committee of eight parrots. — Bardolph
1819 Clara Schumann (née Wieck) Leipzig, Germany, pianist/composer
1814 The Star Spangled Banner is conceived        ^top^
     Throughout the night of 13 September 1814, Francis Scott Key watched from a ship as the British bombed Fort McHenry. On 12 September, British forces had disembarked at the mouth of the Patapsco River to begin an assault on the city of Baltimore. The following day, British Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane commenced a naval bombardment of Fort McHenry, the last remaining barrier to the city. The siege of Baltimore, which came close on the heels of the British occupation of Washington DC, proved to be a turning point in the War of 1812.
      As the evening of 13 September approached, Francis Scott Key, a young lawyer who had approached the British to seek the release of a physician friend accused of unfriendly acts toward British soldiers, found himself detained on board a British ship. Throughout the night and into the early hours of the next morning, Key stood by as the British bombed the fort with military rockets. As dawn broke, he was amazed to find the Stars and Stripes, though tattered, still flying above Fort McHenry.
      Turned back on land and at sea, the British abandoned their attempt to capture Baltimore on 14 September. Four months later, they signed the Treaty of Ghent which brought an end to the war. The experience inspired Key to write the words to The Star-Spangled Banner. He adapted his lyrics to the tune of a popular drinking song, To Anacreon in Heaven, and the song soon became the de facto national anthem of the United States of America, though Congress did not officially recognize it as such until 1931.
      The rockets that had moved Key to create poetry were the products of the recent innovations of English munitions expert William Congreve. The Chinese had deployed rockets in warfare as early as the thirteenth century. In the 1790s, the British themselves had been the object of rocket fire in southern India. By the early nineteenth century, Congreve had not only significantly increased the firepower of rockets, but had also made it possible to vary the timing and range of launchings. The British put the new technology to use in the Napoleonic Wars and in the War of 1812 against the United States, inaugurating the widespread use of the weapon in nineteenth-century Europe.
1797 Joseph Stannard, British artist who died on 07 December 1830.
1755 Oliver Evans pioneered high-pressure steam engine
1601 Jan Brueghel Jr., Flemish painter who died on 01 September 1678. MORE ON BRUEGHEL AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER LINKSParadise Christ in the House of Martha and MaryLandscape with Allegories of the Four ElementsLandscape with Ceres (Allegory of Earth)
1436 Benvenuto di Giovanni di Meo del Guasto (or di Giovanni Guasta), Italian painter who died in 1518. — LINKSThe Annunciation, (detail: the angel)
Holidays / Pennsylvania : John Barry Day (1803) / Rhodesia : Pioneer Day (1923) / World : Dante Alighieri Day / Afghanistan : National Assembly Foundation Day (1964)(Wednesday )

Religious Observances Ang : St Cyprian, bishop and martyr of Carthage / RC, Luth : St John Chrysostom, bishop and doctor / Santos Juan Crisóstomo, Amado, Amadeo, Eulogio, Felipe, Israel y Julián Ligorio.

Thoughts for the day :
“Never say you know a man until you have divided an inheritance with him.”
“Never say you know a man until you have inherited his mocassins.”
“Never say you know a man until you are sure it won't be used against you.”
“Never say you know a man until you have seen him divide your inheritance.”
“Never say you know a man until you know why the police is asking you.”
“Never say you know a man until you have squandered an inheritance with him.”
“Never say you know a man until you are old enough to know better.”
“Never say you know a man until you know the company he keeps.”
“Never say you know a man until you know the women in his life.”
“Never say you know a man until he has been dead ten years.”
“Never say you know a man until he has attended your funeral.”
“Never say you know a man until you know yourself.”
“Never say you know a man until he says he knows you.”
“Never say you know a man until you have nothing left to eat except each other.”
“Never say you know a man, much less a woman.”
“You only live twice, the second time is forever.”
“You only live nine times if you're a cat.” —
[but who's counting?]
"Better to be without logic than without feeling." —
An unfeeling, illogical remark by Charlotte Brontë, English author (1816-1855).
updated Thursday 18-Sep-2003 3:15 UT

safe site
site safe for children safe site