a 20 September:
2003 In a referendum, Latvians approve their country joining the European Union.
2002 The stock of credit card processor Certegy (CEY) is downgraded by Robert W. Baird from Outperform to Neutral. On the New York Stock Exchange, CEY drops from its previous close of $28.40 to an intraday low of $17.19 and closes at $19.10. It had started trading on 18 June 2001 at $23.91 and had traded as high as $44.49 as recently as 03 June 2002. [1~year price chart >]
2002 In Ramallah, West Bank, the Israeli army blows up all except one of the buildings which it had not previously completely destroyed in the compound of Yassir Arafat's Palestinian Authority [< photo]. They also destroy the staircase and a walkway between the two wings of the remaining building. Then the Israelis bulldoze a trench around the compound, surround it with barbed wire, and lay siege with tanks. They also shoot tank shells into the offices of Arafat, who has left them to go one floor lower.
2001 The US Congressional Research Service releases Terrorism: Near Eastern Groups and State Sponsors, 2001 (PDF), by Middle East specialist Kenneth Katzman, dated 10 20 September01. According to the report, Al-Qaeda, the fundamentalist Islamic terrorist syndicate headed by Osama bin Laden has cells identified or suspected in 34 countries or territories, and represents "a global threat" to the US. In building this network, bin Laden has assembled a coalition of disparate radical Islamic groups of varying nationalities to work toward common goals the expulsion of non-Muslim control or influence from Muslim-inhabited lands. Bin Laden is estimated to have $300 million in personal financial assets with which he funds a network of 3000 Islamic militants. Al-Qaeda cells have been identified or suspected in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Yemen, Jordan, Egypt, Libya, Lebanon, Algeria, Tunisia, Mauritania, Sudan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Chechnya, Somalia, Eritrea, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Ethiopia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Uruguay, Ecuador, Bosnia, Kosovo, Albania, the UK, Canada, and the US. The report lists 19 Near Eastern terrorist organizations, and ranks Al-Qaeda as the only one with an "extremely high" terrorist activity level. Only two were ranked "very high": the Palestinian Islamic Jihad and Hamas.
2000 Independent Counsel Robert Ray announces the end of the Whitewater investigation, saying there was insufficient evidence to warrant charges against President Clinton and first lady Hillary Rodham Clinton.
2000 In the small French Riviera resort town of Le Lavandou, Mayor Gil Bernardi issues this municipal decree: "It is forbidden to anyone who does not have a burial plot to die within town limits." Nearly a third of Le Lavandou's 5508 residents are aged over 65. The cemetery is full and evironmental laws do not permit opening a new one.
2000 In Ottawa, William Woods, selected at random from voters' lists, is part of a 250-person panel from which 12 jurors are to be selected for a trial... his own! on charges of dangerous driving causing bodily harm. When this is discovered the trial is rescheduled for 22 November 2000, out of concern that his interaction with other potential jurors might have affected the trial.
1993 Victoria electoral en Polonia de los ex comunistas del SLD, que posteriormente formaron gobierno con el Partido Campesino.
1992 Los franceses aprueban en referéndum la ratificación del Tratado de Maastricht.
1991 Los policías españoles José Amedo y Michel Domínguez son condenados por la Audiencia Nacional a penas de 108 años de cárcel cada uno por inducir a la comisión de seis asesinatos frustrados y otros delitos, realizados por los GAL (Grupos Antiterroristas de Liberación)
1990 Both Germanys ratify reunification. Los Parlamentos de la RDA y de la RFA ratifican el tratado de unión de las dos Alemanias.
1990 El presidente de Líbano, Elías Hrawi, proclama la creación de la Nueva República Libanesa.
1989 Frederick Willem de Klerk jura su cargo de presidente de Sudáfrica y promete terminar el estado de emergencia.
1989 La peseta entra a formar parte del Ecu.
| 1985 Walt Disney World's 200-millionth guest
1979 Bloodless coup in Central African Rep overthrows Emperor Bokassa I
1972 Vietnam: The USAF reveals that US planes have been mining the coastal rivers and canals of northern Quang Tri province below the DMZ, the first mining of waterways within South Vietnam. This was an attempt to impede further reinforcement of North Vietnamese forces in the area and to remove the threat to the newly recaptured city of Quang Tri.
1961 Los "cascos azules" de la ONU se apoderan de Elisabethville, capital de la provincia de Katanga, con lo que termina la secesión de ésta del Congo y se evita una guerra civil.
1960 UN General Assembly admit 13 African countries & Cyprus (96 nations)
1958 Martin Luther King Jr stabbed in chest by a deranged black woman in NYC
1954 First FORTRAN computer program run
1954 First National People's Congress adopts Chinese constitution
1952 Scientists confirm that DNA holds hereditary data.
1951 1st North Pole jet crossing
1945 El Mahatma Mohandas Karamchand Ghandi y el Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru exigen al Congreso indio la retirada inmediata de todas las tropas británicas.
1945 German rocket engineers begin work in US
1945 A month after the surrender of Japan, Packard is the last auto company to cease military production, as it turns out its last wartime Rolls-Royce Merlin engine.
1943 Desembarco en Córcega de fuerzas francesas libres.
| 1934 Bruno Hauptmann arrested for the kidnapping and
murder of the Lindbergh baby.
1932 El Mahatma Gandhi empieza una huelga de hambre en la misión de Poona (India).
1900 Disolución de los Estados Pontificios, con ocasión del XXX Aniversario de la ocupación de Roma.
1884 US Equal Rights Party nominates female candidates for President and Vice-President.
1881 Vice-President Chester A. Arthur sworn in as 21st US president, following the death in office of President Garfield.
1881 Apertura de las primeras Cortes españolas durante el reinado de Alfonso XII. José Posada Herrera presidía el Congreso y el Marqués de la Habana el Senado.
1877 Chase National Bank opens in NYC (later merges into Chase Manhattan)
1873 Panic sweeps NY Stock Exchange (railroad bond default/bank failure)
1870 Victor Emmanuel II, the first king of modern Italy, annexes Rome from the French during the Franco-Prussian War, and announces his intention to make it the new capital of Italy. As king of Sardinia from 1849, and as king of Italy since 1861, Victor Emmanuel II acquired, through military and diplomatic victories, a great number of the states that make up the modern Italian republic. Las tropas italianas entran en Roma, terminando así el poder temporal de los Papas y realizándose la unidad territorial italiana.
1862 Fighting at Shepherdstown (Boteler's Ford), Virginia (now West Virginia)
1861 Union garrison surrenders Lexington, Missouri
1859 Patent granted on the electric range
1850 The slave trade is abolished in the District of Columbia. Slavery had existed in Washington, D.C., since its founding in 1800, but slave codes were generally more lenient than those in effect in Southern states. Despite the end of the D.C. slave trade, slavery continued to exist in the nation's capital until 1863, when President Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation freed Washington's 3000 slaves.
1844 Convention de l'Alma . Le Maroc et la France arrêtent ce que doivent désormais être les frontières de l'Algérie. Par cette Convention, le sultan du Maroc Abd el-Rahman s'engage à chasser de son territoire le sultan Abd el-Kader.
1837 NYSE closes for ten days to fight the Panic of 1837, which was triggered by overspeculation. Just two days after Jay Cooke & Co., one of the nation's most reputable brokerage firms, declared bankruptcy, the New York Stock Exchange decides to close down for ten days. The secretary of the Treasury would do his part by pumping $26 million of new currency into the economy, swelling the amount of paper money in circulation to $382 million.
1784 Packet and Daily, the first daily publication in the US, appears on the streets.
1664 Maryland enacts first anti-amalgamation law to prevent widespread intermarriage of English women and black men
1646 Gabriel Lalemant arrives in Québec. This Jesuit was soon martyred.
1604 After a two-year siege, the Spanish retake Ostend, the Netherlands, from the Dutch.
1562 Queen Elizabeth of England signs a treaty at Hampton Court with French Huguenot leader Louis de Bourbon, the Prince of Condé. In return for aiding Condé against the Catholics of France, the English will occupy Le Havre, pending restoration of Calais to English control. But French Huguenots and Catholics would later join forces to drive the English out of Le Havre, and by the 1564 Peace of Troyes ending hostilities between France and England, the English would renounce all claims to Calais in return for 222'000 crowns
0622 Mohammad's Hegira Mahoma huye de La Meca para refugiarse en Medina. Esta huida, conocida como Héjira, inicia la era musulmana y el comienzo de su calendario.
480 BC Battle of Salamis: Themistocles and his Greek fleet win one of history's first decisive naval victories over Xerxes' Persians.
which occurred on a 20 September: |
2003 Robert Norman William Blake, born on 23 December 1916, English historian best known for his biography of Disraeli (Prime Minister 1868, 1874-1880).
2002 Sergei Bodrov Jr., 30, and 118 others as a 150-meter-high piece of the Maili glacier breaks off and causes an icy 400-meter-wide avalanche which falls 25 kilometers at more than 100 km/h, down the Genaldon and Gizeldon gorges to a highway from the Caucasus mountain village Nizhny Karmadon to Vladikavkaz, North Ossetia, Russian Federation. Bodrov was an actor in a movie being filmed there. Among the dead are 48 others involved in the filming, two traffic policemen accompanying them, two border guards on patrol, the 30 villagers of Nizhny Karmadon, shepherds, watchmen, and campers.
2002 Jonathan Yoni Jesner, 19 [photo >], from Glasgow, Scotland, student at the Gush Etzion yeshiva, from head injuries sustained in suicide bombing the previous day in Tel Aviv, which already killed 5 others besides the terrorist. He was born in November 1982.
2002 A bodyguard of Arafat, shot by an Israeli sniper, and four other Palestinians, as the Israelis destroy all but one building of the Palestinian Authority compound in Ramallah and then shell and besiege the remaining building.
2002 William Rosenberg, 86, of bladder cancer. After World War II, Rosenberg cashed in $1500 in war bonds and borrowed an additional $1000 to start a business serving coffee, pastries and sandwiches to factory workers. In 1948 he opened his first coffee and doughnut shop, called the Open Kettle, in Quincy, Massachusetts. The name was changed to Dunkin' Donuts two years later. The company is the world's largest coffee and baked goods chain, with about 5000 locations. In 1955 Rosenberg began selling franchises to other people, beginning in Worcester. In 1959 Rosenberg argued for the creation of the industry group that became the International Franchise Association. His son, Bob Rosenberg, kept the business growing and engineered the acquisition of Baskin Robbins and Togos, a sandwich chain. Dunkin' Donuts was acquired by British food and spirits conglomerate Allied Domecq in 1990.
2002 Bob Wallace, 53, computer programmer, became in 1978 the 9th employee of Micro Soft, developed an early Pascal. Left Microsoft in 1983 (first to leave with stock: 400 shares) to found Quicksoft to market PC-Write as shareware.
1996 Mir Ghulam Murtaza Bhutto and six of his bodyguards, killed in a gun battle with police in Karachi. ^top^
His sister Benazir Bhutto was then prime minister of Pakistan (for the second time). Mir Murtaza had become estranged from Benazir after the April 1979 hanging of their father, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, former leader of Pakistan, by the military government of General Zia Ul Haq.. Murtaza returned from exile to Pakistan after Benazir was re-elected in 1993, and began publicly charging her with corruption.
Police claimed that Murtaza's bodyguards had started the fight. His death led to widespread public criticism of Benazir Bhutto, but she claimed to have had no involvement in his death. A more likely suspect might have been her husband, Asif Ali Zardari, whom the President of Pakistan accused of been responsible for other "extrajudicial killings" in Karachi, where Bhutto rivals had been killed by police.
After the execution of their father, Murtaza and his brother Shahnawaz had founded a clandestine anti-Zia resistance organization called Al-Zulfikar that was linked to terrorist activities. In 1985 Shahnawaz died under mysterious circumstances, possibly poisoning.
1996 Paul Erdös, 83, Jewish Hungarian refugee, a machine for turning coffee into theorems (i.e. his definition of a mathematician). He was born on 26 March 1913.
1987 Unas 1500 personas, en Bangladesh a causa de las inundaciones provocadas por los monzones que azotan el país.
1979 Ludvik Svoboda, ex presidente de Checoslovaquia.
1975 Marie-René-Auguste-Alexis Saint-Léger Léger Saint-John Perse [literature Nobel-1960]
1974 Gail A. Cobb, of the Metropolitan Police Force of Washington, D.C., killed by a robbery suspect in an underground garage in downtown Washington, became the first US female police officer to be killed in the line of duty.
1971 Giorgios Stylanou Seferiades "George Seferis" [literature Nobel-1963]
1962 Robert Colquhoun, Scottish painter and printmaker, born on 20 December 1914. Woman in Green
1957 Jean Sibelius, 91, Finnish composer.
1947 Fiorello La Guardia (Mayor-R-NYC)
1932 Max Slevogt, German Impressionist painter, printmaker, and illustrator, born on 08 October 1868. MORE ON SLEVOGT AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER LINKS — Self-Portrait (drypoint) — Self-Portrait seated and drawing (drypoint) — Self-Portrait (Head) (drypoint) — 62 prints at FAMSF
1930 Moritz Pasch, German mathematician born on 08 November 1843.
1908 Nicolás Salmerón, ex presidente de la I República española.
1898 George Grey, author. GREY ONLINE: Polynesian Mythology and Ancient Traditional History of the New Zealanders As Furnished by Their Priests and Chiefs
1894 Heinrich Hoffmann-Donner, author . HOFFMAN-DONNER ONLINE: Struwwelpeter (in German, English translation by Mark Twain, and French translation)
1882 Charles Auguste Briot, French mathematician born on 19 July 1817.
1878 Thomas Bangs Thorpe, author. THORPE ONLINE: "The Bee-Hunter": A Repository of Sketches, A Voice to America: or, The Model Republic, Its Glory, or Its Fall
1871 John Coleridge Patteson, shot full of arrows by Melanesian tribesmen in retaliation for five youths kidnapped as laborers for Australia. The outcry at Patteson's death ended the practice of kidnapping laborers. This Englishman was a missionary who visited as many as 44 islands a year.
1724 David von Krafft, Swedish artist born in 1655.
which occurred on a 20 September:
1943 Sani Abacha, político y militar nigeriano.
1941 John A Wismont Jr., California, watercolor painter (over 50'000)
1932 The Methodist Church of Great Britain and Ireland is formed by the union of four branches of Methodism in England. These were the Wesleyan Methodists (founded 1784), the Primitive Methodists (1811), the United Methodist Free Churches (1857) and the United Methodists (1907).
1928 Donald A. Hall (author: Oxcart Man, Lucy's Christmas)
1928 Manuel Seco Reymundo, lingüista y académico español.
1928 Dr. Joyce Brothers, NYC, pop psychologist ($64'000 question winner)
1925 Stewartson, English applied mathematician who died on 07 May 1983.
1916 Sid Chaplin, English novelist and short story writer, who died on 11 January 1986.
1903 Helen Marion Young, in Göttingen, Germany, daughter of British mathematicians William Henry Young and Grace (Chisholm) Young. She would be the second of their six children (the other 5: aerial observer Francis shot down early in WWI, mathematician Cecily, physician Janet (married Stephen Michael), mathematician Lawrence, engineer Patrick) to die.
1902 Stevie Smith, English poet, novelist and short story writer, who died on 07 March 1971.
1901 Enrico Fermi, físico italiano, Premio Nobel 1938.
1899 Leo Strauss, German-born US political philosopher who died on 18 October 1973.
1891 Lamine Gueye, Senegalese political leader.
1887 Erich Hecke, German mathematician who died of cancer on 13 February 1947. His best work was in analytic number theory. In 1936 he discovered [just for the Hecke of it?] the properties of the algebra of Hecke operators and of the Euler products associated with them.
1884 Maxwell Perkins, editor, the first to publish F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway and Thomas Wolfe.
1855 George de Forest Brush, US painter who died in 1941. MORE ON BRUSH AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER LINKS Thea The Sculptor and the King Nancy, the Artist's Daughter [Mrs. Robert Pearmain] — The Little Cavalier
1842 Alexander Wilhelm von Brill, German mathematician who died on 08 June 1935.
1842 James Dewar, English chemist and physicist who invented the vacuum flask and cordite, the first smokeless gunpowder. He died on 27 March 1923.
1833 Ernesto Teodoro Moneta Italy, journalist (Nobel Peace Prize 1907)
1833 David Ross Locke "Petroleum V. Nasby", humorist whose work was enjoyed by Abraham Lincoln.
1819 Théodore Chassériau, French painter who died on 08 October 1856. MORE ON CHASSÉRIAU AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER LINKS The Two Sisters Peace The Tepidarium _ detail — Un bain au sérail
1809 Sterling Price, governor of Missouri and Confederate general, who died on 29 September 1867.
1807 Friedrich Gauermann, Austrian artist who died on 07 July 1862.
1779 Johannes-Ludvig Camradt, Danish miniaturist and painter on porcelain, who died on 04 December 1849. — Vase of Flowers
357 -BC- Alexander III the Great, king of Macedonia, emperor