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Events, deaths, births, of SEP 27

[For Sep 27 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Oct 071700s: Oct 081800s: Oct 091900~2099: Oct 10]
FLS price chartOn a 27 September:
2002 Flowserve Corporation (FLS), the world's largest supplier of pumps, valves, and seals [image below] to the chemical, petroleum and power industries, says that its customers in several sectors have slashed spending and delayed preventive maintenance at their plants, depressing demand for replacement pumps and valves.
      Consequently FLS announces that it expects to earn 30 cents to 32 cents per share in the third quarter, down from its earlier forecast of 38 cents to 43 cents and below the analysts' average estimate of 39 cents. Year-earlier earnings were 38 cents a share. For the full year, Flowserve cuts its profit forecast to between $1.45 and $1.55 per share, excluding acquisition-related expenses, from a previous range of $1.70 to $1.90. The consensus estimate is $1.72, compared with $1.42 reported for 2001.
FLS products      FLS is downgraded by SunTrust Robinson Humphrey from Buy to Neutral, and by Michael Schneider of Robert W. Baird from Outperform to Underperform. On the New York Stock Exchange the stock drops from its previous close of $14.10 to an intraday low of $7.90 and closes at $8.70. It had traded as high as $35.09 as recently as 02 May 2002. [5~year price chart >]

2002 (Friday) In the US the average rate on 30-year fixed-rate mortgages falls to 5.99% in the week ending, and to 5.41% on the 15-year, the lowest rates since “Freddie Mac” (Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation) was chartered by Congress in 1970 (US Code Title 12 Chapter 11A) as a government-sponsored stockholder-owned corporation that buys mortgages from lenders and packages them into securities for investors or holds them in its own portfolio. It is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol FRE. It is similar to Fannie Mae (FNM: the Federal National Mortgage Association — US Code Title 12 Chapter 13 Subchapter III)

2002 Jakob von Metzler, 11, is kidnapped on his way home from the Carl-Schurz School, after he gets off a bus in the Sachsenhausen section of Frankfurt, Germany, a short distance from his home, at 10:30. About an hour later the family receives a note demanding ransom of nearly $1 million, but its payment does not secure his release. His father is banker Friedrich von Metzler, of the family that founded the Metzler Bank, and is still owns it.
2002 East Timor, officially independent since 20 May 2002, becomes the 191st member of the United Nations.

2002 In Morocco, elections to the 325-seat lower house of parliament. There are 5873 candidates, from 26 parties, in 91 electoral districts, for parties, under proportional representation.

2002 Ostrich rights include 650 square meters of Lebensraum each and, during the winter, Wärme, according to the German upper house Bundesrat, which asks that animal protection laws be extended to ostriches, which are raised for their meat in Germany, as there is no mad ostrich disease, nor foot-and-beak disease.

2002 The UN Human Rights Committee rejects the argument by Frenchman Manuel Wackenheim, 114 cm tall, against France's 1995 ban on dwarf-tossing, by which he made his living, a strong man grabbing him by the handles on the back of his padded clothing and tossing him, wearing a crash helmet, as far as possible, usually in a bar or discothèque.

1999 Russian pilots strike Chechen capital for fifth day (CNN)
1995 The US Treasury Department presents a new $100 bill, more difficult to forge, complete with an off-center, but enlarged picture of Ben Franklin.
1995 Supreme court to consider software copyright case         ^top^
      Supreme Court justices agreed to review a software copyright decision. This would be the first time the Supreme Court considered the degree to which copyright law could protect computer software. Lotus Development Corp. had accused Borland International of imitating its popular Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet. A lower court had denied Lotus copyright protection on the grounds that software constituted a set of instructions, not a literary work. The Supreme Court ultimately decided against Lotus but did not set clear guidelines about software copyright law.
1992 Victoria de Ion Iliescu y su partido, el Frente Democrático de Salvación Nacional, en las elecciones presidenciales y parlamentarias celebradas en Rumanía.
1991 Pres Bush decides to end full-time B-52 bombers alert
1990 Renault and Volvo to cooperate towards merger.         ^top^
      They signd an agreement of industrial cooperation, outlining plans for an eventual merger. The merger plans were abandoned three years later, leaving a lot of unanswered questions and speculations. Many industry experts suspect that Volvo backed out of the deal due to their lingering suspicion of the French government. Renault, a state-owned company, was slated for privatization, but critics found the plans too vague and saw the French government as susceptible to pressure from its workers. Economic pundits pointed to Europe's recession and double-digit unemployment. Some merely felt that Volvo, a symbol of Sweden's industrial prowess, was being bargained away too cheaply.
1990 Deposed emir of Kuwait address the UN General Assembly
1989 Sony buys Columbia [NOT Colombia]         ^top^
      When Sony's purchase of Columbia Pictures was completed on this day it sounded like an expensive, but smart deal. For the sum of $3.4 billion, Sony was not only grabbing one of Hollywood's hottest studios, it was buying synergy, that magical quality of product cross-pollination that all public companies had begun to seek. Sony's president, Norio Ohga, wanted to unite Sony's industry-leading consumer electronics division with Columbia's entertainment properties. The vision, as the Wall Street Journal put it the following day, was of Columbia's film hits such as Rambo playing on pocket VCRs and other new Sony gadgets. Analysts applauded the deal, praising Ogha's strategic vision. No one predicted that Columbia's string of Hollywood successes would abruptly come to an end. Under the direction of producers Jon Peters and Peter Guber, the studio unleashed a series of costly flops and racked-up a $3 billion debt, prompting Sony officials to consider putting their once-prized purchase back on the selling block
1988 Lab tests reportedly show Shroud of Turin not Christ`s burial cloth
1986 US Senate joins House of Representatives in voting for sweeping tax reforms
1984 La Ley Orgánica contra terroristas y bandas armadas es aprobada por el Congreso español.
1970 El rey Hussein y Yasir Arafat firman en El Cairo un acuerdo que pone fin a los enfrentamientos entre jordanos y palestinos en Jordania.
1969 Vietnam: Thieu conditions Vietnamization on getting aid         ^top^
      1969 Thieu comments on Nixon’s Vietnamization policy President Nguyen Van Thieu says his government entertains no “ambition or pretense” to take over all fighting by the end of 1970, but given proper support South Vietnamese troops could replace the “bulk” of US troops that year. Thieu said his agreement on any further US troops withdrawals would hinge on whether his requests for equipment and funds for ARVN forces were granted. These comments were in response to President Nixon’s continued emphasis on “Vietnamizing” the war so that US forces could be withdrawn.
1967 Vietnam: In the US, a call to resist the draft         ^top^
      An advertisement headed “A Call To Resist Illegitimate Authority,” signed by over 320 influential people (professors, writers, ministers, and other professional people), appears in the New Republic and the New York Review of Books, asking for funds to help youths resist the draft. In Washington, Senator Thurston B. Morton (Republican from Kentucky), told reporters that President Johnson had been “brainwashed” by the “military-industrial complex” into believing a military victory could be achieved in Vietnam.
      Johnson felt the sting of such criticism and he was also frustrated by contradictory advice from his advisors. Still, he thought that slow and steady progress was being made in Vietnam based on optimistic reports coming out of the US military headquarters in Saigon. General Westmoreland, Commander of US Military Assistance Command Vietnam, reported that US operations were keeping the Viet Cong off balance and inflicting heavy losses. Still, the home front was crumbling as Johnson came under increasingly personal attacks for his handling of the war. The situation would reach a critical state when the communists launched a major surprise attack on 31 January during the 1968 Tet holiday, the traditional Vietnamese holiday celebrating the lunar new year.
1967 Argentina reclama en la ONU la devolución de las islas Malvinas
1964 Kennedy assassination report released         ^top^
      After a ten-month investigation, the Warren Commission Report on the assassination of President John F. Kennedy is released, concluding that there was no conspiracy in the assassination, either domestic or international, and that Lee Harvey Oswald, the alleged assassin, acted alone. The presidential commission, headed by Supreme Court Chief Justice Earl Warren, also found that Jack Ruby, the nightclub owner who murdered Oswald on live national television, had no prior contact with Oswald.
      According to the report, the bullets that killed President Kennedy and injured Texas Governor John Connally were fired by Oswald in three shots from a rifle pointed out of a sixth floor window in the Texas School Book Depository. Oswald's life, including his visit to the Soviet Union, was described in detail, but the report made no attempt to analyze his motives. Despite its seemingly firm conclusions, the report failed to silence conspiracy theories surrounding the event, and in 1978 the House Select Committee on Assassinations concluded in a preliminary report that Kennedy was "probably assassinated as a result of a conspiracy" that may have involved multiple shooters and organized crime. The committee's findings, as with the findings of the Warren Commission, continue to be widely disputed.
1963 At 10:59 AM the census clock, records US population at 190'000'000
1962 US sells Israel, Hawk anti-aircraft missiles
1961 Sierre Leone becomes the 100th member of the UN.
1959 Khrushchev ends visit to the United States         ^top^
     Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev concludes his US visit, having met with the US President, but not seen Disneyland.
       Nikita Khrushchev ends his dramatic and eventful visit to the United States and returns to the Soviet Union. For nearly two weeks, his trip dominated the news in the US and around the world. Khrushchev arrived in the United States on 15 September. His plan was to tour the US and conclude his trip nearly two weeks later with a summit meeting with President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Hopes were high that the visit marked a turning point in the Cold War and that perhaps the Soviet leader's oft-proclaimed desire for "peaceful coexistence" with the United States would become a reality. Before official business began, however, Khrushchev — the first Soviet head of state to visit the United States — took the opportunity to tour parts of the US.
      At the top of his list was a visit to Hollywood. His trip to the land of make-believe took a bizarre turn, however, as he engaged in a verbal sparring match with the head of Twentieth Century Fox Studio. Khrushchev, displaying his famous temper, threatened to return home after the studio chief made some ill-chosen remarks about US-Soviet competition. Khrushchev's outburst was nothing compared to the tantrum he threw when he learned he could not visit Disneyland because of security concerns. Returning to Washington, the Soviet leader began two days of talks with Eisenhower on a number of issues. Although no specific agreements were reached, both leaders resolved to continue their discussions in the future and keep the lines of communication open.
      On 27 September, Khrushchev concluded his visit. He met briefly to exchange goodbyes with Eisenhower and then was escorted to the airport by Vice President Richard Nixon. A few months earlier, at the American National Exhibition in Moscow, Nixon and Khrushchev had engaged in the famous "kitchen debate" concerning the battle between communism and capitalism. Now, however, the two men were exhibited great goodwill toward each other. With a 21-gun salute and a US military band playing both the US and Soviet national anthems, Khrushchev boarded a Russian aircraft and returned to the Soviet Union.
1955 España solicita el ingreso en las Naciones Unidas.
1954 School integration begins in Wash DC and Baltimore Md public schools
1953 Typhoon destroys 1/3 of Nagoya Japan
1950 US Army and Marine troops liberate Seoul, South Korea.
1944 II Guerra Mundial: Tropas soviéticas y yugoslavas entran en Albania.
1944 ENIAC computer's creators plan to patent it         ^top^
      Presper Eckert sent a letter to his colleagues at the Moore School of Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania, advising them that he and John Mauchly would be applying for a patent on ENIAC, one of the world's first electronic computers. He requested that other engineers let him know about any contributions to ENIAC that they would like to patent themselves. In 1946, the new head of the Moore School requested that all engineers sign over patent rights to the school: Eckert and Mauchly resigned in protest and started their own company. Years later, their patent for the electronic computer was overturned after a protracted court battle.
1942 Australian forces defeat the Japanese on New Guinea in the South Pacific.
1941 Es proclamada oficialmente la independencia de Siria.
1940 Tripartite Pact: Germany, Italy, and Japan carve up the world and warn the US
      In Berlin, Germany, Italy, and Japan sign the Tripartite Pact, a ten-year military and economic alliance. The Pact provided for mutual assistance should any of the signatories suffer attack by any nation not already involved in the war. This formalizing of the alliance was aimed directly at "neutral" US — designed to force the United States to think twice before venturing in on the side of the Allies. The Pact also recognized the two spheres of influence. Japan acknowledged "the leadership of Germany and Italy in the establishment of a new order in Europe," while Japan was granted lordship over "Greater East Asia."
      Hungary was dragged as the 4th signatory into the Axis alliance by Germany in November 1940.
1940 Black leaders protest discrimination in US armed forces
1939 Warsaw falls to the Nazis         ^top^
      26 days after the German invasion, Polish resistance against the invading forces of Nazi Germany and the USS.R. effectively ends with the surrender of Warsaw, which had resisted for 19 days and endured a brutal three-day bombing campaign by the German Luftwaffe. 140'000 Polish soldiers are taken prisoner by the Germans. The next day, the division of Poland was agreed upon by Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov and Nazi Minister of Foreign Affairs Joachim von Ribbentrop. Five weeks earlier, on 23 August 1939, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and von Ribbentrop signed the Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact in an unexpected reversal of their national policies. For Nazi leader Adolf Hitler, the pact would neutralize the USSR while he pursued military operations in the West, and for Stalin continued peace would allow his country time to better prepare for its inevitable war with Nazi Germany — its natural ideological enemy.
      Five days later, Stalin signed a second treaty with Ribbentrop, this one concerning national frontiers. The second agreement had a secret clause dividing Finland, Poland, the Baltic States, and the Balkans into German and Soviet spheres of influence. When World War II broke out over Hitler's invasion of Poland on 01 September, the Soviets began moving against the territory allotted to them in the secret agreement. However, peace between Germany and the USSR, which according to the Nazi-Soviet pact would last at least ten years, was shattered with the German invasion of the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941. The Polish government then signed a peace agreement with Moscow, and Polish troops and resistance fighters began working with the Allies toward the defeat of Germany.
     On the heels of its victory, the Germans began a systematic program of terror, murder, and cruelty, executing members of Poland's middle and upper classes: Doctors, teachers, priests, landowners, and businessmen were rounded up and killed. The Nazis had given this operation the benign-sounding name "Extraordinary Pacification Action." The Roman Catholic Church, too, was targeted, because it was a possible source of dissent and counterinsurgency. In one west Poland church diocese alone, 214 priests were shot. And hundreds of thousands more Poles were driven from their homes and relocated east, as Germans settled in the vacated areas. This was all part of a Hitler master plan. Back in August, Hitler warned his own officers that he was preparing Poland for that "which would not be to the taste of German generals"—including the rounding up of Polish Jews into ghettos, a prelude to their liquidation. All roads were pointing to Auschwitz.
     — Varsovia, sitiada y bombardeada, se rinde a las tropas alemanas, que hacen 160'000 prisioneros.
1938 Queen Elizabeth visits Queen Elizabeth under construction.         ^top^
      Queen Elizabeth, consort of King George VI of England and mother to Queen Elizabeth II, visited the Scottish construction site of a massive ocean liner to be named in her honor. The RMS Queen Elizabeth, the largest passenger liner built to that date, boasted a 200'000-horsepower engine and elegant art deco style. In 1946, it made its public debut, leaving Southampton, England, on its first luxurious run across the Atlantic. However, before her days as a lavish passenger liner, the Queen Elizabeth steamed across the ocean for another purpose — as a transport vehicle during World War II.
      A year after the queen's visit to construction year, World War II broke out, preventing the completion of the Queen Elizabeth's finer features. The vessel was hastily made seaworthy for wartime service, and until the war's end was used as a transport vessel for the Allies during the war, carrying massive amounts of supplies and several hundred thousand troops around the world. After her retirement from the Cunard Line in 1968, the Queen Elizabeth was auctioned off to the highest bidder, eventually being purchased in 1970 by C. W. Tung, a Taiwanese shipping tycoon. Tung renamed the vessel Seawise University, and began work on converting the ship into a learning center that would tour the world. However, in early 1972, as the mobile university neared completion, a fire destroyed the pride of the Cunard Line.
1928 US recognizes Nationalist Chinese government.
1919 US Democratic National Committee votes to admit women.
1918 US President Woodrow Wilson opens his fourth Liberty Loan campaign to support men and machines for World War I.
1916 Constance of Greece declares war on Bulgaria.
1910 1st test flight of a twin-engined airplance (France)
1863 Jo Shelby's calvery in action at Moffat's Station, Arkansas
1862 Second Conscription Act of the Confederate Congress
1862 First Federal regiment of black soldiers mustered in at New Orleans, Louisiana
1841 El general Leopoldo O´Donnell encabeza en Pamplona un movimiento contra Espartero, cuyo objetivo es colocar de nuevo a María Cristina en la Regencia.
1825 Railroad transportation is born with 1st track in England — En 1814, l’anglais Stephenson inventa la première locomotive. Ce 27 septembre 1825, le premier train de voyageurs entre en service entre Stockton-on-Tees et Darlington.
1821 Mexican Empire declares its independence — Revolutionary forces occupy Mexico City as Spanish withdraw
1803 En tant que médiateur, Napoléon Bonaparte permet à la Suisse de rétablir l'État fédéral. Treize cantons sont restaurés et six nouveaux sont créés.
1791 Jews in France are granted French citizenship.
1787 Constitution submitted to the states for ratification
1779 John Adams negotiates Revolutionary War peace terms with Britain
1777 Battle of Germantown; Washington defeated by the British
1748 Les galères supprimées en France par une ordonnance royale de Louis XV. Les galères sont réunies à la marine royale. Les forçats sont internés dans des prisons côtières ou enfermés dans les navires hors service. Depuis 1560, où une condamnation à un minimum de dix ans a été instituée par Charles IX, les condamnés étaient enchaînés à leur banc. A leurs côtés, les engagés volontaires n'étaient pas enchaînés. Si la galère coulait ceux-ci pouvaient donc, s'ils savaient nager, tenter de survivre. Les condamnés quant à eux coulaient avec l'épave. Les uns et les autres formaient la chiourme. Un comité les commandait.
1669 The island of Crete in the Mediterranean Sea falls to the Ottoman Turks after a 21-year siege.
1568 Catherine de Médicis, annule le traité de Longjumeau signé le 23 mars. Les libertés qu'il garantissait aux huguenots sont remises en cause.
1540 Jesuits Order approved by the Pope         ^top^
      In Rome, the Society of Jesus — a Roman Catholic missionary organization — receives its charter from Pope Paul III. The Society of Jesus was founded by Ignatius de Loyola, a Spanish soldier turned priest, in 1534. The first Jesuits — Ignatius and six of his students — took vows of poverty and chastity, and made plans to work for the conversion of Muslims. However, they were unable to travel to the Holy Lands because of the Turkish wars, and went to Rome instead.
      In 1540, Pope Paul III approves the constitution of the Society of Jesus, and under the charismatic leadership of Ignatius the Jesuit Order began to expand rapidly. For the rest of the century, the disciplined and highly educated Jesuit priests played a leading role in the Counter Reformation, and won back many of the European faithful that had been lost to Protestantism. Near the end of the seventeenth century, the Jesuits began in force the work for which their order was originally founded: the conversion of the infidels in foreign lands.
      The "Black-Robes," as they were known in native America, had successes all around the globe, and often preceded European countries in their infiltration of foreign lands and societies. The life of a Jesuit life was one of immense risk, and thousands of priests were persecuted or martyred by foreign authorities hostile to their mission of conversion. However, in some nations, such as India and China, the Jesuits were revered as men of wisdom and science. With the rise of nationalism in the eighteenth century, most European countries suppressed the Jesuits, and in 1773 Pope Clement XIV dissolved the order under pressure from the Bourbon monarchs. However, in 1814, Pope Pius VII reestablished the Jesuits as a world order, and they continue their missionary work to this day. The orders' founder, Ignatius de Loyola, was canonized as a Catholic saint in 1622.
     The Jesuit order played an important role in the Counter-Reformation and eventually succeeded in converting millions around the world to Catholicism. The Jesuit movement was founded by Ignatius de Loyola, a Spanish soldier turned priest, in August 1534. The first Jesuits — Ignatius and six of his students — took vows of poverty and chastity and made plans to work for the conversion of Muslims. If travel to the Holy Land was not possible, they vowed to offer themselves to the pope for apostolic work. Unable to travel to Jerusalem because of the Turkish wars, they went to Rome instead to meet with the pope and request permission to form a new religious order. In September 1540, Pope Paul III approved Ignatius' outline of the Society of Jesus, and the Jesuit order was born. Under Ignatius' charismatic leadership, the Society of Jesus grew quickly. Jesuit missionaries played a leading role in the Counter-Reformation and won back many of the European faithful who had been lost to Protestantism. In Ignatius' lifetime, Jesuits were also dispatched to India, Brazil, the Congo region, and Ethiopia. Education was of utmost importance to the Jesuits, and in Rome Ignatius founded the Roman College (later called the Gregorian University) and the Germanicum, a school for German priests. The Jesuits also ran several charitable organizations, such as one for former prostitutes and one for converted Jews. When Ignatius de Loyola died in July 1556, there were more than 1'000 Jesuit priests. During the next century, the Jesuits set up ministries around the globe. The "Black-Robes," as they were known in Native America, often preceded other Europeans in their infiltration of foreign lands and societies. The life of a Jesuit was one of immense risk, and thousands of priests were persecuted or killed by foreign authorities hostile to their mission of conversion. However, in some nations, such as India and China, the Jesuits were welcomed as men of wisdom and science. With the rise of nationalism in the 18th century, most European countries suppressed the Jesuits, and in 1773 Pope Clement XIV dissolved the order under pressure from the Bourbon monarchs. However, in 1814, Pope Pius VII gave in to popular demand and reestablished the Jesuits as an order, and they continue their missionary work to this day. Ignatius de Loyola was canonized a Catholic saint in 1622.
1370 Pope Urban, having returned the papacy to Rome, abandons Rome again and returns to France against the warnings of Catherine of Siena.
Deaths which occurred on a 27 September:
2002 Kelvin DeBourgh, 23, 2:35 hours after the 12:25 derailment [photo >] of three cars of the light “AirTrain” he, alone on board, was testing, designed to link New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport with public transport lines. DeBourgh worked for Bombardier, the company that designed and built the train, which it will operate.
2002 Mark Zach, 35, Nebraska State Patrol officer for twelve years, suicide with his service revolver, at 13:00, in Norfolk, Nebraska. He leaves behind his widow and his six orphaned children, aged 4 to 15. On 20 September 2002, Erick Fernando Vela, 21, had been stopped by Zach, who ticketed him for carrying a concealed weapon. Zach transposed two digits when entering the gun's serial number into a police computer.Thus the gun was not signaled as stolen and Vela was not arrested, though the gun was confiscated. On 26 September Vela was one of the three men who assaulted a bank in Norfolk, killing five persons.
2002 Mohammed Yarmour, 21, shot at his Hebron, West Bank, home in a predawn raid by Israeli troops who surrounded his home in the Farash neighborhood of Hebron, West Bank. The Isralis variously say that Yarmour, a leading Hamas activist, fired a pistol at them, and that he was killed while fleeing armed with a submachinegun.
2002 Glen Rounds, 96, mule skinner, cowboy, carnival medicine man, and other odd jobs, and then, for most of his life, folk author and illustrator. His dozens of books include tall tales and realistic stories about life and nature on the plains, particularly in Montana, where he grew up on ranches, drawing the people, animals and daily life he saw, and North Carolina, where he lived. Although published for children, many of his books also appealed to adults. The first, Ol' Paul, the Mighty Logger (1936), still in print when he died, contains 10 stories about Paul Bunyan. The stories were made up, not researched. The 11 titles in the "Whitey" series, about a young cowboy and his cousin, were published from 1941 to 1963 and remained popular for years with children 7 to 10. In 1989 severe arthritis in his right arm forced him to stop drawing. He used the summer to learn to draw left-handed and went back to work. The illustrations in the books of his last years, especially Sod Houses on the Great Plains (1995) and his last, Beaver (1999), have a distinctive rough spareness.
2001: 14 persons, by gunfire and a hand grenade, by an assailant disguised as a police officer (one of the 14, as he shoots himself last), in a joint meeting of the cantonal government and assembly in Zug, Switzerland.. Three members of the local government are among the victims.
2000 Plane hijacker, beaten to death with a mobile phone by passengers on a Xinhua Airline Boeing 737 flying from Baotou (Inner Mongolia). The plane landed at Jinan (Shandong). All 143 passengers were unharmed. One pilot was hospitalized.
1997 William Edge, English mathematician born on 08 November 1904.
1996 Najibullah, former Afghan president, hanged by Taliban. Near the end of the eight years of factional conflict that plagued Afghanistan following the Soviet withdrawal, Taliban, a group of Islamic fundamentalists, seized control of Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan, and hang Najibullah, the former Afghan president. By mid 1997, all of Afghanistan was under the control of Taliban, who enforced strict Islamic law across the nation.
1994: 40 personas mueren y otras 70 resultan heridas al estallar una bomba durante una boda en una casa de Kabul (Afganistán).
1994 Carlos Lleras Restrepo, ex presidente de Colombia.
1986 Cerca de 25'000 aves, en su mayoría patos, mueren en las marismas limítrofes con el Parque Nacional de Doñana, envenenadas por el supuesto uso indiscriminado de insecticidas.
1975 Dos miembros de ETA y tres del FRAP, fusilados en España por terrorismo.
1962 Francisco Brochado da Rocha, 52, PM of Brazil (1962)
1961 Josep María de Sagarra, escritor español.
1960 Sylvia Pankhurst, 78, British suffragette and international socialist, in Addis Ababa.         ^top^
      Born in Manchester, England, in 1882, Sylvia Pankhurst was the daughter of Emmeline Pankhurst, a champion of woman suffrage who became active in the late 1880s. Sylvia won a scholarship to the Royal College of Art and in London divided her time between her studies and involvement in her mother's campaign to win women the right to vote. With her mother and older sister — Christabel — she helped found the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) in 1903, a political organization dedicated to achieving equality between the sexes, with an emphasis on female enfranchisement.
      In 1906, she abandoned her studies and a promising career in art to pursue politics full time. A socialist, she believed that lower-class women would never be liberated until they were brought out of poverty. Because of this view, she began to drift from her more conservative mother and sister, who were focused on the goal of woman suffrage. Nevertheless, she remained a dedicated member of the WSPU and, like her sister and mother, was arrested numerous times for nonviolent protests and conducted hunger strikes. When Christabel and other members of the WSPU began to advocate violent acts of agitation — particularly arson — Sylvia, a pacifist, opposed them.
      In 1914, Sylvia was expelled from the WSPU for her insistence on involving working-class women in the suffrage movement. Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst felt that suffrage could best be achieved through the efforts of middle-class women like themselves. Bringing leftist politics into the movement, they reasoned, would only enflame the British government. The gulf between the Pankhursts grew wider when Emmeline and Christabel called off their suffrage campaign at the outbreak of World War I and became adamant supporters of the British war effort. These actions won them the admiration of the British government, but Sylvia refused to compromise her pacifist beliefs and took an opposite approach.
      From her base in the poor East End of London, Sylvia ran the East London Federation of the Suffragettes (ELFS) and published a working-class women's paper, the Woman's Dreadnought. She became regarded as a leader of working-class men as well as women and convinced a few labor organizations to oppose the war. Because non-agricultural male laborers had also not yet been granted the vote, she changed the name of the ELFS to the Workers' Suffrage Federation in 1916, and in 1917 the Woman's Dreadnought became the Workers' Dreadnought. She corresponded with Russian revolutionary Vladimir Lenin and in 1920 was a founding member of the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB). In 1921, however, she was expelled from the party when she refused to close the Workers' Dreadnought in favor of a single CPGB paper. Britain granted universal male suffrage in 1918. Soon after, women age 30 or over were guaranteed the vote. In 1928, the voting age for women was lowered to 21, the age that men could vote. By then, Sylvia Pankhurst had shifted her energies to opposing racism and the rise of fascism in Europe. In 1935, she campaigned vigorously against the invasion of Ethiopia by Fascist Italy and founded The New Times and Ethiopia News to publicize the plight of the Ethiopians and other victims of fascism. She later helped settle Jewish refugees from Germany.
      In 1956, Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie invited her to live in Ethiopia, and she accepted the invitation. Although in her 70s, she founded The Ethiopia Observer and edited the paper for four years.
1959 Nearly 5000 persons, by typhoon Vera, on Honshu.
1956 Milburn Apt in X-2 rocket plane reaches 3370 kph, but, dies in crash
1944 Thousands of British troops are killed as German forces rebuff their massive effort to capture the Arnhem Bridge across the Rhine River in Holland.
1944 Aristide Maillol, escultor francés.
1940 Julián Besteiro Fernández, dirigente socialista español.
1921 Engelbert Humperdinck, compositor alemán.
1917 Edgar Degas, pintor francés.
1910 Jorge Chávez, aviador peruano, el primero que atravesó los Alpes en avión.
1907 Sergio Camargo Pinzón, militar y político colombiano.
1905 Thomas Edgar Pemberton, author. PEMBERTON ONLINE: An Essay for the Further Improvement of Dancing
1903 James Stanley Grimes, author. GRIMES ONLINE: Geonomy: A Theory of the Ocean Currents and Their Agency in the Formation of the Continents; to which is added Astrogenea: A New Theory of the Formation of Planetary Systems
1891 Ivan Aleksandrovich Goncharov, Russian novelist and travel writer His Oblomov (English translation) is regarded as one of the most important Russian novels. — GONCHAROV ONLINE: OblomovObyknovennaya istoriyaOpyat' “Gamlet” na russkoy stzene — (English translation): Oblomov
1886 John Esten Cooke, author. COOKE ONLINE: The Life of Stonewall Jackson
1869 Samuel Strawhun shot by Sheriff Wild Bill Hickok         ^top^
      Just after midnight, Ellis County Sheriff Wild Bill Hickok and his deputy respond to a report that a local drunken ruffian named Samuel Strawhun, a teamster, and several drunken buddies are tearing up John Bitter's Beer Saloon in Hays City, Kansas. When Hickok arrives and orders the men to stop, Strawhun turns to attack him, and Hickok shoots him in the head. Strawhun died instantly, as did the riot. Such were Wild Bill's less-than-restrained law enforcement methods.
      Famous for his skill with a pistol and steely-calm under fire, James Butler Hickok initially seemed to be the ideal man for the sheriff of Ellis County, Kansas. The good citizens of Hays City, the county seat, were tired of the wild brawls and destructiveness of the hard-drinking buffalo hunters and soldiers who took over their town every night. They hoped the famous "Wild Bill" could restore peace and order, and in the late summer of 1869, elected him as interim county sheriff.
      Tall, athletic, and sporting shoulder-length hair and a sweeping mustache, Hickok cut an impressive figure, and his reputation as a deadly shot with either hand was often all it took to keep many potential lawbreakers on the straight and narrow. As one visiting cowboy later recalled, Hickok would stand "with his back to the wall, looking at everything and everybody under his eyebrows—just like a mad old bull."
      But when Hickok applied more aggressive methods of enforcing the peace, some Hays City citizens wondered if their new cure wasn't worse than the disease. Shortly after becoming sheriff, Hickok shot a belligerent soldier who resisted arrest, and the man died the next day. A few weeks later Hickok kills Strawhun. While his brutal ways were indisputably effective, many Hays City citizens were less than impressed that after only five weeks in office he had already found it necessary to kill two men in the name of preserving peace. During the regular November election later that year, the people expressed their displeasure, and Hickok lost to his deputy, 144-89. Though Wild Bill Hickok would later go on to hold other law enforcement positions in the West, his first attempt at being a sheriff had lasted only three months.
1864: 22 unarmed Union soldiers, massacred by Confederate guerrillas.         ^top^
     THE CENTRALIA MASSACRE is perpetrated by William “Bloody Bill” Anderson and his henchmen, including a teenage Jesse James. They sack the town of Centralia, Missouri, killing 22 unarmed Union soldiers before massacring 120 pursuing Yankees.
      The Civil War in Missouri and Kansas was rarely fought between regular armies in the field. It was carried out primarily by partisan bands of guerilla fighters, and the atrocities were nearly unmatched. In 1863, Confederate marauders sacked Lawrence, Kansas, and killed 250 residents.
      In 1864, partisan activity increased in anticipation of Confederate General Sterling Price's invasion of the state. On the evening of 26 September, a band of 200 Confederate marauders gathered near the town of Centralia, Missouri. The next morning, Anderson led 30 guerillas into Centralia and began looting the tiny community and terrorizing the residents. Unionist congressmen William Rollins escaped execution only by giving a false name and hiding in a nearby hotel.
      Meanwhile, a train from St. Louis was just pulling into the station. The engineer, who spotted Anderson's men destroying the town, tried to apply steam to keep the train moving. However, the brakeman, unaware of the raid, applied the brakes and brought the train to a halt. The guerillas took 150 prisoners from the train, which included 23 Union soldiers, and then set it on fire and opened its throttle; the flaming train sped away from the town. The soldiers were stripped and Anderson's men began firing on them, killing all but one within a few minutes. The surviving Yankee soldier was spared in exchange for a member of Anderson's company who had recently been captured.
(same day) Union Major A. V. E. Johnston and all his 120 or so soldiers.
      That afternoon, a Union detachment commanded by Major A. V. E. Johnston arrived in Centralia to find the bushwhackers had already vacated the town. Johnston left some troops to hold the tiny burgh, and then headed in the direction of Anderson's band. Little did he know he was riding right into a perfect trap: Johnston's men followed Rebel pickets into an open field, and the Southern partisans attacked from three sides. Johnston and his entire command were quickly annihilated. Anderson's men scalped and mutilated many of the bodies before moving back into Centralia and killing the remaining Federal soldiers. In all, the bushwhackers killed some 140 Yankee troops.
      A month later, Anderson would be killed attempting a similar attack near Albany, Missouri.
1858 Jose Joaquin Vallejo, escritor chileno.
1854 Henry Hope Reed, author. REED ONLINE: For the People
1854 Some 300 people aboard steamship Arctic which sinks.
1832 Karl Christian Friedrich Krause, filósofo alemán.
1783 Étienne Bézout, French mathematician born on 31 March 1730. Author of Cours de mathématiques à l'usage des gardes de la marine, (4 volume s: 1764-1767), Cours complet de mathématiques à l'usage de la marine et de l'artillerie (6 volumes: 1770-1782), and of Théorie générale des équations algébraiques (1779), which includes Bézout's Theorem: The degree of the final equation resulting from any number of complete equations in the same number of unknowns, and of any degrees, is equal to the product of the degrees of the equations.
1674 Thomas Traherne, author. TRAHERNE ONLINE: Centuries of Meditations
1660 St Vincent de Paul Vincentian Congregation founder After giving his life to serving the poor, he founded the first Confraternity of Charity in 1617, the Congregation of the Mission in 1625, and the Daughters of Charity in 1633 (the first non-monastic women's order completely given to care of the sick and poor). Canonized in 1737, he was named patron saint of all charitable works in 1885.
1527 Domenico Ubaldini “Puligo”, Florentine painter born in 1492. — more, with links to two images.
1290 Some 100'000 earthquake victims in Gulf of Chili, China
Births which occurred on a 27 September:
1993 Cray's first massively parallel supercomputer
      Cray Research Inc., known for making some of the world's fastest computers, unveiled its fastest model to date. The computer was the company's first massively parallel machine, which linked many small processors together instead of combining fewer high-power processors. The computer used more than one thousand microprocessors made by Digital Equipment Corp. The company said it had lined up nine customers for the system, which started at $2.2 million.
1947 Stephen King, novelista, guionista y director de cine estadounidense.
1941 Patrick Henry freighter, launched, 1st WW II liberty ship.
1921 Georges Mathieu, French painter.
1919 James Hardy “Jim” Wilkinson, English mathematician who died on 05 October 1986. He worked on numerical analysis and on computer software.
1917 Louis Auchincloss Lawrence NY, lawyer/novelist (Watchfires, Portait in Brownstone, The Embezzler).
1898 Vincent Youmans, songwriter best known for musical scores such as No, No Nanette and Flying Down to Rio.
1896 Sam Ervin (D-Sen-NC), Watergate committee chairman
1892 Mykhailo Pilipovich Kravchuk, Ukrainian mathematician. Accused of being a Polish spy, he was sentenced to 20 years in prison in 1937 and died on 09 March 1942 in the Kolyma forced labor camp in Siberia.
1879 Hans Hahn, Viennese mathematician who died on 24 July 1934. He was a pioneer in set theory and functional analysis and is best remembered for the Hahn-Banach theorem. He also made important contributions to the calculus of variations, developing ideas of Weierstrass.
1877 Julio Casares Sánchez, filólogo español.
1876 Earle Raymond Hedrick, US mathematician who died on 03 February 1943.
1875 Grazia Deledda Italy, novelist (Old Man of the Mountain — Nobel 1926)
1875 Adolfo Bonilla y San Martín, escritor y filósofo español.
1872 Eduard Okün, Polish artist who died in 1945.—
1862 Louis Botha, commander-in-chief of the Boer Army against the British and first president of South Africa.
1862 Francis William Lauderdale Adams, translator of Aphorisms, and On Airs, Waters, and Places, both by Hippocrates
1859 Joseph Henry Sharp, US painter, specialized in the US West, who died on 29 August 1953. — MORE ON SHARP AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to many images.
1858 Giuseppe Peano Italian mathematician, founder of symbolic logic
1855 Paul Émile Appell, Alsatian French mathematician who died on 24 October 1930. In 1880 Appell defined a series of functions satisfying the condition that the derivative of the nth function is n times the (n - 1)th function. These are now called the Appell polynomials.
1847 Gabriel Joseph Marie Augustin Férier, French artist who died on 06 June 1914.
1843 Gaston Tarry, French mathematician who died on 21 June 1913. He is best known for his work on Euler's 36 Officer Problem, proving that two orthogonal Latin squares of order 6 did not exist. He also published an algorithm for exploring mazes, which is called after him.
1840 Alfred Thayer Mahan US navy admiral who wrote The Influence of Seapower on History and other books, such as (MAHAN ONLINE:) Admiral Farragut, that encouraged world leaders to build larger navies.
1840 Thomas Nast political cartoonist of late 1800s America, creator of the Democratic donkey and the Republican elephant.
1785 The US Protestant Episcopal Church. is founded, following the American Revolutionary War, when US Anglicans met in Philadelphia to create a denomination independent from and autonomous of the Church of England.
1783 Agustín I de Iturbide emperor of Mexico (1822-23).
1722 Samuel Adams, US revolutionary patriot and statesman, helped to organize the Boston Tea Party. (Lt Gov-Mass, 1789-94).
1719 Abraham Gotthelf Kaestner, German mathematician who died on 20 June 1800. Author of Mathematische Anfangsgründe and Geschichte der Mathematik. He is also known in German literature, notably for his epigrams.
1718 Christian Georg Schütz I, German artist who died on 06 December 1791.
1696 Saint Alphonsus Maria de Liguori . ALPHONSUS DE LIGUORI ONLINE: (in English translation) Uniformity with God's Will
1678 Jean-Baptiste Nattier, French painter who committed suicide on 23 May 1726. — more
1657 Sophia regent of Russia (1682-89)
1627 Jacques Bénigne Bossuet. Fils d'un juge du Parlement de Dijon (France), il deviendra un évêque dont le talent oratoire influencera fortement les prédicateurs européens. Évêque de Condom, puis de Meaux (France) en 1681, Bossuet avait été élu à l'Académie Française en 1671, avant de devenir conseillier d'État en 1697. Ses oraisons funèbres sont d'admirables morceaux d'éloquence.
  • Discours sur l'Histoire Universelle
  • Oraison funèbre de Anne de Gonzague de Clèves, Princesse palatine: prononcée dans l'église des Carmélites le 9 aoust 1685
  • Oraison funèbre de Henriette-Anne d'Angleterre, Duchesse d'Orléans: prononcée à Saint-Denis le 21 jour d'aoust, 1670
  • Oraison funèbre de Henriette-Marie de France, Reine de la Grand'Bretagne: prononcée le 16 novembre 1669
  • Oraison funèbre de très haut et très puissant Prince Louis de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, Premier du Sang: prononcée dans l'église de Nostre-Dame de Paris le 10e jour de mars 1687
  • Oraisons funèbres
  • Sermon du Mauvais Riche
  • Sermon sur l'Ambition
  • Sermon sur l'Ambition
  • Sermon sur la Mort et Brièveté de la Vie
  • Sermon sur la Providence
  • 1622 Gerrit Lundens, Dutch artist who died after 1677.
    1601 Louis XIII king of France (1610-43)
    1540 Society of Jesus (Jesuits) by the encyclical Regimini militantis ecclesiae, is approved by Pope Paul III. The order of priests organized by Ignatius of Loyola in 1534 for missionary work constitutes today the largest Catholic teaching order in the United States.
    Holidays / South Belgium : French Day / Taiwan : Moon Festival / World : Ancestor Appreciation Day / Hong Kong : Moon Cake Festival

    Religious Observances Orth-Eth : Exaltation of the Precious and Life-Giving Cross (9/14 OS) / Old Catholic : SS Cosmas & Damian, martyrs / RC : Vincent de Paul, priest, patron of charitable works / Santos Vicente de Paúl, Adolfo, Hilario, Juan, Florentiano y Marcos

    CANGURU — líder espiritual de cachorros
    Thoughts for the day: “Let a fool hold his tongue and he will pass for a sage.” [and vice-versa?]
    “Let a fool hold his tongue and he will get wet fingers.”
    “Any issue is a question of mind over matter. If you don't mind, ... it doesn't matter."
    “Don't burn the midnight oil at both ends."
    “The person who laughs, lasts."
    “Capitalism is a system in which man exploits man, in communism it is the other way around."

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