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Events, deaths, births, of 28 SEP

[For Sep 28 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Oct 081700s: Oct 091800s: Oct 101900~2099: Oct 11]
On a 28 September:

2003 Pope John Paul II, 83, announces the names of 30 of the 31 men he has decided to make cardinals at the ninth consistory of his papacy, on 21 October 2003. After the consistory, the total number of cardinals will be 194 (not counting the unnamed one) and the electors will be 135. The unnamed one is presumably from a country where the Church is persecuted. The 30 named are:
_ Archbishop Jean-Louis Tauran [03 Apr 1943~], France, Vatican foreign minister
_ Archbishop Renato Raffaele Martino [23 Nov 1932~], Italy, President of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace since October 2002.
_ Archbishop Francesco Marchisano [25 Jun 1929~], Italy, Archpriest of St. Peter's Basilica and Vicar General for the State of Vatican City since 24 April 2002.
_ Archbishop Julián Herranz Casado (Opus Dei) [31 Mar 1930~], Spain, head of the Vatican Office of Legislative Texts since 1984
_ Archbishop Javier Lozano Barragán [26 Jan 1933], Mexico, head of Vatican office for Health Care Workers since 31 October 1996.
_ Archbishop Stephen Fumio Hamao [09 Mar 1930~], Japan, head of Vatican office of Migrants since 15 June 1998.
_ Archbishop Attilio Nicora [16 Mar 1937~], Italy, head of the Administration of Patrimony of the Holy See since September 2002.
_ Angelo Scola [07 Nov 1941~], Italy, Patriarch of Venice since 05 January 2002.
_ Anthony Olubunmi Okogie [16 Jun 1935~], Nigeria, Archbishop of Lagos since 13 Apr 1973.
_ Bernard Panafieu [26 Jan 1931~], France, Archbishop of Marseille since 22 April 1995.
_ Gabriel Zubeir Wako [27 Feb 1941~], Sudan, Archbishop of Khartoum since 10 October 1981. — [He has nothing to do with any Waco wacko.]
_ Carlos Amigo Vallejo OFM [23 Aug 1934~], Spain, Archbishop of Seville since 22 May 1984.
_ Justin Francis Rigali [19 Apr 1935~], United States, Archbishop of Philadelphia since 15 July 2003.
_ Keith Michael Patrick O'Brien [17 Mar 1938~], Scotland, Archbishop of St. Andrews and Edinburgh since 05 August 1985.
_ Eusebio Oscar Scheid SCI [08 Dec 1932~], Brazil, Archbishop of Rio de Janeiro since 25 July 2001.
_ Ennio Antonelli [18 Nov 1936~], Italy, Archbishop of Florence since 21 March 2001.
_ Tarcisio Bertone SDB [02 Dec 1934~], Italy, Archbishop of Genoa since 10 Dec 2002.
_ Peter Kodwo Appiah Turkson [11 Oct 1948~], Ghana, Archbishop of Cape Coast since 27 March 1993. — [He is a Turkson but not a Turk's son]
_ Telesphore Placidus Toppo [15 Oct 1939~], India, Archbishop of Ranchi since 07 August 1985.
_ George Pell [08 Apr 1941~], Australia, Archbishop of Sydney since 26 March 2001.
_ Josip Bozanic' [20 Mar 1949~], Croatia, Archbishop of Zagreb since 05 July 1997.
_ Jean-Baptiste Pham Minh Mân, Viêt Nam, Archbishop of Thàn-Phô Hô Chi Minh since 01 March 1998.
_ Rodolfo Quezada Toruño [08 Mar 1932~], Guatemala, Archbishop of Guatemala City since 19 June 2001.
_ Philippe Christian Ignace Marie Barbarin [17 Oct 1950~], France, Archbishop of Lyon since 16 July 2002.
_ Peter Erdõ [25 Jun 1952~], Hungary, Archbishop of Esztergom-Budapest since 07 December 2002.
_ Marc Ouellet PSS [08 Jun 1944~], Canada, Archbishop of Québec since 15 November 2002.
_ Rev. George Maire Martin Cottier OP [1922~], Switzerland, the pope's personal theologian.
_ Monsignor Gustaaf Joos, Belgium, Gent diocese
_ The Rev. Thomas Špidlík SJ [17 Dec 1919~], Czech Republic
_ The Rev. Stanislaw Nagy SCI, Poland

2001 On the first anniversary of the al~Aqsa intifada, still ongoing, the body count stands at 649 Palestinians and 177 Israelis.
2000 Israeli right-wing politician Ariel Sharon makes a highly publicized visit, under heavy police protection, to the Temple Mount—Haram-al-Sharif , purportedly to demonstrate Jews' right to worship there. The UN Security Council later calls this a provocation. It would cause, or (according to Israel) be the pretext for, the "al~Aqsa intifada", in which not only Palestinians, but also Israeli Arabs, demonstrate and, in such numbers as to appear as victims, die (by the dozens) or are wounded (by the hundreds) under Israeli gunfire. One consequence would be the election of Sharon as Prime Minister over Barak on 06 February 2001. On 28 September 2002 the al-Aqsa intifada would still be continuing, the Israeli repression would be worse than ever, and the body count would have reached “at least” 1572 Palestinians and 601 Israelis.
2000 After 12 years of controversy, the US Federal Drug Administration approves the abortion drug mifepristone (Mifeprex, RU-486) which is effective only during the first 7 weeks of pregnancy.
1999 Alleged anti-Russian atrocities spur support for airstrikes against Chechnya. (CNN)
1996 With the United States abstaining, the U.N. Security Council passed a resolution indirectly calling on Israel to close an archaeological tunnel in Jerusalem that had touched off fighting between Israelis and Palestinians.
1996 Landmark legislation to crack down on illegal immigrants in the United States won House passage as part of a giant federal spending bill.
1995 Yasser Arafat of the PLO and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin signed an accord to transfer control of the West Bank. — El primer ministro israelí, Isaac Rabin, y el presidente de la ANP, Yasser Arafat, firman en la Casa Blanca y en presencia de Bill Clinton el acuerdo Taba u Oslo II, que amplía la autonomía de Cisjordania, pactado cinco días antes.
1994 InterNIC denies Web addresses
      Newspapers report that the Internet Network Information Center had begun denying requests from companies to register multiple names, citing enormous problems with infringement on companies' names. Companies concerned about losing their trademarks on the Web swamped the center with requests to register all variations of their name. Large companies were experiencing problems with individuals who had registered their company's name
1994 Time Warner to distribute CD-ROMs
      Warner Books, a division of Time Warner, announced it would distribute multimedia titles to bookstores around the country. Time Warner Interactive had produced more than thirty CD-ROM titles but had sold its products mainly through computer and video stores. Distributing the titles through bookstores would allow the company to reach a broader audience.
1994 Sony announces that it will begin shipping a 600-gram device called MagicLink, which could retrieve and filter e-mail or find information on an online service network. The device would sell for $1000. Despite great interest in the personal digital assistant field, consumers failed to respond in mass to the devices until the introduction of the PalmPilot in 1996.
1991 El presidente de Zaïre, Joseph Désiré Mobutu “Sese Seko”, y las fuerzas de oposición acuerdan la formación de un Gobierno de unidad nacional, tras más de 25 años de gobierno autoritario.
1991 Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev praised President Bush's pledge to drastically reduce the US nuclear arsenal, and promised to "reciprocate."
1991 U.N. weapons inspectors ended a five-day standoff with Iraq over documents relating to Iraq's nuclear weapons program.
1991 Former DC mayor sentenced for having cocaine
      Former District of Columbia Mayor Marion Barry was sentenced to six months in prison for possession of crack, a crystalline form of cocaine. On 18 January 1990, at the end of a joint sting operation by FBI agents and District of Columbia police, Barry was caught smoking the substance on camera with Rahsheeda Moore, a woman who had agreed to set up Barry in exchange for a reduced sentence in an earlier drug conviction.
      On 28 September 1991, he is sentenced to six months in prison for possession of crack cocaine. After serving his sentence, Barry, claiming to have overcome his "personal adversities," reentered DC politics and was elected to the city council before once again winning the mayoral election in 1994 for an unprecedented fourth term. In 1997, Barry, often accused of corruption, was stripped of much of his power by Congress, which passed legislation to end "home rule" in the District, returning the city to the pre-1974 system of administration by federal-appointed commissioners. In January of 1999, Barry retired and was succeeded by Anthony A. Williams as mayor of the nation's capital.
1989 La mayoría parlamentaria griega aprueba el procesamiento del ex-primer ministro socialista Andreas Papandreu y de cuatro de sus ministros, relacionados con el "caso Koskotas".
1982 1st reports appear of death from cyanide-laced Tylenol capsules
1981 "Blue Monday" stock market panic in Japan and Europe.
      It was actually a fine day for Wall Street — at least statistically speaking — as the nation's markets closed with their biggest gains in the past six months. The trouble struck in Japan and Europe, where stocks spiraled downward in a day of panic-ridden trading. Tokyo's Nikkei average took a record dive of 300 points, while the London exchange posted its third steepest drop in history.
      Some blamed analyst James Granville, who had predicted several days earlier that Europe and Asian markets would suffer from a mass sell-off. The conclusion of most columnists and market officials, however, was that the cause was in more fundamental factors, including "uncertainty" about global economic health and the mounting specter of inflation and recession in the United States.
1981 Joseph Paul Franklin, avowed racist, sentenced to life imprisonment for killing 2 black joggers in Salt Lake City
1978 heavy fighting occurs in Lebanon between Syrian peacekeeping troops and Lebanese Christian militiamen
1978 Israeli Knesset endorses Camp David accord
1978 Balthazar Johannes Vorster y Pieter Willem Botha son elegidos jefes del Estado y del Gobierno de Sudáfrica, respectivamente.
1972 Vietnam: No US soldier killed in last week
      Weekly casualty figures are released that contain no US fatalities for the first time since March 1965. There were several reasons for this. President Nixon’s troop withdrawal program, first initiated in the fall of 1969, had continued unabated even through the height of the fighting during the 1972 North Vietnamese “Easter Offensive.” By this time in the war, there were less than 40'000 US troops left in South Vietnam. Of this total, only a small number, mostly advisors, were involved in ground combat. In addition, it appeared that the North Vietnamese offensive, which had been blunted by the South Vietnamese with the aid of massive US airpower, was finally winding down; there had been a general lull in ground fighting for the sixth straight day. South Vietnamese losses continued to be high since they had assumed the responsibility for fighting the ground battle in the absence of US combat troops.
1972 Japan and Communist China agree to re-establish diplomatic relations
1971 El cardenal Jozsef Mindszenty llega a Roma, tras 23 años de refugio en la Embajada de EE.UU. en Budapest.
1970 Mercury astronaut John Glenn become the first US person to orbit the Earth.
1968 Vietnam: Battle for Thuong Duc begins
      A battle begins for the Special Forces camp at Thuong Duc, situated between Da Nang and the Laotian border. The communists briefly captured the base before being driven out by air and artillery strikes. They then besieged the base, which was only lifted after a relief column, led by the US 7th Marines, reached the base and drove the enemy forces out of the area.
1967 Walter Washington elected 1st mayor of Washington, DC
1963 Giuseppe Cantarella roller-skates a record: 400 m in 35 sec. (41.5 km/h)
1962 Forma Gobierno en Argelia el primer ministro, Ahmed Ben Bella.
1961 Syria withdraws from United Arab Republic
1959 Explorer VI reveals an intense radiation belt around the Earth
1959 Khrushchev and Eisenhower offer views on summit meeting         ^top^
      One day after concluding their summit meeting in Washington, D.C., Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev and President Dwight D. Eisenhower offer their opinions as to the importance and meaning of their talks. Both men were optimistic that progress had been made in easing Cold War tensions. From 15 September to 27 September, Nikita Khrushchev visited the United States, capping his trip with a two-day summit with President Eisenhower. For many people in America, the Soviet Union, and around the world, Khrushchev's trip and summit with Eisenhower were viewed as hopeful harbingers of easing Cold War tensions.
      On 28 September the two men suggested that significant progress had been made in improving the US-Soviet relationship. Khrushchev spoke to a crowd of thousands of Russians and declared that he was very satisfied with his meeting with Eisenhower. "I got the impression that he sincerely wanted to liquidate the 'Cold War' and to improve relations between our two great countries." However, there were, he warned, "forces in the United States working against us and against the easing of international tensions." These people, Khrushchev declared, should be "exposed and publicly whipped. Let those who want to continue the Cold War be angry. They will not be supported by reasonable people." Khrushchev also sent a message to Eisenhower thanking him for his hospitality, and noting, "Our acquaintance with the life of American people was highly interesting and useful." Eisenhower, during a press conference in Washington, echoed Khrushchev's optimism. The Soviet leader, he believed, was a "dynamic and arresting personality."
      Although no specific agreements had been reached, Eisenhower felt that the talks were useful and would lead to a better relationship in the future. In September 1959, US relations with the Soviet Union were better than they had ever been since the end of World War II. In the United States and Russia, people greeted the words of their leaders with optimism and hope for a peaceful future. Those hopes seemed dashed, however, when in May 1960 the Soviets shot down an American spy plane over Russia. The resulting charges and countercharges between the two nations ruined any plans for another Eisenhower-Khrushchev summit. By the time Eisenhower left office in January 1961, the relationship between the US and the Soviet Union was as bad as it had ever been.
1958 Guinea votes for independence from France
1958 Le général de Gaulle propose un référendum sur une Constitution fondée sur trois grands principes : un arbitre national au-dessus des luttes politiques en la personne du président de la République, un gouvernement fait pour gouverner, un parlement qui représente la volonté de la nation. 80 % viennent de répondre oui. Elle dure encore et au moins apporte une relative stabilité politique à la France. — Aprobado en Francia por gran mayoría el proyecto de Constitución elaborado bajo las directrices del general Charles André de Gaulle.
1951 The Peace Committee, a Communist front for Catholic clergy, is founded by the Czechoslovakian Communists to enlist clergy into socialist work under minister Plojhar.
1950 the United Nations admit Indonesia.
1944 Battle of Arnhem, Germans defeat British airborne in Netherlands
1942 US Army Air Force chief wants transatlantic bombers         ^top^
      General Henry "Hap" Arnold gives highest priority to the development of two exceptional aircraft — the B-35 Flying Wing and the B-36 Peacemaker — intended for bombing runs from bases in the United States to targets in Europe.
      General Arnold was a man of distinction from the beginning of his career: Not only was he one of the first pilots in the US Signal Corps, he was taught to fly by none other than one of the Wright brothers. During World War I, Arnold was director of aviation training for the Army. Between the wars, he embraced a controversial military philosophy that emphasized strategic bombing, eliminating the need for the use of ground forces altogether.
      At the time of the United States' entry into the Second World War, the Army Air Forces had become an increasingly distinct military service. Arnold was made its first chief. Along with this honor came the opportunity of a seat with the Joint Chiefs of Staff; initially intended to boost his status to that of his counterpart in Britain, it also increased the stature and independence of the Army Air Forces. Arnold was able to form alliances with British RAF allies who also favored the use of strategic bombing in lieu of ground-force operations.
      In 1942, Arnold gave the highest priority to the development of two extra long-distance transatlantic planes that would prove most useful to his strategic bombing game plan: the B-35 and the B-36 transatlantic bombers. The B-35 had been first proposed in early 1941, intended for use in defending an invaded Britain. But the design was so radical (it was tailless), the plane was put on the back burner. It was finally revived because of advantages the plane afforded over the B-36 — bombing range in relation to gross weight, for example. Fifteen B-35 planes were ordered for construction—but the first did not take flight until 1946.
      Designs for the B-36 were also developed early in 1941, on the assumption that the United States would inevitably be drawn into the war and it would need a bomber that could reach Europe from bases in America. It was to be a massive plane—49 m long with a 70-m wingspan. But its construction lagged, and it was not completed until after the war.
1936 Guerra Civil española. El Alcázar de Toledo es liberado por tropas del general Varela tras resistir sus moradores, mandados por el coronel Moscardó, más de dos meses de asedio de fuerzas republicanas.
1928 Juan de la Cierva makes 1st autogiro flight over English Channel
1924 Two US Army aircraft return to Seattle, Washington after completing a 22 day round-the-world flight, with 57 stops .(175 days??).
1922 Mussolini marches on Rome
1922 Constantino I de Grecia abdica la corona en el príncipe heredero, que pasó a reinar con el nombre de Jorge II.
1914 German forces move into Antwerp Belgium (WW I)
1906 US troops reoccupy Cuba, stay until 1909
1905 Se firma un acuerdo franco-alemán sobre Marruecos.
1904 A woman is placed under arrest for smoking a cigarette on New York's Fifth Avenue.
1868 Battle of Alcolea, causes Queen Isabella 2 of Spain to flee to France — Se produce la batalla de Alcolea, combate que hizo triunfar definitivamente la revolución de 1868 en España de 1868, llamada La Gloriosa.
1867 Toronto becomes the capital of Ontario.
1864 Skirmish at Decatur, Georgia
1863 Union General blames his defeat on subordinate generals.         ^top^
      Union General William Rosecrans blames his defeat at Chickamauga. Tennessee, on two of his subordinate generals: Alexander M. McCook and Thomas Crittenden. They are removed from their commands and ordered to Indianapolis, Indiana, to face a court of inquiry, which eventually would exonerate them.
      On 20 September 1863, the Union Army of the Cumberland, commanded by General William Rosecrans, had retreated from the Chickamauga battlefield in disarray. On the bloody battle's second day, Rosecrans mistakenly ordered a division to move into a gap in the Federal line that did not exist, creating a real gap through which the Confederates charged, thus splitting the Union army. One wing collapsed, and a frantic retreat back to Chattanooga ensued. The other wing, led by General George Thomas, remained on the battlefield and held its position until it was nearly overrun by Confederates.
      The search for scapegoats began immediately, and fingers soon pointed to McCook and Crittenden. Their corps had been part of the collapsed flank, so Rosecrans removed them from command. Crittenden's removal stirred anger in his native Kentucky, and the state legislature sent a letter to President Lincoln demanding a reexamination of the firing. In February 1864, a military court cleared McCook and Crittenden, but their careers as field commanders were over. By quickly removing McCook and Crittenden, Rosecrans had been trying to save his own job. Three weeks after firing the generals, Rosecrans was himself replaced by Thomas.
1850 Flogging is abolished as a form of punishment in the US Navy and on US merchant vessels .
1850 Mormon leader named Utah governor         ^top^
      Mormon leader Brigham Young was named the first governor of the territory of Utah by US President Millard Fillmore. In 1847, Young led an exodus of persecuted Mormons seeking religious freedom from Nauvoo, Illinois, to Utah's Valley of the Great Salt Lake. In 1857, President James Buchanan removed Young, a polygamist with over twenty wives, from the position of governor, and sent US Army troops to Utah to establish federal law. Tensions between the territory of Utah and the federal government continue until Wilford Woodruff, president of the Mormon church, issued his "Manifesto" in 1890, renouncing the traditional practice of polygamy, and reducing the domination of the church over Utah's political, economic, and social life. In 1896, Utah was accepted into the United States as the forty-fifth state.
1836 Se promulga el Decreto de la Asamblea Legislativa del Estado de Guatemala para la Organización y Reglamentación de las Municipalidades del Estado.
1832 Revivalist Charles Finney is stricken with cholera during the ceremonies of his installation as pastor of of the Chatham Street Church in New York.
1794 Alliance of St. Petersburg of England and Russia against France.
1787 US Congress sends Constitution to state legislatures for their approval
1781 US forces, backed by a French fleet, began their siege of Yorktown Heights, Virginia, last battle of the Revolutionary War.
1708 Battle of Lesnaya: the Russian army captures a Swedish convoy.
1704 A statute is enacted by the colony of Maryland, giving ministers the right to impose divorce on "unholy couples."
1634 John Milton's drama, Comus, is performed         ^top^
      John Milton's masque, Comus, is performed for the Earl of Bridgewater, who had been named lord president of Wales and the Marches. The drama was the 25-year-old Milton's first stab at the themes of the struggle between good and evil, which he would explore in his masterpiece Paradise Lost.
      The indulged son of a prosperous London businessman, Milton excelled at languages in grammar school and at Christ's College, Cambridge, where he took a bachelor's degree and then a master's. He decided to continue his education on his own, spending six years reading every major work of literature in several languages. He published Comus in 1637, several years after its first performance. The same year, he published an elegy for a college classmate, Lycidas. In 1638, he went abroad to continue his studies.
      In 1642, Milton married 17-year-old Mary Powell, but she left him a few weeks later. Milton wrote a series of pamphlets arguing for the legalization of divorce based on incompatibility. The idea, however mild it seems today, was scandalous at the time, and Milton experienced a vehement backlash. Milton's wife returned to him in 1645, and the pair had three daughters. However, he continued to spout controversial views. He supported the execution of Charles I, he railed against the control of the church by bishops, and he upheld the institution of Cromwell's Commonwealth, of which he became secretary of foreign languages.
      In 1651, Milton lost his sight but fulfilled his government duties with the help of assistants, including poet Andrew Marvell. His wife died the following year. He remarried in 1656, but his second wife died in childbirth. Four years later, the Commonwealth was overthrown, and Milton went to jail. The blind man lost his position and property, but was saved from a lifetime in prison by the intervention of loyal friends. Milton remarried in 1663. Blind, impoverished, and jobless, he began to dictate his poem Paradise Lost to his family. When the poem was ready for publication, he sold it for 10 pounds. Once printed, the poem was immediately hailed as a masterpiece of the English language. In 1671, he wrote Paradise Regained, followed by Samson Agonistes. Milton died in 1674.
  • Samson Agonistes
  • Samson Agonistes
  • Tetrachordon
  • Areopagitica
  • Areopagitica
  • Areopagitica
  • Colasterion
  • Colasterion
  • Comus, A Mask
  • The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce
  • The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce
  • The History of Britain
  • Il Penseroso
  • L'Allegro
  • Lycidas
  • Milton Reading Room.
  • Of Education
  • Of Education
  • Paradise Lost
  • Paradise Lost
  • Paradise Lost
  • Paradise Lost (1667)
  • Paradise Lost: A Poem in Twelve Books (1674)
  • Paradise Regained
  • Paradise Regained
  • Paradise Regained
  • Poems of Mr. John Milton, Both English and Latin, Compos'd at Several Times (1645)
  • The Poetical Works of John Milton
    contributor to
  • John Milton: Poet, Priest and Prophet
    translator of
  • The Judgment of Martin Bucer Concerning Divorce
  • 1607 Samuel de Champlain and his colonists return to France from Port Royal Nova Scotia.
    1563 The Pope commands Jeanne D'Albret, Huguenot Queen of Navarre, to appear for examination on heresy on pain of losing her lands. Since these were French territories, the French government defended her.
    1542 Cabrillo discovers San Diego Bay         ^top^
          The Spanish explorer Juan Rodrigues Cabrillo discovers San Diego Bay while searching for the Strait of Anian, a mythical all-water route across North America. It was the first sighting of California by a European. Cabrillo was not the first to search for a water passage across the North American continent, and he would not be the last. Ever since the voyages of Columbus, Europeans had dreamed of finding a shorter trade route to the Orient. Once it became clear that North America was not India, as Columbus had believed, but an entirely new continent, explorers hoped that an all-water route through the New World might still be found.
          Vastly underestimating the breadth of the continent, early 16th and 17th century explorers like Cabrillo believed that one such route might be the elusive Strait of Anian, a navigable passage some sailors claimed linked the Pacific with the Gulf of Mexico. In June 1542, Cabrillo departed from the West Coast of Mexico and sailed northward to probe the complex broken coastline of the Pacific. Repeatedly turning east to follow any inlet that held the promise of being the Strait, Cabrillo was the first European to explore many of the Pacific Coast bays and inlets.
          Though San Diego Bay — as well as all the other inlets he subsequently explored — never led to the mythic Strait of Anian, Cabrillo did succeed in mapping many of the most important features of the California coast, though he missed discovering San Francisco Bay. Despite the failure of the Cabrillo mission, other explorers continued to search for the Strait of Anian and its northern cousin, the Northwest Passage, for many years to come, though with no more success. Ironically, a passage across the continent actually did exist, and in 1905, the Arctic explorer Roald Amundsen became the first man to make an all-water crossing of North America. But Amundsen's cold and treacherous far-northern route was hardly the shortcut to the Orient Cabrillo and countless other explorers had dreamed of, and died for, over the course of more than five centuries.
          Despite Cabrillo's reports of the appealing California coastline, the first Spanish settlement was not established until 1769, when Junipero Serra founded his mission at San Diego.
    1394 Los cardenales de Aviñón eligen como nuevo papa a Pedro de Luna, que adopta el nombre de Benedicto XIII, que posteriormente será declarado Antipapa al no querer ceder la tiara pontificia para acabar con el Cisma de Occidente.
    1347 Une trève de 8 ans. La France est épuisée, elle a perdu de Calais, le 04 Aug, à pris la pâtée de Crécy, un mois plus tôt. Le pays accepte sur les instances du pape Clément VI la trêve proposée, qui va durer jusqu'en 1355. Pendant la durée de celle-ci une autre fatalité accable l'Europe : la peste noire. Un chroniqueur rapporte : "Le nombre des personnes ensevelies est plus grand que le nombre même des vivants. Les villes sont dépeuplées : mille maisons sont fermées à clef, mille ont leur porte ouverte et sont vides d'habitants et remplies de pourriture."
    1238 James of Aragon retakes Valencia, Spain, from the Arabs. — Valencia, en poder de los musulmanes, capitula ante las tropas del rey de Aragón, Jaime I el Conquistador.
    1230 Gregory IX mitigates the Franciscan rule of poverty. (When he offered to do the same for the Poor Clares, Clare stoutly resisted.)
    1106 Battle of Tinchebrai: King Henry of England defeats his brother Robert and reunites England and Normandy.
    1066 William the Conqueror invades England         ^top^
          William the Conqueror, duke of Normandy, invades England with the support of the Papacy, and claims his right to the throne. The previous king of England, Edward the Confessor, allegedly designated William his heir in 1051, but the powerful noble Harold Godwin proclaimed himself King Harold II, the true heir, after Edward's death in 1066. On 14 October 1066, William met Harold at the Battle of Hastings, and the king's short reign came to an end when he was killed on the battlefield, shot through the eye with an arrow. He was the last Anglo-Saxon king of England. In late December of the same year, William the Conqueror was crowned the first Norman king of England, and English language and culture were changed forever.
          Claiming his right to the English throne, William, duke of Normandy, invades England at Pevensey on Britain's southeast coast. His subsequent defeat of King Harold II at the Battle of Hastings marked the beginning of a new era in British history.
          William was the illegitimate son of Robert I, duke of Normandy, by his concubine Arlette, a tanner's daughter from the town of Falaise. The duke, who had no other sons, designated William his heir, and with his death in 1035 William became duke of Normandy at age seven. Rebellions were epidemic during the early years of his reign, and on several occasions the young duke narrowly escaped death. Many of his advisers did not. By the time he was 20, William had become an able ruler and was backed by King Henry I of France. Henry later turned against him, but William survived the opposition and in 1063 expanded the borders of his duchy into the region of Maine.
          In 1051, William is believed to have visited England and met with his cousin Edward the Confessor, the childless English king. According to Norman historians, Edward promised to make William his heir. On his deathbed, however, Edward granted the kingdom to Harold Godwine, head of the leading noble family in England and more powerful than the king himself.
          In January 1066, King Edward died, and Harold Godwine was proclaimed King Harold II. William immediately disputed his claim. In addition, King Harald III Hardraade of Norway had designs on England, as did Tostig, brother of Harold. King Harold rallied his forces for an expected invasion by William, but Tostig launched a series of raids instead, forcing the king to leave the English Channel unprotected. In September, Tostig joined forces with King Harald III and invaded England from Scotland. On 25 September Harold met them at Stamford Bridge and defeated and killed them both.
          Three days later, William lands in England at Pevensey. With approximately 7000 foot and cavalry soldiers, William seizes Pevensey and marches to Hastings, where he pauses to organize his forces. On 13 October Harold arrived near Hastings with his army, and the next day William led his forces out to give battle. At the end of a bloody, all-day battle, King Harold II was killed — shot in the eye with an arrow, according to legend — and his forces were defeated.
          William then marched on London and received the city's submission. On Christmas Day, 1066, William the Conqueror was crowned the first Norman king of England, in Westminster Abbey, and the Anglo-Saxon phase of English history came to an end. French became the language of the king's court and gradually blended with the Anglo-Saxon tongue to give birth to modern English. William I proved an effective king of England, and the "Domesday Book," a great census of the lands and people of England, was among his notable achievements. Upon the death of William I in 1087, his son, William Rufus, became William II, the second Norman king of England.
    Deaths which occurred on a 28 September:
    2002 Some 20 persons in Satkhira, Bangladesh, after two bombs explode at 19:30 in the Roxy Cinema Hall at the New Market crossing, and at 19:35 two more bombs at a circus show a few blocks away at the stadium. Some 200 are injured. The first bomb exploded in the dress circle enclosure of the cinema, starting a fire which caused the roof of the cinema to collapse. In the circus the bombs were thrown at the women performers. The explosions occur as thousands of people are in the streets to celebrate Gurpukurer Mela Fair, a century-old festival honoring a local Hindu king. Muslims also participate in the festival. The Islamic Shashantantra Andolon (ISA) is suspected. It had been agitating against the circus and the cinema, accusing them of holding indecent shows and screening porno movies.
    2002 Mohammed Abu Ahoueh, 19, Palestinian, shot in the head by Israeli soldiers as he was in a group of kids throwing stones at an Israeli army post near the Netzarim enclave settlement in the Gaza Strip. Four other Palestinian kids are injured. The Israelis variously claim: 1. “the soldiers were forced to fire to protect themselves.” 2. the soldiers fired in the air, and not at the stone throwers.
    2001 Morris Black, 71, a seafaring drifter, shot by Robert Durst, 58, in his Galveston, Texas, apartment across the hall from Black, with whom he had become friendly. Durst then cuts up the body, puts the parts into plastic garbage bags and throws them into Galveston Bay. Multimillionaire Durst had been suspected in the disappearance of wife Kathy Durst 20 years before and was linked in the press to the execution-style shooting of best friend Susan Berman in Los Angeles on 24 December 2000. He had gone to Galveston in 2001 to get away from the allegations, which he denied. He rented his apartment posing as a mute woman and kept up the disguise until one day he caught his wig on fire in a bar while he was lighting a cigarette. The body parts, minus the head, would be found in the bay, in their garbage bags in the bay, together with receipts and a newspaper labeled with Durst's Galveston address, resulting in his arrest on 09 October 2001 and his trial in September 2003.
    2002 Leonard Feigel, 64, of shot in the leg early the previous day, while delivering newspapers in the 400 block of South Evaline Street, in the Friendship section of Pittsburgh.
    2001 Shadi Lafi 20, Ahamad Mahdi 21, Mohamad Zohd 20, Palestinians, by an Israeli tank shell, in a Palestinian refugee camp near Rafah at the southern edge of the Gaza Strip. Three other young Palestinians are injured. The Israelis claim the group was on its way to place an explosive device..
    2001 Yasser a-Nadhimi, 30, Islamic Jihad activist, killed in southern Hebron, apparently while he was preparing an explosive device.
    2000 Joseph Philippe Pierre Yves Elliott Trudeau, 80, of Parkinson's disease, prostate cancer, and pneumonia, former prime minister of Canada (1968 to 1984, with a 9-month gap). He was born on 18 October 1919.
    1996 José S. Lasso de la Vega, escritor y filólogo español.
    1992 John Leech, English mathematician who is best known for the Leech lattice which is important in the theory of finite simple groups. He was born on 21 July 1926.
    1989 Ferdinand Marcos Edralin, 72, former Philippines President         ^top^
          His corrupt regime spanned over twenty years, dies in exile in Hawaii three years after being driven from his country by a popular front led by Corazon Aquino. In 1966, Marcos was elected president on a reformist platform, but within a few years suffered opposition from leftist guerillas, Islamic separatists in Mindinao, and a generally dissatisfied public.
          On 21 September 1972, Marcos declared martial law, and early in the next year, established a new constitution that gave him dictatorial powers over the Philippines. Over the next decade, his US-backed regime was marked by vast misuse of foreign financial support, repression, and political murders, most notably of Marcos's political opponent Benigno Aquino in 1983.
          In early February of 1986, Marcos defrauded a fiercely contested presidential election, declaring himself victor over Corazon Aquino, the wife of the assassinated politician. However, Aquino declared herself the rightful winner, and the public rallied behind her, staging massive anti-Marcos demonstrations across the Philippines. Deserted by his former supporters in the military, the church, and the middle class, Marcos and his wife fled to exile in Hawaii, where they faced investigation on embezzlement charges. In 1989, Ferdinand died and in 1990, exactly one year later, a Philippines court found an air force general and fifteen other members of the military guilty of the 1983 murder of politician Benigno Aquino and sentenced them to life imprisonment. The suspicion that Marcos ordered the assassination of Aquino, who was a political opponent of his regime, was confirmed during the trial.
    1978 Pope John Paul I (Albino Luciani), 65, after only 33 days as Pope.
    1970 Gamal Abdel Nasser, 52, Egyptian Pres, of a heart attack, replaced by Anwar el-Sadat.
    1970 John Dos Passos, novelista estadounidense.
    1964 Harpo Marx, 75, comedian (Marx Bros).
    1957 Albert Ascoli Italian developed anti-tuberculosis vaccine.
    1953 Edwin Powell Hubble, 63, US mathematician, astronomer, designer of telescopes, born on 20 November 1889.
    1939 Poland dismembered by Soviets and Nazis         ^top^
         Soviet-German treaty agree on 4th partition of Poland (WW II) and gives Lithuania to the USSR — A Modlin, capitulation de la Pologne — Traité germano-soviétique d'amitié et de partage de la Pologne
          The previous day, Polish resistance against the invading forces of Nazi Germany and the USSR effectively ended with the surrender of Warsaw, which had endured a brutal three-day bombing campaign by the German Luftwaffe. This day, the division of Poland is agreed upon by Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov and Nazi Minister of Foreign Affairs Joachim von Ribbentrop.
          Five weeks earlier, on 23 August 1939, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and von Ribbentrop signed the Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact in an unexpected reversal of their national policies. For Nazi leader Adolf Hitler, the pact would neutralize the USS.R. while he pursued military operations in the West, and for Stalin continued peace would allow his country time to better prepare for its inevitable war with Nazi Germany — its natural ideological enemy.
          Five days later, Stalin signed a second treaty with Ribbentrop, this one concerning national frontiers. The second agreement had a secret clause dividing Finland, Poland, the Baltic States, and the Balkans into German and Soviet spheres of influence. When World War II broke out over Hitler's invasion of Poland on 01 September 1939, the Soviets began moving against the territory allotted to them in the secret agreement. However, peace between Germany and the USSR, which according to the Nazi-Soviet pact would last at least ten years, was shattered with the German invasion of the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941. The Polish government then signed a peace agreement with Moscow, and Polish troops and resistance fighters began working with the Allies toward the defeat of Germany.
    1930 Daniel Guggenheim, industrial y filántropo estadounidense.
    1926 Helen Allingham, English illustrator and painter born on 26 September 1848. — more and links
    1913 Ten persons in race riots in Harriston, Mississippi.
    1912 Some 1000 drown as Kiche Maru sinks off Japan.
    1902: Émile Édouard Charles Antoine Zola         ^top^
          After failing his baccalaureate, Zola worked in the sales department of a major French publisher, who encouraged his writing and published his first book.
          He became one of the most famous writers in France with the publication of his 1877 hit, The Drunkard, part of his 20-novel cycle exploring the lives of two families. In 1898, Zola wrote an inflammatory newspaper letter, entitled J'accuse...!” exposing a military cover-up regarding Captain Alfred Dreyfus. Dreyfus, a French army captain, had been accused of espionage in 1894 and sentenced in a secret military court-martial to imprisonment in a South American penal colony. Two years later, evidence of Dreyfus' innocence surfaced, but the army suppressed the information. Zola's letter blamed the military for concealing its mistaken conviction. Zola's letter provoked national outrage on both sides of the issue, among political parties, religious organizations, and others. He was brought to trial for libel, convicted, and sentenced to one year's imprisonment. He fled France but returned in 1899, after Dreyfus was pardoned. Zola died in 1902, four years before Dreyfus was finally exonerated.
    Zola en-ligne en français:   
  • Germinal
  • Germinal
  • Contes à Ninon
  • J'accuse!
  • J'accuse! L'Argent
  • L'Assommoir
  • L'Oeuvre
  • La Bête humaine
  • La Curée
  • La Débâcle
  • La Terre
  • Le Docteur Pascal
  • Le Roman expérimental
  • Le Rêve
  • Le Ventre de Paris
  • Les Soirées de Médan
  • Lourdes
  • Nana
  • La Conquête de Plassans
  • Nouveaux Contes à Ninon
  • Pot-Bouille
  • Rome
  • Son Excellence Eugène Rougon
  • Une Page d'Amour
    Zola works online in English translation:
  • Germinal,
  • Nana; The Miller's Daughter; Captain Burle;
    The Death of Olivier Becaille
  • 1899 Giovanni Segantini, Italian Art Nouveau painter and draftsman born on 15 January 1858. MORE ON SEGANTINI AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1892 Stanislas-Victor-Edouard Lépine, French Impressionist painter born on 03 October 1835. MORE ON LÉPINE AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1881 Josef Lauer, Austrian artist born in 1818.
    1875 Thomas Ender, Austrian painter active in Brazil, born on 04 (03?) November 1793.
    1874 Some 2000 Comanche and Kiowa horses slaughtered by Colonel Ronald Mackenzie's forces as they raid a war camp of Comanche and Kiowa at the Battle of Palo Duro Canyon, Texas.
    1869 count Guglielmo Libri Carucci della Sommaja , Italian French mathematician born on 01 January 1803, who fled to England in 1848 with the precious books and manuscripts he had stolen in France.
    1868 Some 200 blacks in Opelousas Massacre at St Landry Parish, Louisiana
    1841 Johann Georg von Dillis, German draftsman, painter, engraver, museum director, and teacher, born on 26 December 1759. — more with link to an image.
    1844 Vicente Azuero Plata, político y periodista colombiano.
    1833 Lemuel Haynes, 88, Revolutionary War veteran
    1776 Cadwallader Colden, author. COLDEN ONLINE: The History of the Five Indian Nations of Canada, Which Are Dependent on the Province of New-York in America, and Are the Barrier Between the English and French in That Part of the World (1747)
    1694 Gabriel Mouton, Lyon French Catholic priest, amateur mathematician and astronomer, born in 1618. He was the first proponent of a decimal system of measures. Author of Observationes diametrorum solis et lunae apparentium (1670).
    1688 Giovanni-Battista Beinaschi (or Benaschi), Italian painter, engraver, and draftsman, born in 1636. — more
    1394 Clemente VII, Antipapa.
    0929 Good King Wenceslas, ruler and patron saint of Czechoslovakia, murdered by his brother. During his brief reign king Wenceslas sought peace with surrounding nations, reformed the judicial system, and showed particular concern for his country's poor.
    0855 Emperor Lothar dies in Gaul, and his kingdom is divided between his three sons.
    — 48 B.C. Pompey the Great, murdered         ^top^
          Upon landing in Egypt, Roman general and politician Pompey the Great was murdered on the orders of the King Ptolemy of Egypt. During his long career, Pompey displayed exceptional military talents on the battlefield. He fought in Africa and Spain, quelled the slave revolt of Spartacus, cleared the Mediterranean of pirates, and conquered Armenia, Syria, and Palestine. Appointed to organize the newly won Roman territories in the East, he proved a brilliant administrator. But his immense success eventually made him prey to the ambitious Julius Caesar, who defeated Pompey at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, and had a hand in his assassination later in the year.
         In 60 B.C., Pompey joined with his rivals Julius Caesar and Marcus Licinius Crassus to form the First Triumvirate, and together the trio ruled Rome for seven years. Caesar's successes aroused Pompey's jealousy, however, leading to the collapse of the political alliance in 53 B.C. The Roman Senate supported Pompey and asked Caesar to give up his army, which he refused to do. In January 49 B.C., Caesar led his legions across the Rubicon River from Cisalpine Gaul to Italy, thus declaring war against Pompey and his forces.
         Caesar made early gains in the subsequent civil war, defeating Pompey's army in Italy and Spain, but he was later forced into retreat in Greece. In August 48 B.C., with Pompey in pursuit, Caesar paused near Pharsalus, setting up camp at a strategic location. When Pompey's senatorial forces fell upon Caesar's smaller army, they were entirely routed, and Pompey fled to Egypt.
         Pompey hoped that King Ptolemy, his former client, would assist him, but the Egyptian king feared offending the victorious Caesar. On 28 September Pompey was invited to leave his ships and come ashore at Pelusium. As he prepared to step onto Egyptian soil, he was treacherously struck down and killed by an officer of Ptolemy.
    Births which occurred on a 28 September:
    1982 Joint UAW-Ford training center.        ^top^
         Ford takes a major step in overcoming its history of poor labor relations on this day, opening the joint UAW (United Auto Workers) and Ford National Development and Training Center. The center, located in Dearborn, Michigan, provides education and training to workers, as well as community programs. Workers can participate in any of six major programs, learning about everything from math skills to pension plans. More importantly, the center also offers relocation assistance and several unemployment programs for laid-off workers. Ford subsidizes the training center with grants and tuition assistance.
    1937 FDR dedicates Bonneville Dam on Columbia River (Oregon)
    1934 Brigitte Bardot Paris France, glamorous movie actress (And God Created Women)
    1925 Seymour Cray, computer pioneer         ^top^
          Seymour Cray, the engineer whose name became synonymous with the world's fastest supercomputers, founded Cray Research and later the Cray Computer Company. Cray worked on UNIVAC, the first commercially available digital computer and, in 1957, helped found Control Data Corp., which became an important technology firm. In 1972, Cray founded Cray Research, where he developed the system of parallel processing-using more than one processor simultaneously-to create the Cray 1 supercomputer, which performed 240 million calculations per second. In 1985, he introduced the Cray 2, at 1.2 billion calculations per second. In 1989, he founded Cray Computer Company to create even faster computers, but the company folded in 1995 because the demand for supercomputers, primarily used by the government and the military, plummeted after the Cold War ended. Cray died the following year.
    1920 Alan Davie, Scottish painter and printmaker.MORE ON DAVIE AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1915 Ethel Greenglass (when married: Rosenberg), who, with her husband Julius (born 180512), became one of the first American civilians executed for espionage, on 19 June 1953..The chief prosecution witness at their trial was Ethel's brother David, also part of the espionage ring (who was sentenced to 15 years in prison).
         In 1997, retired Soviet spy Alexander Feklisov, 83, said (AP 31 March 1997) that Julius Rosenberg helped organize an industrial espionage ring in the United States that provided Moscow with valuable secrets on military electronics, but that Julius provided no useful atomic secrets and Ethel played no active spying role at all. This is consistent with declassified US intercepts of Soviet spy communications from the early 1940s
  • "Never Losing Faith": for Julius and Ethel Rosenberg by National Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case
  • The Cold-War Murder: The Frame-Up Against Ethel and Julius Rosenberg by Richard O. Boyer
  • The Rosenberg Case by D. N. Pritt
  • The Suppressed Facts in the Rosenberg Case by Irwin Edelman
  • To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case by William A. Reuben
    The Famous 1951 Trial of the Rosenbergs
    Perlin papers (documents) — work in progress
  • 1909 Al Capp New Haven Ct, cartoonist (Li'l Abner)
    1903 Jorge Carrera Andrade, poeta ecuatoriano
    1903 Gonzalo Escudero Moscoso, poeta y diplomático ecuatoriano.
    1901 Kurt Otto Friedrichs, German US mathematician who died on 31 December 1982.
    1901 William S Paley founder and chairman of CBS.
    1895 At a convention in Atlanta, three Baptist groups merged to form the National Baptist Convention. It is today the largest African-American denomination in America and the world.
    1893 Hilda Geiringer von Mises, Jewish Austrian US mathematician who died on 22 March 1973. She was an assistant to Richard von Mises [19 Apr 1883 – 14 Jul 1953] from 1921 and in 1943, after both had taken refuge in the US, married him (her first marriage had ended in divorce).
    1877 Mabel May Woodward, US artist who died in 1945. — links to two images
    1876 Hayley Richard Lever, US artist who died in 1958.
    1873 Julian Lowell Coolidge, Massachusetts mathematician who died on 05 March 1954. Author of The Elements of Non-Euclidean Geometry (1909), A Treatise on the Circle and the Sphere (1916), The Geometry of the Complex Domain (1924), A Treatise on Algebraic Plane Curves (1931), An Introduction to Mathematical Probability (1925), A History of Geometrical Methods (1940), A History of the Conic Sections and Quadric Surfaces (1945), The Mathematics of Great Amateurs (1949).
    1865 Friedrich Wilhelm Kuhnert, German painter, specialized in Wildlife, who died on 11 February 1926. — links to images
    1864 La Première Internationale. " L'émancipation des travailleurs sera l'oeuvre des travailleurs eux-mêmes " proclame l'Association internationale des travailleurs, en créant à Londres la 1re Internationale.
    1862 Anshelm Leonhard Schultzberg, Swedish artist who died in 1945.
    1856 Edward Thompson US archeologist who explored Mayan ruins
    1856 Kate Douglas Smith (Wiggins)(Riggs) author (Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm)
    1852 Henri Moissan France, chemist; isolated fluorine (Nobel 1906)
    1841 Georges Clémenceau, premier of France during World War I., Mouilleron en Pareds (Vendée). Médecin, son hostilité à Napoléon III l'entraîne dans la politique. Sa virulence le fera appeler "Le Tigre". Président du Conseil de 1906 à 1909, il est rappelé à la tête du gouvernement en novembre 1917. Son énergie contribuera à galvaniser la France en 1918, et à lui valoir un autre surnom "Le père la Victoire". (defended Dreyfuss)
    1839 Frances Willard founded Women's Christian Temperance Union.
    1837 Samuel Finley Morse patenta la invención del teléfono eléctrico.
    1829 Walker's Appeal, racial antislavery pamphlet, published in Boston
    1824 Francis Turner Palgrave Eng, poet (Golden Treasury), prof (Oxford), editor of The Golden Treasury of the Best Songs and Lyrical Poems in the English Language (1875), The Poetical Works of John Keats, Chrysomela: A Selection from the Lyrical Poems of Robert Herrick
    1824 George Johnston Allman, author. ALLMAN ONLINE: Greek Geometry, from Thales to Euclid
    1823 Alexandre Cabanel, French painter who died on 23 January 1889.MORE ON CABANEL AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1822 Louis Pasteur, químico y biólogo francés
    1822 Rafael Wenceslao Núñez Moledo, político y poeta colombiano.
    1820 Friedrich Engels, socialist who collaborated with Karl Marx on The Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital.
    ENGELS ONLINE (in English translations):
  • Anti-Dühring: Herr Eugen Dühring's Revolution in Science
  • Ludwig Feuerbach and the End of Classical German Philosophy
  • The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State
  • The Part Played by Labour in the Transition From Ape to Man
  • The Peasant War in Germany
  • Socialism, Utopian and Scientific
  • The Condition of the Working Class in England (zipped PDF)
  • The Housing Question
  • Principles of Communism
    co-author of
  • The Communist Manifesto
  • The Communist Manifesto
  • The Communist Manifesto (zipped PDF)
    contributor to
  • The Poverty of Philosophy
  • 1803 Ludwig Adrian Richter, German painter, printmaker, and illustrator, who died on 19 June 1884.
    1785 David Walker Wilmington NC, a black born free
    1761 Ferdinand François Désiré Budan de Boislaurent, French physician and amateur mathematician who died on 06 October 1840. He discovered a rule which gives necessary conditions for a polynomial equation to have n real roots between two given numbers.
    1698 Pierre Louis Moreau de Maupertuis, French mathematician and physicist who died on 27 July 1759. He is most famous for formulating the principle of least action. — [Lazy people of the world, unite in praise of Maupertuis!]
    1628 (21 Sep?) Barend (or Barent) Graat (or Graet), Amsterdam painter and draftsman who died on 04 November 1709.
    1605 Ismael Boulliau, French Catholic priest, librarian, mathematical astronomer, who died on 25 November 1694. Author of Astronomia philolaica (1645).
    1597 Justus (Josse) Susterman (or Soetermans), Flemish artist who died on 23 April 1681.
    1573 Michelangelo Merisi “Caravaggio” , Italian Baroque era painter who died on 18 July 1610. MORE ON CARAVAGGIO AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to, and commentaries on many images.
    — 106 -BC Pompey (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) Rome, warrior
    — 551 -BC Confucius (as celebrated in Taiwan)
    Holidays California : Cabrillo Day discovery of Calif (1542) / Guinea : Referendum Day (1958) / Kiwanis : Kiwanis Kid Day / Libya : Shawwal 14 / Republic of China (Taiwan) : Confucius' Birthday/Teachers' Day

    Religious Observances RC : St Wenceslas, duke, patron of Bohemia, martyr (opt) / Christian-Mexico : San Miguel / Santos Wenceslao, Marcial, Lorenzo, Marcos y Silvino.

    ALOPATIA — dar um telefonema para a tia
    Thoughts for the day:
    “The heart is wiser than the intellect.”
    [It also pumps more blood] [But then who has ever died of an intellect attack?] [On the other hand, many have died of intellect failure.]
    “Le coeur a ses raisons que la raison ne connait pas.”
    updated Sunday 28-Sep-2003 18:50 UT
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