• Il viaggio della Commedia ha inicio... • Kenyatta convicted for Mau Mau uprising... • Picasso dies... • Arafat survives plane crash... • US Congress approves WPA... • US First Aero Squadron in WW I... • Policewoman's murder that will lead to murder by police... • Guillotinés par la Révolution... • Ryan White dies... • McCarthy defames Lattimore... • First woman executed in electric chair... • Gautama Buddha's birth is celebrated... • Writer Kingsolver is born... • Mrs. Custer is born... • Arithmometer's inventor dies... • Cray unveils new supercomputer... • Microsoft to buy a pen based computer company... • Microsoft settles with 3Com unit... • 3rd North Vietnamese front in South... • Report to US Congress on Vietnam... • Steel industry seizure... • Russians attack to drive Germans from Crimea... • General Bradley dies...
an April 08:
2003 After Accredo Health (ACDO) reduces its projected 2003 earnings per share to $1.22 from $1.35, its stock is downgraded by JP Morgan from Overweight to Neutral, by AG Edwards from Buy to Hold, by Raymond James from Strong Buy to Market Perform. On the NASDAQ, 29.5 million of the 47.6 million ACDO shares are traded, dropping from their previous close of $25.40 to an intraday low of $12.60 and closing at $14.29. They had traded as high as $39.67 as recently as 23 January 2003. They had started trading on 12 April 1999 at $5.64. [5~year price chart >] Accredo Health provides specialized contract pharmacy and related services pursuant to agreements with biotechnology drug manufacturers relating to the treatment of patients with certain costly chronic diseases.
2002 The 2002 Pullet Surprises are announced. They include, among others, the editorial cartooning prize to Clay Bennett of The Christian Science Monitor; the fiction prize to Richard Russo for Empire Falls; the drama prize to Suzan-Lori Parks for Topdog/Underdog, the history prize to Louis Menand for The Metaphysical Club: A Story of Ideas in America. David McCullough won the biography prize for John Adams; Carl Dennis the poetry prize for Practical Gods, Diane McWhorter the general non-fiction prize for her first book, Carry Me Home: Birmingham, Alabama, the Climactic Battle of the Civil Rights Revolution. [oh yeah, by the way those are Pulitzer Prizes not Pullet Surprises].
2001 Congressional and presidential elections in Peru. None of the 8 candidates for president achieves an absolute majority. Thus there will be a run-off between the two leaders: Alejandro Toledo, 55, and either discredited former president Alan García or Lourdes Flores, 41.
2001 Ganga and Jamuna Shrestha, 10-month-old conjoined twin girls from a poor Nepalese family from the outskirts of Katmandu, undergo an operation to separate their brains, at Singapore's General Hospital. The operation started at 16:00 on 06 April and continued until completed on 08 April,. by two team of surgeons headed by Dr. Keith Goh. Each multidisciplinary team consists of a neurosurgeon, a plastic surgeon and. others, they worked in relays. The girls were born joined at the head (vertical craniopagus), their brains sharing some blood vessels. Sandhya and Bushan Shrestha are, respectively, the father and mother of the babies.
1992 After 151 years, Britain's Punch magazine's final issue.
1985 India files suit against Union Carbide over Bhopal disaster.
1969 The first artificial heart was implanted into a human.
1968 New socialist constitution of East Germany takes effect.
1946 In Geneva, the League of Nations assembles for the last time.
1913 17th amendment to the US Constitution, requiring direct election of senators, ratified.
1908 Herbert Henry Asquith becomes PM of England.
1904 Entente Cordiale signed by France and England.
1898 Battle of Atbara River, Anglo-Egyptian forces crush 6000 Sudanese.
1865 Lee's retreat cut off near Appomattox Court House.
1865 Siege at Spanish Fort, Alabama concludes.
1864 Battle of Mansfield (Sabine Crossroads), Louisiana (Red River Expedition). Federals routed by General Richard Taylor.
1862 Siege of Yorktown, Virginia continues.
1861 US mint at Dahlonega, Georgia seized by confederacy.
1802 French Protestant church becomes state-supported and -controlled.
1789 US House of Representives' first meeting.
1546 At its fourth session, the Council of Trent adopted Jerome's "Latin Vulgate" as the official Bible of the Roman Catholic Church. (Included in the Vulgate O.T. were the 15 deuterocanonical books which Protestants reject in their biblical canon.)
1525 Albert von Brandenburg, the leader of the Teutonic Order, assumes the title Duke of Prussia and passes the first laws of the Protestant church, making Prussia a Protestant state.
1513 On his 53rd birthday, Ponce de León claims Florida for Spain.
Divina Commedia: il viaggio ha inizio.
Poema da Dante Alighieri in terza rima, iniziato nel 1307, composto di tre Cantiche (Inferno, Purgatorio, Paradiso) che comprendono 100 canti complessivi: 34 l'"Inferno", 33 ciascuno il "Purgatorio" e il "Paradiso". Argomento dell'opera è il viaggio compiuto da Dante nell'Oltretomba. Tre guide conducono il poeta: Virgilio nell'Inferno, e parte del Purgatorio, fino all'Eden; Beatrice, la donna amata da Dante in gioventù e il cui ricordo lo ha distolto dal traviamento, conduce il poeta fino all'Empireo, alla Rosa celeste; e San Bernardo che mostra a Dante la gloria di Dio. Il viaggio dura circa una settimana e ha inizio nella notte del Venerdì Santo, l'08 aprile 1300.
Dante Alighieri nasce nel 1265 da una famiglia guelfa di Firenze, di piccola nobiltà. Amico di Guido Cavalcanti, di cui inizialmente subì l'egemonia culturale, partecipò con lui e con altri poeti al movimento del Dolce Stil Nuovo. Gran parte delle sue rime giovanili sono dedicate ad una "Beatrice", che viene tradizionalmente identificata con l'omonima figlia di Folco Portinari, sposata a Simone de' Bardi, e morta di parto l'08 Jun 1290. Il poeta tra il 1293 e il 1294 rielabora la storia spirituale del suo amore nella "Vita Nuova", un libriccino mescolato di versi e di prosa.
Dopo questa data Dante comincia a partecipare alla vita politica di Firenze, del cui esercito ha fatto parte in diverse occasioni (nel giugno 1289 lo troviamo tra i "feditori" a cavallo nella battaglia di Campaldino contro i ghibellini di Arezzo, nell'agosto dello stesso anno è nell'esercito fiorentino che tolse ai pisani la fortezza di Caprona). Dante, che aveva trascorso un periodo di studi a Bologna, si iscrisse alla corporazione dei medici e degli speziali per iniziare la carriera politica (gli Ordinamenti di Giustizia di Giano della Bella riservavano il governo del comune solo ai cittadini iscritti a una delle corporazioni d'arti e mestieri).
Nel 1300 le sue responsabilità politiche aumentarono, e Dante divenne uno dei Priori, dedicando la maggior parte delle sue energie a contrastare i piani del papa Bonifacio VIII. Questi infatti , approfittando del conflitto presente in Firenze fra i Bianchi, capeggiati dalla consorteria dei Cerchi, e i Neri guidati da quella dei Donati, cercava di di estendere la sua autorità su tutta la Toscana.
Nell'ottobre del 1301 il papa inviò a Firenze Carlo di Valois, fratello del re di Francia, apparentemente come paciere: ma in realtà Carlo aveva l'incarico di debellare i Bianchi. Mentre Dante si trovava a Roma come ambasciatore del comune di Firenze presso il Pontefice, Corso Donati e i neri conquistarono, con uccisioni e violenze, il potere.
Dante fu condannato all'interdizione perpetua dai pubblici uffici, a una multa e all'esilio per due anni, per furto del denaro pubblico, azioni ostili verso il papa e la città (non essendosi presentato a discolparsi fu condannato ad essere bruciato vivo se fosse caduto in mano al Comune). Dal 1302 comincia il periodo dell'esilio, che durerà fino alla morte del poeta. Iniziò un pellegrinaggio per l'Italia. Prese contatto con Bartolomeo della Scala a Verona e con i conti Malaspina in Lunigiana, e tra il 1304 e il 1307 compose il Convivio (poi rimasto interrotto) per acquisire meriti di fronte all'opinione pubblica (per lungo tempo coltivò l'illusione di poter essere richiamato nella sua città come riconoscimento della sua grandezza culturale). Appartiene allo stesso periodo il De Vulgari Eloquentia.
Col passare degli anni Dante iniziò a vedere il suo esilio come simbolo del distacco dalla corruzione, dagli odi e dagli egoismi di parte, e si considerò guida per gli uomini alla riconquista di essa, della verità e della pace. Tale vocazione ispira la Divina Commedia, cominciata probabilmente dopo il 1307. Nel 1310 il nuovo imperatore Arrigo VII scese in Italia e Dante, scrisse delle lettere per esortare tutti ad accogliere colui che poteva riportare alla pace; scrisse inoltre il suo trattato politico più importante, la Monarchia. Ma nel 1313 Arrigo morì improvvisamente a Buonconvento presso Siena, e Dante abbandonò ogni speranza di tornare a Firenze. Negli ultimi anni, fu ospite di Can Grande della Scala a Verona e di Guido Novello da Polenta a Ravenna. Qui portò a termine l'ultima parte della Commedia, di cui era già stata pubblicata prima del 1315 la prima cantica, l'Inferno. Lo scrittore muore a Ravenna nella notte di 13 Sep a 14 Sep 1321.
Dante Alighieri's La Divina Commedia it is the allegorical story of spiritual journey, one which began on Good Friday, 08 April 1300 when Dante was 35 and thus midway through his allotted span and lasted for just seven days; but it is also a bitter political polemic, excoriating those in authority in Italy, and above all in his native Florence, and denouncing the papacy for its wealth and corruption. It embraces the celestial and the terrestrial, the mythological and the historical, the practical and the ethical; it discusses reason and faith, of society and the individual; finally, it claims to speak with the voice of God.
The earth, we must understand, is the centre of the universe, of which only the northern hemisphere is inhabited. Within this hemisphere is hell, a vast funnel formed by the fall of Lucifer. The earth displaced by the fall descended to the southern hemisphere where it formed the mountain of purgatory, rising from the ocean.
This too is conical, with seven ledges rising to its summit, paradise. Around the earth are nine concentric revolving heavens , encircling which is the empyrean, home to the nine orders or angels and the seat of God. Dante's journey therefore takes him through the entire universe. It begins in the dark wood of sin where he finds the poet Virgil, who undertakes to guide him. Down they go through the deepening circles, speaking with the damned, who are being punished according to their sins on earth.
Some are mythological, some historical, some contemporary Florentines. Emerging in the southern hemisphere, Dante and Virgil sail to purgatory, on whose successive ledges they find those guilty of the seven deadly sins. They too suffer horribly but, unlike the denizens of Hell, they have hope; they are working up towards paradise. There the pagan Virgil must take his leave , while Dante finds his long-last Beatrice, through whom he is led to his final vision of God.
Dante was not the first poet to write in Italian; but he, more than anyone, made his native Tuscan dialect the literary language of the whole peninsula. His limpid Italian might have been written yesterday. The work is not easy, but for anyone prepared to make the effort, the rewards are great.
The Divine Comedy is a poem which describes the journey of Dante the Pilgrim as he is lead, firstly by Virgil through Hell and Purgatory and secondly by Beatrice through to Heaven. The poem is therefore separated into three volumes. Each volume (Inferno, Purgatory and Paradise) is of 33 cantos, except for Inferno which contains one extra introductory canto which serves as an overview to what will come.
The interpretation of The Divine Comedy is much more than a simple poem. In fact Dante even tells us so in a letter he wrote. Dante says that in the literal sense his work is a description of 'the state of souls after death' but if his work is to be taken allegorically then the subject is ' Man-as, according to his merits or demerits in the exercise of his free will, he is subject to reward or punishment by Justice...'. The work therefore investigates Mankind's search for salvation where man must first descend into humility before he can raise himself to God. Before man can hope to climb the mountain of salvation he must first know what sin is. This is exactly what the Pilgrims journey represents as his pilgrimage takes Dante (who represents all Mankind) through all the types of sin in preparation for his ascent to God.
Salvador Dali's illustrations for The Divine Comedy: http://narthex.com/gallerya.htm
THE DIVINE COMEDY - HELL
THE DIVINE COMEDY - PARADISE
THE DIVINE COMEDY - PURGATORY
LA DIVINA COMMEDIA
LA VITA NUOVA
LATIN VULGARI ELOQUENTIA
CZECH BOZSKÁ KOMEDIE
PO-RUSSKI BOZHESTVIENNAYA KOMEDIYA
DIVINA COMMEDIA (STENI SZÍNJÁTÉK)
which occurred on an April 08:
2003 Dave Davenport, 40, Will Forshay, 37, and Wallis Bouldin, 34, all three of Grand Aire Inc., on one of its three planes, twin-engine Falcon 20 turbojets, coming from Traverse City MI, as it approaches the Toledo OH airport at 14:00 (18:00 UT). There was no one else on board. At 18:00 (23:00 UT) one of the two remaining Grand Aire planes, coming from Del Rio TX, crashes into the Mississippi River just north of downtown St. Louis MO. The two aboard, pilot and co-pilot Saleem Iqbal, 34, and Mohammed Saleh, 44, are rescued, injured.
2003 Dr. Brian McGovern, 47, and a woman nurse, murder-suicide at 10:05 (14:05 UT) by handgun, at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, in the office of Dr. McGovern, co-director of the hospital's Cardiac Arrhythmia Service. He was also an assistant professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School.
2003 Cloned banteng male, born on 03 April 2003, deliberately killed in Iowa, because, born at twice the normal weight of 20 kg, it does not have a good chance of survival according to the attending scientists.
2003 Taras Protysyuk, 35 [photo >], and José Couso, 37, by a shell fired by a US tank at the 15th floor of the Palestine Hotel in Baghdad, Irak, where they were among the foreign correspondents staying there, some of them were on the roof observing through binoculars. The US troops mistook them for Iraqi guerilla spotters for snipers which the US soldiers erroneously thought were shooting at them from the hotel. Protysyuk, a Ukrainian based in Warsaw, was part of an 18-member Reuters team at the hotel. Couso was a camareman of the Telecino Spanish television station. Wounded are three Reuters employees: Lebanese-born woman Samia Nakhoul, Reuters' Gulf bureau chief based in Dubai, and Iraqi photographer Faleh Kheiber are wounded in the face and head; television satellite dish coordinator Paul Pasquale, a Briton, suffers leg wounds. The Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) sends a letter to US Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld saying that it believes that “these attacks violate the Geneva Conventions,” and that even if US forces had been fired on from the hotel “the evidence suggests that the response of US forces was disproportionate and therefore violated international humanitarian law.” The reporters who were in the hotel are in agreement with Swiss television correspondent Ulrich Tilgner who says: “In all the three weeks I have worked from this hotel I have not heard a single shot fired from here and I have not seen a single armed person enter the hotel” US commanders claim that they had warned journalists 48 hours beforehand that Iraqi military commanders were using the building for meetings. Correspondents at the hotel say that they were unaware of any such warning.
2003 Tariq Ayoub, a Jordanian reporter of the Arabic Al-Jazeera satellite TV channel, whose Baghdad, Iraq, headquarters, a private home near the [mis]Information Ministry, are hit by two US [mis?]guided bombs or missiles, while he was on the roof. Al-Jazeera cameraman Zuhair al-Iraqi (an Iraqi) is wounded. The US regime, including usurper-President “Dubya” Bush, has explicitely condemned Al-Jazeera's reporting as anti-US (it highlights the innocent victims of the US-led attack on Iraq, generally referring to them as shaheeds). Al Jazeera is the most watched television channel in the Arab world. In a 24 February 2003 letter to Victoria Clarke, the Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs at the Pentagon, Al Jazeera gave the co-ordinates of its office as latitude 33.19, longitude 44.24 and altitude 63 meters. The house on the Al Kharkh Road served as the Baghdad base for Al Jazeera, with six reporters, as well as cameramen and technical support staff.
In a second incident in Baghdad this same morning, the nearby home serving as the office of another Arab satellite channel, Abu Dhabi Television, is also hit, by small arms fire and a tank shell, as, from the roof, its crew films two US Abrams tanks positioned on a bridge over the Tigris river. The two TV cameras in use are the only casualties there.
2003 Sa'id al-Arbid, a senior commander of Izz el-Deen al-Qassam (armed wing of Hamas); his deputy Ashraf al-Halabi; and Hamas activist Amro Nasser, in the Zeitoun neighborhood of Gaza City, after sundown, in a car hit by two of three missiles fired by an Israeli F-16 plane; a bystander, killed by the missile that misses the car and also wounds 7 persons; then 4 civilians in the crowd that gathered, into which Israeli Apache attack helicopters fire two missiles, which also wound some 40 persons.
2002 Israelis Staff Sergeant Matanya Robinson, 22, and Sergeant Shmuel Weiss, 19, in attack on the Palestinian Jenin refugee camp. [< Robinson ||| Weiss >]
2001 Tayseer el-Omolee, 45, Palestinian, by three bullets received in cross fire between a Palestinian security office and an Israeli army base, near Beitunia on the outskirts of Ramallah.
2001 Mamoun Freij, 37, Palestinian collaborator of Israel, shot in his shop in Tulkarem, West Bank, by three masked men of the Asfah Forces Unit 77, a group associated with Fatah.
2000: Keoki Santos, 24, Staff Sgt. William Bryan Nelson, and 17 other US Marines in the crash of an Osprey MV-22 tilt-rotor aircraft in southern Arizona. On 11 December 2000, another Osprey would crash, killing 4 Marines. In 2001, Marine officers would be found to have falsified records to conceal the lack of adequate testing and maintenance of the Ospreys.
Joyce Carnegie, policewoman, murdered
Officer Joyce Carnegie [photo >] was working solo in the patrol division of the City of Orange, Essex County, NJ.. A report of multiple armed robberies was transmitted on the south side of Orange. Officer Carnegie responded to an area of her sector that would serve as a likely escape route. Just before 21:00, near Rah-Rah's go-go bar at South Day Street and Freeway Drive West, near Route 280, she observed an individual fitting the description of the suspect. As she exits her vehicle the man produced a Tec 9 and fires at her, striking her in the abdomen and subsequently firing another fatal round to her head. A Drug Enforcement Administration agent, who happens to go by, notices the police car with its lights on and no officer. He gets out of his car and sees the officer down.He rushes her to the shock-trauma unit at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-University Hospital in Newark, where she dies at 21:25.
A multi agency manhunt was launched.
Police mistakenly arrest innocent man, and so brutalize him that he dies within the hour.
On 11 April, Orange officers, Lt. Thomas Smith, 36, of Caldwell; his brother Brian Smith, 30, of Orange; Tyrone Payton, 34, of Orange; Paul Carpinteri Jr., 36, of Orange; and Andrew Garth, 31, of Bloomfield, think that Earl Faison, 27, of East Orange, an aspiring rap artist, resembles a police artist's sketch. They arrest him, douse him with pepper spray, and beat him severely while in their custody. Faison dies within an hour of being stopped by the police.
State refuses to prosecute the killer cops.
Feds can charge them only with civil rights violation, so they are let off lightly.
On 19 December 2000, a federal jury convicted the five Orange police officers. The verdict came on the second day of deliberations after a six-week trial. The suspect, Earl Faison, died in police custody less than an hour after being arrested on 11 April 1999. The officers were charged with violating his civil rights, not with causing his death, which medical experts attributed to an asthma attack. Prosecutors maintained the attack was exacerbated by pepper spray that was shot directly into Faison’s face. Police Blame Victim Defense lawyers, however, said the attack was brought on by Faison’s flight from and violent struggle with the arresting officer, who was not charged. They also say there is no physical evidence of pepper spray being administered to him. A federal indictment was handed up in June against Lt. Thomas Smith, 37, of Caldwell, who retired last year; Officers Paul Carpinteri Jr., 36, of Orange; Andrew Garth, 31, of Bloomfield; Tyrone Payton, 34, of Orange; and Brian Smith, 30, of Orange. The Smiths are brothers. The active officers have been suspended without pay. All have been free on bond. All were convicted of one count of conspiring to deprive Faison of his civil rights by striking Faison after he was handcuffed or trying to conceal the assault. Roll Call of Convictions All but Carpinteri also faced a single charge of depriving Faison of his civil rights: Payton was acquitted of kicking Faison while the suspect was lying handcuffed on the sidewalk. Thomas Smith and Andrew Garth were convicted of hitting Faison when the handcuffed man was lying in the back of a police car. Brian Smith was convicted of shooting pepper spray at close range into Faison’s face while the handcuffed man was lying in a police station stairwell. Each count carries up to 10 years in prison and a $250,000 fine.
Dropped Charges, Lingering Scars
Before summations began the previous week, US District Judge John C. Lifland dropped several charges. He ruled that Payton and Carpinteri did not aid others in violating Faison’s rights when they tossed him in the back of a police car because they did not know others would then allegedly beat Faison in the car. Each had faced one count of depriving civil rights on that. Lifland also ruled that Payton, the only black officer on trial, did not menace Faison with a gun at the Orange police station, because Faison was already unconscious and so could not feel threatened. Assistant US Attorney Patty Shwartz had told the jury that Payton, who was close to Joyce Carnegie, pointed his service handgun at Faison’s head, and said, “Why did you have to do it? Why did you have to kill her?”
Faison was one of four black men detained in the Carnegie’s death in the days following her shooting. The shoddy investigation into her death brought additional criticism of already embattled Essex County Prosecutor Patricia A. Hurt, who was later removed.
Condell Woodson, 25, a career criminal, later confessed to the crime and plea-bargained a life sentence without possibility of parole.
Federal authorities had no basis for a murder charge in Faison’s death because the death did not take place on federal property. The state attorney general’s office said its investigation concluded there was insufficient evidence of homicide.
Ryan White, 18, hemophiliac AIDS sufferer.
At 13, all-American kid and honors student Ryan White learned he had a deadly disease with no cure. AIDS. He had contracted it through the blood products he received for his hemophilia. His home town of Kokomo, Indiana, responded -- not with compassion, but with fear and hate. When Ryan White was told he couldn't return to school, he decided to fight back. He went to court and won. But that was only the beginning of his fight to educate the public about AIDS. This young teenager dared to speak out when others kept silent. And the whole world listened."
On December 26, 1984, Ryan's mother, Jeanne, told him that he had AIDS, which he contracted through a transfusion of tainted blood used in treating his hemophilia. He was one of many victims of discrimination because of his problem: A bullet was fired into his house. Children called him names. Adults refused to shake hands with the White family at church. Ryan stated, "A lot of people would back away from me on the street...or they'd run from me".
When Ryan started school in 1985, classmates "taunted and ostracized him. Frightened parents asked that Ryan be kept out of school and, as a result, officials prevented him from attending classes. Ryan fought to continue his education by pursuing a court case, which he ultimately won, against the school board.
The fight to stay in school pushed the sometimes reluctant teen into the limelight, but transformed him into an eloquent spokesman for AIDS sufferers. Ryan still felt uncomfortable in Kokomo, though. The community of Cicero, Indiana, welcomed Ryan with open arms after his move there.
The Ryan White Foundation was started in 1991 by Jeanne White and Phil Donahue.
1986 Yukito Okada, de 18 años, cantante pop, suicidio en Tokio. Esto provocará más de 20 suicidios japoneses en los días siguientes.
1981 General Omar Bradley, 88, last US 5-star general, in NY ^top^
General Bradley was commander of the 12th Army Group which ensured Allied victory over Germany. Born on February 12, 1893, Bradley was a graduate of the US Military Academy at West Point (Dwight Eisenhower was a classmate). During the opening days of World War II, he commanded the Infantry School at Fort Benning, Georgia, and was later placed at the head of the II Corps for the North African campaign, proving instrumental in the fall of Tunisia and the surrender of over 250'000 Axis soldiers.
Bradley led forces in the invasion and capture of Sicily and joined his troops in the Normandy invasion, which culminated in the symbolic liberation of Paris by Bradley's troops. He was promoted to commander of the US 12th Army Group, the largest force ever placed under an American group commander, and led successful operations in France, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, and Czechoslovakia.
After the war, Bradley was chosen as the first chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and ultimately promoted to the position of General of the Army in 1950. In 1951, he published his reminiscences of the war in A Soldier's Story. He retired in 1953. Karl Malden portrayed him in the 1970 film Patton.
1973 Pablo Picasso, 91, artist, near Mougins, France MORE AT PICASSO 0408 with reproductions of his paintings
1970: 31 school children, and other civilians, in Bahr Al Bakr School in the village of Houssaneya in Sharkia Province, Egypt, in attack by Israeli Phantom jets. Another 36 school children are injured, and also other civilians.
1928 Madeleine Jeanne Coll Lemaire, French artist born in 1845.
| 1919 Lóránd
Eötvös, Hungarian physicist and mathematician born
on 27 July 1848. He invented the Eötvös balance and showed that,
to a high degree of accuracy, gravitational mass and inertial mass are equivalent.
1916 Eric Scroeder, and a policeman, by Bob Burman's car (with Scroeder riding as mechanic) crashing through a barrier into the crowd at the last Boulevard Race in Corona, California. 5 spectators are badly injured. The boulevard race started in 1913 on a 3-mile street circuit. This ended racing in inland Southern California for almost 40 years.
1703 Domenico Piola, Italian painter born in 1627. — more with links to images.
1654 Lorenzo Garbieri il Nepote, Italian artist born in 1580. — more
1461 Georg Peurbach, Austrian astronomer and mathematician born on 30 May 1423.
1143 John II Byzantine emperor, in an accident
0490 Saint Perpetuus (one of 3 possible dates for his death) 8th bishop of Tours
0217 Caracalla [Marcus Aureiius Antoniius], Roman emperor.
which occurred on an April 08:
1903 Marshall Stone, US mathematician who died on 09 January 1989.
1903 Aurel Friedrich Wintner, Hungarian US mathematician who died on 15 January 1958.
1875 Albert I, King of the Belgians (1909-1934) and leader of Belgian army during World War I. He died on 17 February 1934.
1867 Sir Arthur Ernest Streeton, Australian painter who died on 02 September 1943, specialized in Landscapes. MORE ON STREETON AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1866 Fritz Mackensen, German artist who died in 1953.
1861 Irving Ramsey Wiles, US painter who died in 1941. MORE ON DE WILES AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1859 Stanislaw Polian Wolski, Polish artist who died on 02 May 1894.
1859 Edmund Husserl Germany, philosopher, founded Phenomenology
1842 Elizabeth Bacon Custer, chronicler of the US West and wife of George Custer, in Monroe, Michigan. . Her diaries, recording the often harsh living conditions, later became the basis for her 1887 book, Tenting on the Plains. She wrote several books recounting the couple's life on the Plains, such as Boots and Saddles (1885) and Following the Guidon (1890). A year after she died in 1933 at the age of 90, the first critical reappraisal of Custer's career appeared with Frederic Van de Water's book The Glory Hunter.
1830 Jean Antoine Bail, French artist who died in 1919.
1766 First fire escape patented: wicker basket on a pulley and chain
1652 Cape Town is founded.
1631 Cornelis Janszoon de Heem, Dutch painter specialized in Still Life who died on 17 May 1695. MORE ON DE HEEM AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1605 Lodewyk de Vadder, Flemish painter who died on 10 August 1655. — link to images.
1605 Philip IV king of Spain and Portugal (1621-65)
1460 Ponce de León, would search for fountain of youth and find Florida, 500 years later many retirees would do the same.