• Oklahoma Land Rush... • Elián González captured in commando raid... • Hostage and hostage takers killed... • Gas warfare... • Earth Day... • Montenegrin elections... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Critic of Reason is born... • Fielding is born... • Ellen Glasgow is born... • Hitler knows he lost... • New Guinea landing... • Chinese students want to meet Premier... • Moscow Olympics boycot... • Perot unfazed by $450 million loss... • McCarthy Army hearings... • Increased South Vietnamese combat capabilities... • Anti Vietnam War demonstrations... • Unbundling Windows and IE overruled... • ISPs not responsible for content... • $13 back to monitor buyers... • Cyber prankster confesses... • Ansel Adams dies...
| On a 22 April:
2003 In conquered Baghdad, Iraq, US reservists from the 354th Civil Affairs Brigade find $112 million in US currency, in $100 bills stacked inside galvanized aluminum boxes sealed with blue strapping tape and green seals stamped "Bank of Jordan.", hidden in seven dog kennels sealed off with cinder blocks. On 18 April 2003, in the same Baghdad neighborhood, US troops had already found another $656 million, similarly packed, in four barricaded cottages.
2003 In four barricaded cottages in conquered Baghdad, Iraq, US troops find $656 million in US currency, in $100 bills stacked inside galvanized aluminum boxes sealed with blue strapping tape and green seals stamped "Bank of Jordan." On 22 April 2003, in the same Baghdad neighborhood, US troops would find another $112 million, similarly packed, hidden in seven dog kennels.
2001 La coalición 'Victoria para Montenegro', liderada por el presidente montenegrino Milo Djukanovic y favorable a la opción secesionista para promover la creación de un estado soberano en la pequeña república yugoslava, logra un ajustado triunfo en las elecciones parlamentarias.
Vietnam Communist Party picks leader.
At the close of the its four-day national congress, Vietnam's ruling Communist Party officially announces the naming to the country's most powerful post a moderate who has long been rumored to be an illegitimate son of the late revolutionary leader Ho Chi Minh. Nong Duc Manh, an ethnic minority member, replaces an aging conservative as the Communist Party's general secretary. The 60-year-old Manh has been speaker of the National Assembly for nine years. Under his leadership, the assembly, which once rubber-stamped decisions made behind closed doors, became a forum for televised discussions of policy issues. Manh was elected to his new position on 17 April in a closed-door meeting of the Communist Party's Central Committee.
Manh's predecessor, conservative Le Kha Phieu, 69, fought a bruising battle to remain in power. Phieu, an army commissar, had been heavily criticized over allegations of ineffective leadership and charges he used military intelligence to spy on rival Politburo members. Reforms to open the country's economy further and reduce the role of state enterprises bogged down under Phieu's direction. Manh is the first member of a minority group to head the party. His mother, an ethnic Tay, was Ho Chi Minh's servant in Bac Kan province and died shortly after giving birth. Manh has never directly confirmed or denied rumors that he was the late revolutionary leader's son.
The choice of Manh is expected to help ease ethnic tensions that flared in February 2001 with rare anti-government protests in the Central Highlands over land grievances, poverty and religious repression. But he faces an uphill battle in trying to improve the image of the Communist Party, which in recent years has been tarnished by allegations of widespread corruption and red tape. "This is a pride and an honor but also a very big responsibility. I know myself my competence and knowledge are limited," Manh says in a brief speech to the congress.
A highly touted two-year campaign against corruption, launched by Phieu, was regarded as largely unsuccessful, with only a handful of senior officials singled out for reprimands. In a sharply worded speech to the congress, Huu Tho, head of the Central Committee's Ideology and Cultural Commission, also warned of the dangers of increasing abuse of power within the party. "If opportunism is allowed to develop, the nature of the party will be threatened and traditional cultural values will be shaken," he said.
Manh has the reputation of being a savvy politician who is effective in seeking consensus - a skill that could be put to good use since Vietnam remains divided on its political and economic path. While many officials believe reforms need to be accelerated to keep Vietnam from lagging even further behind its Asian neighbors economically, many also fear the Communist Party will lose its grip on power if reforms go too far. The party congress, however, approved an economic report endorsing a continuation of free-market reforms. Analysts believe Manh will be more supportive than Phieu of economic reforms. However, even party reformers caution that Vietnam is unlikely to deviate too much from its current policy of cautious reform. "Anyone who assumes the new leadership will continue to follow the current economic policies," said Foreign Minister Nguyen Dy Nien. "There will be continuity."
[< photo: Nong Duc Manh talks to reporters at a news briefing after the closing ceremony of the 9th Party Congress in Hanoi >]
Elections in Montenegro. ^top^
Montenegrins voting for a new Parliament back a pro-independence coalition that promises to push for the final breakup of Yugoslavia. President Milo Djukanovic's "Victory Belongs to Montenegro" wins as most pre-election surveys predicted after it pledged to organize an independence referendum in the 2001 summer, despite warnings from the West that redrawing borders could stir up more trouble in the Balkans.
[Djukanovic and wife at the polls >]
Djukanovic says that Montenegro, because of its size, can never be equal to Serbia in a joint state. Serbia has 9 million people, Montenegro just 600'000. They are the only republics remaining in a Yugoslavia that also used to include Croatia, Slovenia, Macedonia and Bosnia before those republics broke away in the early 1990s, precipitating a series of bloody ethnic wars.
Before Slobodan Milosevic's ouster as Yugoslav president, Montenegro's leadership had argued that the republic needed to escape his heavy-handed rule. After he was gone, the independence drive continued despite US and other Western warnings that the reshaping of borders could trigger more bloodshed in the Balkans by encouraging separatists in neighboring Kosovo and Macedonia.
Djukanovic's coalition wins the parliamentary vote with about 47%, compared to 36% for the anti-independence "Together For Yugoslavia" bloc. The rest goes to 13 other parties and groups running in the elections. "The independent Montenegro is a done deal," said Miodrag Vukovic, Djukanovic's top adviser,. Zoran Zizic,
About 448'000 Montenegrins were registered to vote at about 1000 polling stations. About 3000 monitors 2800 domestic and 200 foreign observed the elections. Turnout in the capital of Podgorica was heavy despite rainy weather.
Montenegro's secession would mark the final end of Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia was first formed as a kingdom for Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in 1918, at the end of World War I. Montenegro at that time gave up its sovereignty and name to join the southern Slav state. In 1943, during World War II, the late communist leader Josip Broz Tito formed the second Yugoslavia, controlling its diverse ethnic groups with a combination of autocratic rule and foreign loans that made it the most prosperous country in Eastern Europe. But when Milosevic came to power in Serbia in 1989, his ultranationalism quickly disrupted the nation's fragile ethnic balance, leading to the secessionist wars and shrinking Yugoslavia to only Serbia and Montenegro.
Commando raid snatches 6-year-old from Miami home.
[< Miami, about 05:10 local time Terrified Elian Gonzalez tries to hide in a closet, in the arms of his rescuer, Donato Dalrymple, as commando bursts into the home of his great-uncle Lazaro Gonzalez, who took the boy in after he was shipwrecked fleeing Cuba].
[Elian is taken at gunpoint >]
[< Agents hustle screaming Elian into a waiting van, past flags and signs supporters had placed, hoping for a better outcome. >]
[< Elian's mothering cousin Marisleysis is disconsolate, now that the US government has made it impossible for the little boy to have a future in the US, as his mother intended when she fled Cuba with him and lost her life in the attempt as their flimsy boat overturned two days before Elian was rescued at sea on Thanksgiving 1999.]
[Elian's great-uncle Lázaro, who made a home for the boy, is equally devastated >]
[< Andrews Air Force Base, near Washington DC, a few hours later Elian's tears have been replaced by smiles as he is reunited with his dad Juan Miguel Gonzalez, who has brought from Cuba his new wife and baby. >]
|1999 El paleontólogo estadounidense Tim
White descubre los fósiles de una especie humana desconocida en Etiopía.
1999 El enviado ruso a Belgrado Viktor Chernomirdin, fracasa en su reunión con Slobodan Milosevic para encontrar una solución a la crisis de Kosovo.
1998 Netscape announces that it will offer free e-mail at its NetCenter Web site.
1994 La Audiencia de Madrid condena a seis acusados a más de 12 años de prisión por el incendio de la discoteca Alcalá 20, ocurrido en diciembre de 1983 y en el que murieron 81 personas, y declara la responsabilidad civil subsidiaria del Estado..
1993 Dimite el primer ministro italianio Giuliano Amato.
| 1986 The US Consumer Price Index drops .04% for 2nd
month in a row.
1983 La URSS y EE.UU. se acusan mutuamente del virtual fracaso de la Conferencia de Seguridad y Cooperación Europea (CSCE), celebrada en Madrid.
1981 Unos 10'000 mineros chilenos se declaran en huelga.
1934 La compañía aérea alemana Lufthansa realiza en tiempo récord (2 días y 23 horas) el trayecto Berlín-Brasil.
1931 Egypt signs a treaty of friendship with Iraq.
1930 Concluye en Londres la Conferencia Naval con la firma de un acuerdo entre Estados Unidos, Gran Bretaña y Japón.
1928 Un terremoto en Grecia provoca la completa destrucción de Corinto y deja a más de 200'000 personas sin hogar.
1927 Se producen importantes inundaciones en la cuenca del río Mississippi.
1924 Se imponen en el campo de la moda, los sombreros pequeños de colores atrevidos.
1922 Las Juventudes Socialistas protestan contra la acción militar de España en Marruecos.
1922 Un bando del alto comisario español de Marruecos, general Dámaso Berenguer y Fuste, prohíbe la difusión de textos escritos que puedan favorecer al enemigo.
1922 South Ossetian Autonomous Region established in Georgian SSR.
1920 Los sindicatos convocan una huelga general en Alsacia-Lorena.
1919 Un informe sobre la evolución demográfica alemana refleja que aunque la población creció en 834'000 personas en 1913 y en 546'000 en 1914, se redujo en 58'000 en 1915, en 309'000 en 1916, en 611'000 en 1917 y en 885'000 en 1918 [¿por causa de la Gran Guerra?].
military use of poison gas (chlorine).
It is the Germans who use it in the WW I battle of Ypres, in violation of the prohibitions of The Hague Conference
Gas as a weapon of war is first deployed on a large scale by Germany in the second Battle of Ypres, in Belgium, triggering its widespread use in World War I. By the time of this photo, within a year of the first attack, gas masks were issued widely. By the end of the war, gas shells made up one-fourth of artillery fired. Although extensively used, chemical agents may have been responsible for few fatalities. The most serious impediment to troops under gas attack at this time was the mobility lost by wearing protective clothing and masks, which decreased effectiveness by only 30 percent at most.
Statistically, chemical warfare may not have made a sizable difference in the first World War, but contemporary and firsthand testimony describes panic and terror unknown before the advent of "gas war." The New York Tribune reported of the attack at Ypres, "Its effect on the French was a violent nausea and faintness, followed by an utter collapse. It is believed that the Germans, who charged in behind the vapor, met no resistance at all, the French at their front being virtually paralyzed" (27 April 1915). Although daunted initially, the Allies were quick to develop defenses like masks, protective clothing, and special shelters against chlorine, phosgene, and mustard gas as each was introduced by Germany, and to produce their own chemicals.
German forces shock Allied soldiers along the western front by firing more than 150 tons of lethal chlorine gas against two French colonial divisions at Ypres, Belgium. This was the first major gas attack by the Germans, and it devastated the Allied line. Toxic smoke has been used occasionally in warfare since ancient times, and in 1912 the French used small amounts of tear gas in police operations. At the outbreak of World War I, the Germans began actively to develop chemical weapons. In October 1914, the Germans placed some small tear-gas canisters in shells that were fired at Neuve Chapelle, France, but Allied troops were not exposed. In January 1915, the Germans fired shells loaded with xylyl bromide, a more lethal gas, at Russian troops at Bolimov on the eastern front. Because of the wintry cold, most of the gas froze, but the Russians nonetheless reported more than 1000 killed as a result of the new weapon.
On 22 April 1915, the Germans started their first and only offensive of the year. Known as the Second Battle of Ypres, the offensive began with the usual artillery bombardment of the enemy's line. When the shelling died down, the Allied defenders waited for the first wave of German attack troops but instead were thrown into panic when chlorine gas wafted across no-man's land and down into their trenches. The Germans targeted four miles of the front with the wind-blown poison gas and decimated two divisions of French and Algerian colonial troops. The Allied line was breached, but the Germans, perhaps as shocked as the Allies by the devastating effects of the poison gas, failed to take full advantage, and the Allies held most of their positions. A second gas attack, against a Canadian division, on 24 April, pushed the Allies further back, and by May they had retreated to the town of Ypres. The Second Battle of Ypres ended on 25 May, with insignificant gains for the Germans. The introduction of poison gas, however, would have great significance in World War I. Immediately after the German gas attack at Ypres, France and Britain began developing their own chemical weapons and gas masks. With the Germans taking the lead, an extensive number of projectiles filled with deadly substances polluted the trenches of World War I. Mustard gas, introduced by the Germans in 1917, blistered the skin, eyes, and lungs, and killed thousands. Military strategists defended the use of poison gas by saying it reduced the enemy's ability to respond and thus saved lives in offensives. In reality, defenses against poison gas usually kept pace with offensive developments, and both sides employed sophisticated gas masks and protective clothing that essentially negated the strategic importance of chemical weapons.
The United States, which entered World War I in 1917, also developed and used chemical weapons. Future president Harry S. Truman was the captain of a US field artillery unit that fired poison gas against the Germans in 1918. In all, more than 100'000 tons of chemical weapons agents were used in World War I, some 500'000 soldiers were injured, and almost 30'000 died, including 2000 US servicemen. In the years following World War I, Britain, France, and Spain used chemical weapons in various colonial struggles, despite mounting international criticism of chemical warfare. In 1925, the Geneva Protocol of 1925 banned the use of chemical weapons in war but did not outlaw their development or stockpiling. Most major powers built up substantial chemical weapons reserves. In the 1930s, Italy employed chemical weapons against Ethiopia, and Japan used them against China. In World War II, chemical warfare did not occur, primarily because all the major belligerents possessed both chemical weapons and the defenses such as gas masks, protective clothing, and detectors that rendered them ineffectual. In addition, in a war characterized by lightning-fast military movement, strategists opposed the use of anything that would delay operations. Germany, however, did use poison gas to murder millions in its extermination camps. Since World War II, chemical weapons have only been used in a handful of conflicts the Yemeni conflict of 1966-67, the Iran-Iraq War of 1980-88 and always against forces that lacked gas masks or other simple defenses. In 1990, the United States and the Soviet Union signed an agreement to cut their chemical weapons arsenals by 80 percent in an effort to discourage smaller nations from stockpiling the weapons. In 1993, an international treaty was signed banning the production, stockpiling (after 2007), and use of chemical weapons. It took effect in 1997 and has been ratified by 128 nations.
|1913 Se localizan en el puerto de Tolón
163 fumaderos de opio, procedente de fábricas financiadas por el
Estado francés en Indochina.
1898 First Spanish-American War action: USS Nashville captures a Spanish merchant ship off Key West, Florida.
1863 Siege of Suffolk, Virginia by Confederates continues.
1862 Siege of Yorktown, Virginia continues.
1861 Robert E Lee named commander of Virginia forces.
1834 Con el tratado de la Cuádruple Alianza, España consigue el apoyo de las potencias liberales (Portugal, Inglaterra y Francia) contra los carlistas.
1811 Un decreto de las Cortes de Cádiz suprime el tormento como instrumento de presión en el procedimiento penal.
1792 President George Washington proclaims US neutrality in the war in Europe.
1659 Richard Cromwell disuelve el Parlamento inglés.
1529 Spain and Portugal divide eastern hemisphere in Treaty of Saragosa.
1509 Henry VIII ascends to throne of England, following the death of his father, Henry VII. Henry VIII would be named Defender of the Faith by the Pope and later lead the Church of England to break from the Pope who would not countenance Herny VIII's cavalier attitude towards marriage. Henry VIII would have six wives, repudiate some and behead others; the last wife would be lucky: Henry VIII would die before he does either to her.
1500 Pedro Alvarez Cabral discovers Brazil
1145 19th recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet
which occurred on an April 22:
2003 Juan Rodriguez Chavez, 34, by lethal injection to which he was sentenced for one of five murders he was accused of having commited in one 1995 night in Dallas.
2002 Lee Eun-yong, 55, South Korean, by a land mine in the newspeak-named Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) between North and South Korea, close to which he had been living for more than 30 years. He had said he was going to pick herbs.
2002 Marwan Zaloum and Samir Abu Rajoub, by two helicopter-launched Israeli missiles hitting the car in which they were, shortly before midnight. Zaloum was the leader of the Fatah-related Tanzim militia in Hebron, believed to be responsible for numerous shooting attacks and bombings, including the 26 March 2001 murder of Shalhevet Pas, a 10-month-old infant killed by a Palestinian sharpshooter in Hebron. Zaloum was on a list of 33 activists the Israelis turned over to the Palestinians several months earlier, demanding that they be arrested. Rajoub was Zaloum's assistant and a member of Force 17 (Arafat's personal guard)
2001 Mario Goldin, 53, Israeli doctor, and suicide bomber, shortly after 09:00, at stopped bus in Kfar Saba, suburb northeast of Tel Aviv, a few kilometers from the Palestinian-controlled city of Kalkilya, in the West Bank Some 50 persons are injured, few seriously. This bring the al-Aqsa intifada body count to 478: 394 Palestinians, 65 Israeli Jews, and 19 others.
2001 Madhi Khalil Madhi, 35, of injuries received on 16 April when an Israeli artillery shell hit the security compound in the Gaza Strip where he was as a member of Palestinian security forces.
Also, the body of an Israeli man was found in the trunk of his car in a Palestinian-controlled area in the West Bank, near Ramallah. Israeli police said they suspected the man,
2001 Stanislav Sandomirski, 38, Israeli whose body is found in the trunk of his car in a Palestinian-controlled area in the West Bank, near Ramallah.
1995 Unos 2000 refugiados hutus del campamento de Kibeho masacrados por Ejército gubernamental ruandés, controlado por la etnia tutsi.
1996 Erma Bombeck, 69, in San Francisco; homemaker-humorist.
1994 Richard Milhous Nixon, 81, 37th US president and the only one to resign, in a New York hospital four days after suffering a stroke.
1991 Sixty persons in earthquake in Costa Rica and Panama.
1989 Huey Newton, 47, black activist, shot.
1988 Tres gendarmes franceses en incidentes provocados por el Frente de Liberación Nacional Kanako y Socialista (FLNKS) de Nueva Caledonia.
1985 Tancredo Neves, político y presidente de Brasil.
1948 Herbert William Richmond, English mathematician born on 17 July 1863.
1945 Käthe Kollwitz, German Expressionist printmaker and sculptor born on 08 July 1867, specialized in Self-Portraits. MORE ON KOLLWITZ AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1939 Doctor Rafael Battestini Gallup, fusilado en Tarragona.
1821 John Crome Old Crome, British etcher and painter of landscapes who founded the Norwich Society of artists. He was born on 22 December 1768. MORE ON CROME AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1705 Abadías Maurel, calvinista francés.
0536 Saint Agapitus I, Pope
0296 Saint Gaius, Pope
which occurred on an April 22:
1948 Romance gitano, de Joaquín Dicenta, se estrena en el Teatro Cómico de Madrid.
1939 Theo Waigel, político y ministro de Finanzas alemán.
1929 Michael Francis Atiyah, English mathematician.
1929 Guillermo Cabrera Infante, escritor cubano con nacionalidad británica.
1922 Emilio Alarcos Llorach, filólogo, escritor y académico español.
1922 Richard Diebenkorn, US artist who had a fixation on the Ace of Spades and who died on 30 March 1993. MORE ON DIEBENKORN AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1916 Yehudi Menuhin NYC, violinist / conductor (Bartok's Sonata)
1914 La malquerida, de Jacinto Benavente y Martínez, se estrena en Barcelona.
1909 Rita Levi-Montalcini, Italian+US neurologist who shared with Stanley Cohen the 1986 Medicine Nobel Prize (announced on 13 Oct 1986) for her discovery of a bodily substance that stimulates and influences the growth of nerve cells. Author of autobiographical In Praise of Imperfection (1988).
1909 Indro Montanelli, periodista e historiador italiano.
1904 Robert J. Oppenheimer, US physicist, head of the Manhattan (A-bomb) Project. He died on 18 February 1967.
1899 Vladimir Nabokov, Russian-born US novelist and critic who died on 02 July 1977.
1891 Harold Jeffreys, English mathematician who died on 18 March 1989.
1887 Harald August Bohr, Danish mathematician who died on 22 January 1951. Harald Bohr worked on Dirichlet series, and he applied analysis to the theory of numbers. He is the only mathematician know to have won an Olympic medal (silver for soccer in 1908). He was the brother of Niels Bohr [07 Oct 1885 — 18 Nov 1962] who also played soccer, but is more famous as a Nobel Prize-winning physicist.
1884 David Enskog, Swedish mathematician and physicist who died on 01 June 1947.
1846 Henry Woods, British artist who died on 27 October 1921.
1840 Odilon Redon, French Symbolist painter and lithographer who died on 06 July 1916. MORE ON REDON AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1830 Thomas Archer Hirst, English mathematician and physicist who died on 16 February 1892.
1822 Bengt Nordenberg, Swedish artist who died on 18 December 1902.
1811 Ludwig Otto Hesse, Prussian mathematician who died on 04 August 1874. He worked on the development of the theory algebraic functions and the theory of invariants. He is remembered particularly for introducing the Hessian matrix and its Hessian determinant.
1766 Anne-Louise-Germaine Necker (future Madame de Stael), French-Swiss literary critic and novelist who died on 14 July 1817. MADAME DE STAEL ONLINE: Corinne, ou l'Italie (PDF)
1592 Wilhelm Schickard, Württemberger Lutheran minister, biblical languages scholar, engraver, astronomer, and mathematician who died on 24 October 1635. In 1623 he invented the first known mechanical calculator to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. He also invented other mechanical devices, for example a portable planetarium (which could be used for the demonstration of the geocentric as well as the heliocentric system) and the rota hebraea, a device for the automation of Hebrew verb inflection.
1451 Isabel I de Castilla, Queen of Spain (1474-1504), patron of Columbus. She died on 26 November 1504.
0988 Cataluña: fecha en la que en 1988 el rey Juan Carlos I de España presidirá en Barcelona la apertura de los actos conmemorativos del milenario.