| On a 28 September:
2003 Pope John Paul II, 83, announces the names of 30 of the 31 men he has decided to make cardinals at the ninth consistory of his papacy, on 21 October 2003. After the consistory, the total number of cardinals will be 194 (not counting the unnamed one) and the electors will be 135. The unnamed one is presumably from a country where the Church is persecuted. The 30 named are:
_ Archbishop Jean-Louis Tauran [03 Apr 1943~], France, Vatican foreign minister
_ Archbishop Renato Raffaele Martino [23 Nov 1932~], Italy, President of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace since October 2002.
_ Archbishop Francesco Marchisano [25 Jun 1929~], Italy, Archpriest of St. Peter's Basilica and Vicar General for the State of Vatican City since 24 April 2002.
_ Archbishop Julián Herranz Casado (Opus Dei) [31 Mar 1930~], Spain, head of the Vatican Office of Legislative Texts since 1984
_ Archbishop Javier Lozano Barragán [26 Jan 1933], Mexico, head of Vatican office for Health Care Workers since 31 October 1996.
_ Archbishop Stephen Fumio Hamao [09 Mar 1930~], Japan, head of Vatican office of Migrants since 15 June 1998.
_ Archbishop Attilio Nicora [16 Mar 1937~], Italy, head of the Administration of Patrimony of the Holy See since September 2002.
_ Angelo Scola [07 Nov 1941~], Italy, Patriarch of Venice since 05 January 2002.
_ Anthony Olubunmi Okogie [16 Jun 1935~], Nigeria, Archbishop of Lagos since 13 Apr 1973.
_ Bernard Panafieu [26 Jan 1931~], France, Archbishop of Marseille since 22 April 1995.
_ Gabriel Zubeir Wako [27 Feb 1941~], Sudan, Archbishop of Khartoum since 10 October 1981. — [He has nothing to do with any Waco wacko.]
_ Carlos Amigo Vallejo OFM [23 Aug 1934~], Spain, Archbishop of Seville since 22 May 1984.
_ Justin Francis Rigali [19 Apr 1935~], United States, Archbishop of Philadelphia since 15 July 2003.
_ Keith Michael Patrick O'Brien [17 Mar 1938~], Scotland, Archbishop of St. Andrews and Edinburgh since 05 August 1985.
_ Eusebio Oscar Scheid SCI [08 Dec 1932~], Brazil, Archbishop of Rio de Janeiro since 25 July 2001.
_ Ennio Antonelli [18 Nov 1936~], Italy, Archbishop of Florence since 21 March 2001.
_ Tarcisio Bertone SDB [02 Dec 1934~], Italy, Archbishop of Genoa since 10 Dec 2002.
_ Peter Kodwo Appiah Turkson [11 Oct 1948~], Ghana, Archbishop of Cape Coast since 27 March 1993. — [He is a Turkson but not a Turk's son]
_ Telesphore Placidus Toppo [15 Oct 1939~], India, Archbishop of Ranchi since 07 August 1985.
_ George Pell [08 Apr 1941~], Australia, Archbishop of Sydney since 26 March 2001.
_ Josip Bozanic' [20 Mar 1949~], Croatia, Archbishop of Zagreb since 05 July 1997.
_ Jean-Baptiste Pham Minh Mân, Viêt Nam, Archbishop of Thàn-Phô Hô Chi Minh since 01 March 1998.
_ Rodolfo Quezada Toruño [08 Mar 1932~], Guatemala, Archbishop of Guatemala City since 19 June 2001.
_ Philippe Christian Ignace Marie Barbarin [17 Oct 1950~], France, Archbishop of Lyon since 16 July 2002.
_ Peter Erdõ [25 Jun 1952~], Hungary, Archbishop of Esztergom-Budapest since 07 December 2002.
_ Marc Ouellet PSS [08 Jun 1944~], Canada, Archbishop of Québec since 15 November 2002.
_ Rev. George Maire Martin Cottier OP [1922~], Switzerland, the pope's personal theologian.
_ Monsignor Gustaaf Joos, Belgium, Gent diocese
_ The Rev. Thomas Špidlík SJ [17 Dec 1919~], Czech Republic
_ The Rev. Stanislaw Nagy SCI, Poland
2001 On the first anniversary of the al~Aqsa intifada, still ongoing, the body count stands at 649 Palestinians and 177 Israelis.
2000 Israeli right-wing politician Ariel Sharon makes a highly publicized visit, under heavy police protection, to the Temple MountHaram-al-Sharif , purportedly to demonstrate Jews' right to worship there. The UN Security Council later calls this a provocation. It would cause, or (according to Israel) be the pretext for, the "al~Aqsa intifada", in which not only Palestinians, but also Israeli Arabs, demonstrate and, in such numbers as to appear as victims, die (by the dozens) or are wounded (by the hundreds) under Israeli gunfire. One consequence would be the election of Sharon as Prime Minister over Barak on 06 February 2001. On 28 September 2002 the al-Aqsa intifada would still be continuing, the Israeli repression would be worse than ever, and the body count would have reached at least 1572 Palestinians and 601 Israelis.
2000 After 12 years of controversy, the US Federal Drug Administration approves the abortion drug mifepristone (Mifeprex, RU-486) which is effective only during the first 7 weeks of pregnancy.
1999 Alleged anti-Russian atrocities spur support for airstrikes against Chechnya. (CNN)
1996 With the United States abstaining, the U.N. Security Council passed a resolution indirectly calling on Israel to close an archaeological tunnel in Jerusalem that had touched off fighting between Israelis and Palestinians.
1996 Landmark legislation to crack down on illegal immigrants in the United States won House passage as part of a giant federal spending bill.
1995 Yasser Arafat of the PLO and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin signed an accord to transfer control of the West Bank. El primer ministro israelí, Isaac Rabin, y el presidente de la ANP, Yasser Arafat, firman en la Casa Blanca y en presencia de Bill Clinton el acuerdo Taba u Oslo II, que amplía la autonomía de Cisjordania, pactado cinco días antes.
| 1991 El presidente de Zaïre, Joseph Désiré
Mobutu Sese Seko, y las fuerzas de oposición acuerdan la formación
de un Gobierno de unidad nacional, tras más de 25 años de gobierno autoritario.
1991 Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev praised President Bush's pledge to drastically reduce the US nuclear arsenal, and promised to "reciprocate."
1991 U.N. weapons inspectors ended a five-day standoff with Iraq over documents relating to Iraq's nuclear weapons program.
1982 1st reports appear of death from cyanide-laced Tylenol capsules
1978 heavy fighting occurs in Lebanon between Syrian peacekeeping troops and Lebanese Christian militiamen
1978 Israeli Knesset endorses Camp David accord
1978 Balthazar Johannes Vorster y Pieter Willem Botha son elegidos jefes del Estado y del Gobierno de Sudáfrica, respectivamente.
1971 El cardenal Jozsef Mindszenty llega a Roma, tras 23 años de refugio en la Embajada de EE.UU. en Budapest.
1970 Mercury astronaut John Glenn become the first US person to orbit the Earth.
| 1963 Giuseppe Cantarella roller-skates a record: 400
m in 35 sec. (41.5 km/h)
1962 Forma Gobierno en Argelia el primer ministro, Ahmed Ben Bella.
1961 Syria withdraws from United Arab Republic
1959 Explorer VI reveals an intense radiation belt around the Earth
1958 Le général de Gaulle propose un référendum sur une Constitution fondée sur trois grands principes : un arbitre national au-dessus des luttes politiques en la personne du président de la République, un gouvernement fait pour gouverner, un parlement qui représente la volonté de la nation. 80 % viennent de répondre oui. Elle dure encore et au moins apporte une relative stabilité politique à la France. Aprobado en Francia por gran mayoría el proyecto de Constitución elaborado bajo las directrices del general Charles André de Gaulle.
1951 The Peace Committee, a Communist front for Catholic clergy, is founded by the Czechoslovakian Communists to enlist clergy into socialist work under minister Plojhar.
1950 the United Nations admit Indonesia.
1944 Battle of Arnhem, Germans defeat British airborne in Netherlands
| 1936 Guerra Civil española. El Alcázar de Toledo es
liberado por tropas del general Varela tras resistir sus moradores, mandados
por el coronel Moscardó, más de dos meses de asedio de fuerzas republicanas.
1928 Juan de la Cierva makes 1st autogiro flight over English Channel
1924 Two US Army aircraft return to Seattle, Washington after completing a 22 day round-the-world flight, with 57 stops .(175 days??).
1922 Mussolini marches on Rome
1922 Constantino I de Grecia abdica la corona en el príncipe heredero, que pasó a reinar con el nombre de Jorge II.
1914 German forces move into Antwerp Belgium (WW I)
1906 US troops reoccupy Cuba, stay until 1909
1905 Se firma un acuerdo franco-alemán sobre Marruecos.
1904 A woman is placed under arrest for smoking a cigarette on New York's Fifth Avenue.
1868 Battle of Alcolea, causes Queen Isabella 2 of Spain to flee to France Se produce la batalla de Alcolea, combate que hizo triunfar definitivamente la revolución de 1868 en España de 1868, llamada La Gloriosa.
1867 Toronto becomes the capital of Ontario.
1864 Skirmish at Decatur, Georgia
1832 Revivalist Charles Finney is stricken with cholera during the ceremonies of his installation as pastor of of the Chatham Street Church in New York.
1794 Alliance of St. Petersburg of England and Russia against France.
1787 US Congress sends Constitution to state legislatures for their approval
1781 US forces, backed by a French fleet, began their siege of Yorktown Heights, Virginia, last battle of the Revolutionary War.
1708 Battle of Lesnaya: the Russian army captures a Swedish convoy.
1704 A statute is enacted by the colony of Maryland, giving ministers the right to impose divorce on "unholy couples."
| 1607 Samuel de Champlain and his colonists return to
France from Port Royal Nova Scotia.
1563 The Pope commands Jeanne D'Albret, Huguenot Queen of Navarre, to appear for examination on heresy on pain of losing her lands. Since these were French territories, the French government defended her.
1347 Une trève de 8 ans. La France est épuisée, elle a perdu de Calais, le 04 Aug, à pris la pâtée de Crécy, un mois plus tôt. Le pays accepte sur les instances du pape Clément VI la trêve proposée, qui va durer jusqu'en 1355. Pendant la durée de celle-ci une autre fatalité accable l'Europe : la peste noire. Un chroniqueur rapporte : "Le nombre des personnes ensevelies est plus grand que le nombre même des vivants. Les villes sont dépeuplées : mille maisons sont fermées à clef, mille ont leur porte ouverte et sont vides d'habitants et remplies de pourriture."
1238 James of Aragon retakes Valencia, Spain, from the Arabs. Valencia, en poder de los musulmanes, capitula ante las tropas del rey de Aragón, Jaime I el Conquistador.
1230 Gregory IX mitigates the Franciscan rule of poverty. (When he offered to do the same for the Poor Clares, Clare stoutly resisted.)
1106 Battle of Tinchebrai: King Henry of England defeats his brother Robert and reunites England and Normandy.
| Deaths which occurred
on a 28 September:
2002 Some 20 persons in Satkhira, Bangladesh, after two bombs explode at 19:30 in the Roxy Cinema Hall at the New Market crossing, and at 19:35 two more bombs at a circus show a few blocks away at the stadium. Some 200 are injured. The first bomb exploded in the dress circle enclosure of the cinema, starting a fire which caused the roof of the cinema to collapse. In the circus the bombs were thrown at the women performers. The explosions occur as thousands of people are in the streets to celebrate Gurpukurer Mela Fair, a century-old festival honoring a local Hindu king. Muslims also participate in the festival. The Islamic Shashantantra Andolon (ISA) is suspected. It had been agitating against the circus and the cinema, accusing them of holding indecent shows and screening porno movies.
2002 Mohammed Abu Ahoueh, 19, Palestinian, shot in the head by Israeli soldiers as he was in a group of kids throwing stones at an Israeli army post near the Netzarim enclave settlement in the Gaza Strip. Four other Palestinian kids are injured. The Israelis variously claim: 1. the soldiers were forced to fire to protect themselves. 2. the soldiers fired in the air, and not at the stone throwers.
2001 Morris Black, 71, a seafaring drifter, shot by Robert Durst, 58, in his Galveston, Texas, apartment across the hall from Black, with whom he had become friendly. Durst then cuts up the body, puts the parts into plastic garbage bags and throws them into Galveston Bay. Multimillionaire Durst had been suspected in the disappearance of wife Kathy Durst 20 years before and was linked in the press to the execution-style shooting of best friend Susan Berman in Los Angeles on 24 December 2000. He had gone to Galveston in 2001 to get away from the allegations, which he denied. He rented his apartment posing as a mute woman and kept up the disguise until one day he caught his wig on fire in a bar while he was lighting a cigarette. The body parts, minus the head, would be found in the bay, in their garbage bags in the bay, together with receipts and a newspaper labeled with Durst's Galveston address, resulting in his arrest on 09 October 2001 and his trial in September 2003.
2002 Leonard Feigel, 64, of shot in the leg early the previous day, while delivering newspapers in the 400 block of South Evaline Street, in the Friendship section of Pittsburgh.
2001 Shadi Lafi 20, Ahamad Mahdi 21, Mohamad Zohd 20, Palestinians, by an Israeli tank shell, in a Palestinian refugee camp near Rafah at the southern edge of the Gaza Strip. Three other young Palestinians are injured. The Israelis claim the group was on its way to place an explosive device..
2001 Yasser a-Nadhimi, 30, Islamic Jihad activist, killed in southern Hebron, apparently while he was preparing an explosive device.
2000 Joseph Philippe Pierre Yves Elliott Trudeau, 80, of Parkinson's disease, prostate cancer, and pneumonia, former prime minister of Canada (1968 to 1984, with a 9-month gap). He was born on 18 October 1919.
1996 José S. Lasso de la Vega, escritor y filólogo español.
1992 John Leech, English mathematician who is best known for the Leech lattice which is important in the theory of finite simple groups. He was born on 21 July 1926.
1970 Gamal Abdel Nasser, 52, Egyptian Pres, of a heart attack, replaced by Anwar el-Sadat.
1970 John Dos Passos, novelista estadounidense.
1964 Harpo Marx, 75, comedian (Marx Bros).
1957 Albert Ascoli Italian developed anti-tuberculosis vaccine.
1953 Edwin Powell Hubble, 63, US mathematician, astronomer, designer of telescopes, born on 20 November 1889.
1926 Helen Allingham, English illustrator and painter born on 26 September 1848. — more and links
1913 Ten persons in race riots in Harriston, Mississippi.
1912 Some 1000 drown as Kiche Maru sinks off Japan.
1892 Stanislas-Victor-Edouard Lépine, French Impressionist painter born on 03 October 1835. MORE ON LÉPINE AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1881 Josef Lauer, Austrian artist born in 1818.
1875 Thomas Ender, Austrian painter active in Brazil, born on 04 (03?) November 1793.
1874 Some 2000 Comanche and Kiowa horses slaughtered by Colonel Ronald Mackenzie's forces as they raid a war camp of Comanche and Kiowa at the Battle of Palo Duro Canyon, Texas.
1869 count Guglielmo Libri Carucci della Sommaja , Italian French mathematician born on 01 January 1803, who fled to England in 1848 with the precious books and manuscripts he had stolen in France.
1868 Some 200 blacks in Opelousas Massacre at St Landry Parish, Louisiana
1841 Johann Georg von Dillis, German draftsman, painter, engraver, museum director, and teacher, born on 26 December 1759. — more with link to an image.
1844 Vicente Azuero Plata, político y periodista colombiano.
1833 Lemuel Haynes, 88, Revolutionary War veteran
1776 Cadwallader Colden, author. COLDEN ONLINE: The History of the Five Indian Nations of Canada, Which Are Dependent on the Province of New-York in America, and Are the Barrier Between the English and French in That Part of the World (1747)
1694 Gabriel Mouton, Lyon French Catholic priest, amateur mathematician and astronomer, born in 1618. He was the first proponent of a decimal system of measures. Author of Observationes diametrorum solis et lunae apparentium (1670).
1688 Giovanni-Battista Beinaschi (or Benaschi), Italian painter, engraver, and draftsman, born in 1636. — more
1394 Clemente VII, Antipapa.
0929 Good King Wenceslas, ruler and patron saint of Czechoslovakia, murdered by his brother. During his brief reign king Wenceslas sought peace with surrounding nations, reformed the judicial system, and showed particular concern for his country's poor.
0855 Emperor Lothar dies in Gaul, and his kingdom is divided between his three sons.
| Births which occurred
on a 28 September:
1934 Brigitte Bardot Paris France, glamorous movie actress (And God Created Women)
1903 Jorge Carrera Andrade, poeta ecuatoriano
1903 Gonzalo Escudero Moscoso, poeta y diplomático ecuatoriano.
1901 Kurt Otto Friedrichs, German US mathematician who died on 31 December 1982.
1901 William S Paley founder and chairman of CBS.
1895 At a convention in Atlanta, three Baptist groups merged to form the National Baptist Convention. It is today the largest African-American denomination in America and the world.
1893 Hilda Geiringer von Mises, Jewish Austrian US mathematician who died on 22 March 1973. She was an assistant to Richard von Mises [19 Apr 1883 – 14 Jul 1953] from 1921 and in 1943, after both had taken refuge in the US, married him (her first marriage had ended in divorce).
1877 Mabel May Woodward, US artist who died in 1945. — links to two images
1876 Hayley Richard Lever, US artist who died in 1958.
1873 Julian Lowell Coolidge, Massachusetts mathematician who died on 05 March 1954. Author of The Elements of Non-Euclidean Geometry (1909), A Treatise on the Circle and the Sphere (1916), The Geometry of the Complex Domain (1924), A Treatise on Algebraic Plane Curves (1931), An Introduction to Mathematical Probability (1925), A History of Geometrical Methods (1940), A History of the Conic Sections and Quadric Surfaces (1945), The Mathematics of Great Amateurs (1949).
1865 Friedrich Wilhelm Kuhnert, German painter, specialized in Wildlife, who died on 11 February 1926. — links to images
1864 La Première Internationale. " L'émancipation des travailleurs sera l'oeuvre des travailleurs eux-mêmes " proclame l'Association internationale des travailleurs, en créant à Londres la 1re Internationale.
1862 Anshelm Leonhard Schultzberg, Swedish artist who died in 1945.
1856 Edward Thompson US archeologist who explored Mayan ruins
1856 Kate Douglas Smith (Wiggins)(Riggs) author (Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm)
1852 Henri Moissan France, chemist; isolated fluorine (Nobel 1906)
1841 Georges Clémenceau, premier of France during World War I., Mouilleron en Pareds (Vendée). Médecin, son hostilité à Napoléon III l'entraîne dans la politique. Sa virulence le fera appeler "Le Tigre". Président du Conseil de 1906 à 1909, il est rappelé à la tête du gouvernement en novembre 1917. Son énergie contribuera à galvaniser la France en 1918, et à lui valoir un autre surnom "Le père la Victoire". (defended Dreyfuss)
1839 Frances Willard founded Women's Christian Temperance Union.
1837 Samuel Finley Morse patenta la invención del teléfono eléctrico.
1829 Walker's Appeal, racial antislavery pamphlet, published in Boston
1824 Francis Turner Palgrave Eng, poet (Golden Treasury), prof (Oxford), editor of The Golden Treasury of the Best Songs and Lyrical Poems in the English Language (1875), The Poetical Works of John Keats, Chrysomela: A Selection from the Lyrical Poems of Robert Herrick
1824 George Johnston Allman, author. ALLMAN ONLINE: Greek Geometry, from Thales to Euclid
1823 Alexandre Cabanel, French painter who died on 23 January 1889. MORE ON CABANEL AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1822 Louis Pasteur, químico y biólogo francés
1822 Rafael Wenceslao Núñez Moledo, político y poeta colombiano.
1785 David Walker Wilmington NC, a black born free
1761 Ferdinand François Désiré Budan de Boislaurent, French physician and amateur mathematician who died on 06 October 1840. He discovered a rule which gives necessary conditions for a polynomial equation to have n real roots between two given numbers.
1698 Pierre Louis Moreau de Maupertuis, French mathematician and physicist who died on 27 July 1759. He is most famous for formulating the principle of least action. — [Lazy people of the world, unite in praise of Maupertuis!]
1628 (21 Sep?) Barend (or Barent) Graat (or Graet), Amsterdam painter and draftsman who died on 04 November 1709.
1605 Ismael Boulliau, French Catholic priest, librarian, mathematical astronomer, who died on 25 November 1694. Author of Astronomia philolaica (1645).
1597 Justus (Josse) Susterman (or Soetermans), Flemish artist who died on 23 April 1681.
1573 Michelangelo Merisi Caravaggio , Italian Baroque era painter who died on 18 July 1610. MORE ON CARAVAGGIO AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER with links to, and commentaries on many images.
106 -BC Pompey (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) Rome, warrior
551 -BC Confucius (as celebrated in Taiwan)