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Events, deaths, births, of APR 24

[For Apr 24 Julian go to Gregorian date:
1583~1699: May 041700s: May 051800s: May 061900~2099: May 07]
• Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Afro~Asian non~aligned conference ends... • Armenian Genocide... • Library of Congress is born... • Easter rebellion starts... • Anti Vietnam War demonstrations... • Willa Cather dies... • US~Spain war starts... • Nazis attack Warsaw Ghetto... • Easter Rebellion begins... • “Those against Vietnam War are unpatriotic”... • North Vietnamese attack South Vietnamese... • Violent miners' strike... • Britain begins its evacuation of Greece... • Defoe dies... • Trollope is born... • Erich Raeder is born... • Grafton is born...
NERX price chartOn a 24 April:
2011 The latest Easter Sunday until 2095 on this same date, which is the latest possible.
2003 The previous evening NeoRx (NERX) announced that the FDA has lifted the clinical hold on the company's Skeletal Targeted Radiotherapy product candidate for multiple myeloma. On the NASDAQ, 5.2 million of the 27 million NERX shares are traded, surging from the previous day's close of $1.66 to open at $3.48, reaching an intraday high of $4.17, and closing at $3.10. They had traded as low as $0.24 as recently as 01 October 2002, and spiked as high as $54.75 on 06 March 2000. [5~year price chart >]
2001 To replaced dismissed Yoshiro Mori, Junichiro Koizumi is elected president of Japan's majority Liberal Democratic Party (conservative) by 293 to 155 to the favorite of the party's old guard, Ryutaro Hashimoto. Koizumi would be voted in as prime minister by parliament on 26 April 2001. He has promised to bust up the ruling party's cliques, cure the economy and get the jaded public excited about politics.
^ 2001 Successful rescue from Antarctica.
      A New Zealand air force plane returns safely after retrieving four ill and seven other US staffers from a frigid research station near Antarctica's coast — the first of two perilous rescue missions planned before Antarctica's harsh, dark winter sets in, precluding flights in or out.
      Their hand forced by the health emergency, the rescuers and their C130 Hercules plane braved a landing and takeoff on McMurdo Antarctic Base's ice runway on the last day of sunshine before the black polar winter. The plane returns safely to Christchurch, New Zealand, late in the day, 15 hours after it had begun its round-trip journey. Two of the evacuees were suffering from "critical conditions". The two are transferred to a hospital in Christchurch.
      The mission got a lucky break, leaving an hour earlier than scheduled and avoiding deteriorating weather conditions in Antarctica. At McMurdo, the plane spent just one hour on the ground to pick up the evacuees and refuel. Its engines were kept running throughout the stopover to prevent them freezing in the –30ºC air.
      All 11 evacuated staffers are employees of Raytheon Polar Services, which provides support services at the McMurdo Base. The mass evacuation was "unprecedented." The seven evacuees who weren't ill had "family emergencies." There are 211 Americans left at the base following the evacuation, where they will winter until the next flights, scheduled in late August as Antarctica's spring begins. The evacuation flight carried fresh fruit and vegetables and personal mail to the ice-and-snow-bound base staff.
     At the geographic South Pole, 1300 km inland, meanwhile, a sick American doctor was awaiting improved weather so a separate rescue mission could be mounted. Blowing snow, high winds and low visibility prevented an emergency airlift on 23 April. Ronald S. Shemenski, the only physician among 50 researchers working at the Amundsen Scott-South Pole station, recently suffered a gall bladder attack and has been diagnosed with the potentially life-threatening condition known as pancreatitis. An eight-seat, twin-engine plane fitted with skis for landing gear was scheduled to fly from the Rothera research station on the Antarctic peninsula to pick up the 59-year-old doctor. The plane arrived at Rothera the previous week after a flight from Punta Arenas, Chile, accompanied by a backup aircraft. Flights to the South Pole station are normally halted from late February until November because of the extreme winter cold and darkness. But the rescuers worried that Shemenski's condition would worsen in the coming months, when an airlift out of the South Pole would be virtually impossible. Aviation experts say that a landing at the South Pole now is especially dangerous with the temperature now about –60ºC, and the sky nearly pitch-black some 20 hours of the day.
      The rescue effort is the second in two years. In October 1999, Dr. Jerri Nielsen, the lone physician at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, was evacuated after she discovered a breast tumor that was diagnosed as cancerous.
      Antarctica has nearly 90% of the ice and 70% of the fresh water on Earth. The third-largest continent, it is one and a half the size of the US. Nations including the United States, Britain, Australia, New Zealand, France and Argentina carry out experiments at bases dotted across the continent. They are regularly serviced by flights during the summer months but batten down the hatches and reduce staffing for the polar winter. McMurdo is a few kilometers from the coast and close to Mount Erebus, Antarctica's only active volcano, into which an Air New Zealand sightseeing plane plowed in 1979, killing all 257 people on board.
2000 Concerned about the disappearance of a laptop computer with highly sensitive documents, Secretary of State Madeleine Albright announces a five-point plan to help guard against such lapses in the future.
2000  La multinacional de informática Microsoft sufre pérdidas por valor de 10 billones de pesetas en Wall Street, tras hacerse pública la propuesta del Departamento de Justicia estadounidense de segregar la empresa en dos o tres sociedades separadas.
1998 After threats from President Yeltsin and two negative votes, the Russian Duma approves Yeltsin's nomination of Sergei Kiriyenko as the nation's premier.
1997 With ratification by the Senate, the United States becomes the 75th country to approve the Chemical Weapons Convention.
1996 The Palestinian National Council, main assembly of the Palestine Liberation Organization, votes to revoke clauses in its charter that called for an armed struggle to destroy Israel.
1996 US President Clinton signs into law a bill to fight terrorism.
1995 The last Chevrolet Corvette ZR-1 is produced. A total of 6939 ZR-1s were built from 1990 to 1995. With its top speed of 180 mph, the ZR-1 was the fastest production Corvette ever built. Its LT5 engine was an all-aluminum, dual-overhead cam engine, with 32 valves; 405 hp in the car's last years.
1991 A Kurdish rebel leader announces that the guerrillas had reached an agreement in principle with Iraqi President Saddam Hussein to end the Kurds' two-week rebellion.
1991 The first UN peacekeeping forces are deployed along the Kuwait-Iraq border.
1990 Securities law violator Michael Milken pleads guilty to 6 felonies
1990 West and East Germany agree to merge currency and economies on July first
1990 The space shuttle Discovery blasts off from Cape Canaveral, Florida, carrying the $1.5 billion Hubble Space Telescope, later found to be defective.
1988  Se celebra un simulacro de elecciones generales en Camerún para apoyar el proyecto de reformas económicas del presidente y candidato único Paul Biya.
1987 Genetically altered bacteria, designed to prevent frost damage, are sprayed on a California strawberry field in the first test of such biotechnology in nature.
1984  La obra Teledéum, del grupo de teatro catalán Els Joglars, causa encendidas polémicas en Segovia. Algunos grupos intentaron boicotear la representación y anunciaron acciones judiciales contra Albert Boadella i Oncins, director del grupo.
1983  El Partido Socialista Austriaco (SPÖ), en el poder durante los últimos trece años, pierde la mayoría absoluta en el Parlamento.
1981  El presidente estadounidense, Ronald Reagan, levanta el embargo de trigo impuesto a la URSS.
1980  El Parlamento catalán elige presidente de la Generalitat a Jordi Pujol i Soley.
1980 The United States starts an abortive attempt to free the US hostages in Iran, a mission that would result in the deaths of eight US servicemen.
1976  Un informe de la ONU sobre el terremoto de Guatemala estima en 22'836 el número de víctimas.In 1990, junk-bond king Michael Milken avoided trial on in- sider trading and racketeering charges by pleading guilty to six less serious felony violations, agreeing to pay fines and penalties totaling $600 million.
1972 UNESCO's Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property enters into force. It was adopted on 14 November 1970.
^ 1971 Demonstrations against the Vietnam War
on a large scale are held in Washington, DC. The previous day, nearly a hundred Vietnam veterans had ceremoniously returned their medals and military decorations on the steps of the Capitol.
      In 1961, US President John F. Kennedy sent the first US military personnel to bolster the ineffectual autocratic regime of South Vietnam against the Communist North. Three years later, with the South Vietnamese government crumbling, President Lyndon B. Johnson ordered limited bombing raids on North Vietnam and Congress authorized the use of US troops. By 1965, North Vietnamese offensives left President Johnson with two choices: escalate US involvement or withdraw. Johnson ordered the former, and troop levels soon jumped to over 300'000 as US air forces commenced the largest bombing campaign in history. Over the next few years, the extended length of the war, the high number of US casualties, and the exposure of US involvement in war crimes such as the massacre at My Lai helped to turn many in the United States against the Vietnam War, and created a perilous national division. Some Vietnam veterans cooperated with antiwar protestors in their condemnation of the war, while thousands of military draftees burned their draft notices and hundreds of military personnel deserted their ranks. In the early 1970s, President Richard M. Nixon began withdrawing US troops but increased bombing across Indochina. In 1973, a peace agreement was reached and the last US troops left Vietnam. Two years later, the last Americans were evacuated from Saigon as Communist forces launched their final triumphant offensive into South Vietnam. It was the longest and most unpopular war in US history, and cost fifty-eight-thousand American lives.
1971 North Vietnamese attack South Vietnamese installations       ^top^
      North Vietnamese troops hit Allied installations throughout South Vietnam. In the most devastating attack, the ammunition depot at Qui Nhon was blown up. On 27 April, the aviation fuel tanks at Da Nang air base were attacked by communist gunners, resulting in explosions and a fire that destroyed a large proportion of the fuel stored there. In the following three days, 54 South Vietnamese soldiers and civilians were reported killed, and 185 wounded. The United States reported seven dead and 60 wounded.
1970 Gambia becomes a republic within the British Commonwealth
1970 The People's Republic of China launche- its first satellite, which repeatedly transmits a song, "The East is Red."
1969  Nigeria toma la ciudad biafreña de Umuahia, evacuada por la población civil el pasado día 14 Apr.
1967 General: those against Vietnam War are unpatriotic.       ^top^
      At a news conference in Washington, General William Westmoreland, senior US commander in South Vietnam, causes controversy by saying that the enemy had "gained support in the United States that gives him hope that he can win politically that which he cannot win militarily." Though he said that, "Ninety-five percent of the people were behind the United States effort in Vietnam," he asserted that the American soldiers in Vietnam were "dismayed, and so am I, by recent unpatriotic acts at home." This criticism of the antiwar movement was not received well by many in and out of the antiwar movement, who believed it was both their right and responsibility to speak out against the war.
1965  Un pastor español encuentra, cerca de Badajoz, los cadáveres del líder de la oposición portuguesa, Humberto Delgado, y de su secretario.
1962 In the first US coast-to-coast satellite telecast, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Lincoln Laboratory station in California transmitts an image to the orbiting weather balloon Echo I. The signal is received at Millstone Hill, Westford, Massachusetts.
1961 JFK accepts "sole responsibility" following Bay of Pigs.
1960  Con el seudónimo de Jakim Boor, Francisco Franco Bahamonde publica, en el diario Arriba, un artículo sobre "Masonería y descristianización". [Franco was a boor all right, and a bore too.]
1958  El artículo 6 de la ley española de vagos y maleantes de 1933 incorpora un nuevo párrafo, donde se prevén medidas contra los "gamberros" [in English: “libertines”]
^ 1955 Afro-Asian non-aligneds end Bandung Conference.
      The Afro-Asian Conference — popularly known as the Bandung Conference because it was held in Bandung, Indonesia — comes to a close on this day. During the conference, representatives from 29 "non-aligned" nations in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East met to condemn colonialism, decry racism, and express their reservations about the growing Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union. The Bandung Conference grew out of an increasing sense of frustration and alienation among the so-called "non-aligned" nations of Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. These were nations that preferred to remain neutral during the Cold War, believing that their interests would not be served by allying with either the United States or the Soviet Union. In April 1955, representatives from 29 of these nations, including Egypt, Indonesia, India, Iraq, and the People's Republic of China, met to consider the issues they considered most pressing. Various speeches and resolutions condemned colonialism and imperialism and called for the freedom of all subjugated peoples.
      Racism in all forms was likewise criticized, with the apartheid system of South Africa coming in for particularly harsh denunciations. The assembled nations also called for an end to the nuclear arms race and the elimination of atomic weapons. The fundamental message of many of the sessions was the same: the Cold War struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union had little meaning to nations battling for economic development, improved health, and better crop yields, and fighting against the forces of colonialism and racism. The United States government was generally appalled by the Bandung Conference. Although invited to do so, it refused to send an unofficial observer to the meetings. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles was already on record as equating neutralism in the fight against communism as close to a mortal sin. For the United States, the issue was black and white: join America in the fight against communism or risk being considered a potential enemy. This unfortunate policy brought the United States into numerous conflicts with nations of the underdeveloped world who were struggling to find a middle road in the Cold War conflict.
1950  El Gobierno jordano hace pública la anexión de la Palestina árabe a Jordania.
1949  Las tropas comunistas chinas entran en Nankín.
1948 The Berlin airlift begins to relieve the surrounded city of Berlin.
In deciding the legal case United States v. Ballard, the US Supreme Court upheld the general principle that "the truth of religious claims is not for secular authority to determine."
1944 United Negro College Fund incorporates ("A mind is a terrible thing to waste"]
^ 1943 Overwhelming Nazi attack on the Warsaw Ghetto
     Shortly after the German occupation of Poland began, the Nazis forced the city's Jewish citizens into a "ghetto" surrounded by barb wire and armed S.S. guards. The Warsaw ghetto had an area of only 340 hectares but soon held almost 500'000 Jews in deplorable conditions (about 7 sq.m per person!). Disease and starvation killed thousands every month and, beginning in July of 1942, six thousand Jews per day were transferred to the Treblinka concentration camp.
      Although the Nazis assured the remaining Jews that their relatives and friends were being sent to work camps, word soon reached the ghetto that deportation to the camp meant extermination. An underground resistance group was established in the ghetto--the Jewish Combat Organization (ZOB)--and limited arms were acquired at great cost. On 18 January 1943, when the Nazis entered the ghetto to prepare a group for transfer, a ZOB unit ambushed them. Fighting lasted for several days, and a number of Germans soldiers were killed before they withdrew.
      On 19 April, Nazi leader Heinrich Himmler announced that the ghetto was to be cleared out in honor of Hitler's birthday the following day, and over a thousand S.S. soldiers entered the confines with tanks and heavy artillery. Although many of the ghetto's remaining 60'000 Jewish dwellers attempted to hide themselves in secret bunkers, over a thousand ZOB members met the Germans with gunfire and homemade bombs. Thus began the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.
      Suffering moderate casualties, the Germans initially withdrew but soon returned, and on 24 April launched an all-out attack against the Warsaw Jews. Thousands were slaughtered as the Germans systematically moved down the ghettos, blowing up the buildings one by one. The ZOB took to the sewers to continue the fight, but on 08 April their command bunker fell to the Germans and their resistant leaders committed suicide. By 16 April, the ghetto was firmly under Nazi control and mass deportation of the last Warsaw Jews to Treblinka began.
      During the uprising some 300 hundred German soldiers were killed to the thousands of Warsaw Jews who were massacred. Virtually all of those who survived to reach Treblinka had been killed by the end of the war.
1943  Las tropas japonesas reanudan la ofensiva en Birmania.
1943 Comienza la ofensiva general aliada en Túnez.
1940 Britain begins its evacuation of Greece.       ^top^
      In Operation Demon, British forces, along with Australian, New Zealand, and Polish troops, begin to withdraw from Greece in light of the Greek army's surrender to the Axis invaders. A total of 50'732 men are evacuated quickly over a six-day period, leaving behind weapons, trucks, and aircraft.
1937  La Junta de Defensa Nacional española decreta la obligatoriedad del saludo fascista.
1932  En las elecciones al parlamento prusiano, los nacionalsocialistas obtienen 160 escaños, 154 más de los que poseían.
1931  El Gobierno español fija en 23 años la edad para obtener derecho a emitir sufragios.
1926  Se firma en Berlín un tratado germano-soviético de amistad, que da continuidad al tratado de Rapallo.
1918  En la transcurso de la Primera Guerra Mundial, se libra en el norte de Francia la primera batalla de la historia con carros armados, entre tres tanques ingleses y tres alemanes.
1916 El Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Marina alemana, gran almirante Henning von Holtzendorff, cursa la orden para que la guerra submarina sólo se lleve a cabo de acuerdo con el derecho de presa que incluye el aviso, registro y salvamento de los pasajeros.
^ 1916 The Easter Rebellion begins
     Some 1600 Irish nationalists start the Easter Rising by seizing several key sites in Dublin. The uprising would be brutally put down by British forces within a few days.
      On Easter Monday in Dublin, the Irish Republican Brotherhood, a secret organization of Irish nationalists led by Patrick Pearse, launches the Easter Rebellion, an armed uprising against British rule. Assisted by militant Irish socialists under James Connolly, Pearse and his fellow Republicans riot and attack British provincial government headquarters across Dublin, and seize the Irish capital's General Post Office.
      Although the British authorities quickly suppressed the uprising, the execution of the Easter Rebellion's leaders, of unarmed prisoners, of innocent bystanders, and other harsh reprisals served to increase support for the nationalist cause in Ireland. In 1919, the Irish Volunteers, a prototype of the Irish Republican Army (IRA), launched a widespread and effective guerrilla campaign against British forces.
      In 1921, a cease-fire was declared, and in 1922, nationalist leaders signed a historic treaty with Britain, calling for the partition of Ireland, with the south becoming autonomous and the six northern counties of the island remaining in Great Britain. Civil war immediately broke out in Ireland over the partition. In 1923, nationalist Eamon De Valera's Irish Republican soldiers were defeated by forces from the Irish Free State, which later grew into the modern Republic of Ireland. Several years later, the IRA was reorganized as an underground movement that continued its struggle for Northern independence.
At four minutes past noon on Easter Monday 24 April 1916, a sudden hush fell over the O’Connell Street. From the steps of the General Post Office Patrick Pearse read the Proclamation of the Republic:

IRISHMAN AND IRISHWOMEN: In the name of God and of the dead generations from which she receives her old tradition of nationhood, Ireland, through us, summons her children to her flag and strikes for her freedom.

Having organized and trained her manhood through her secret revolutionary organization, the Irish Republican Brotherhood, and through her open military organizations, the Irish Volunteers and the Irish Citizen Army, having patiently perfected her discipline, having resolutely waited for the right moment to reveal itself, she now seizes that moment, and, supported by her exiled children in America and by gallant allies in Europe, but relying in the first on her own strength, she strikes in full confidence of victory.

We declare the right of the people of Ireland to the ownership of Ireland, and to the unfettered control of Irish destinies, to be sovereign and indefeasible. The long usurpation of that right by a foreign people and government has not extinguished the right, nor can it ever be extinguished except by the destruction of the Irish people. In every generation the Irish people have asserted their right to national freedom and sovereignty; six times during the past three hundred years they have asserted it in arms. Standing on that fundamental right and again asserting it in arms in the face of the world, we hereby proclaim the Irish Republic as a Sovereign Independent State. And we pledge our lives and the lives of our comrades-in-arms to the cause of its freedom, of its welfare, and of its exaltation among the nations.

The Irish Republic is entitled to, and hereby claims, the allegiance of every Irishman and Irish woman. The Republic guarantees religious and civil liberty, equal rights and equal opportunities of all its citizens, and declares its resolve to pursue the happiness and prosperity of the whole nation and of all its parts, cherishing all the children of the nation equally, and oblivious of the differences carefully fostered by an alien government, which have divided a minority in the past.

Until our arms have brought the opportune moment for the establishment of a permanent National Government, representative of the whole people of Ireland and elected by the suffrages of all her men and women, the Provision Government, hereby constituted, will administer the civil and military affairs of the Republic in trust for the people.

We place the cause of the Irish Republic under the protection of the Most High God, Whose blessing we invoke upon our arms, and we pray that no one who serves that cause will dishonour it by cowardice, inhumanity, or rapine. In this supreme hour the Irish nation must, by its valour and discipline and by the readiness of its children to sacrifice themselves for the common good, prove itself worthy of the august destiny to which it is called.

Signed on behalf of the Provisional Government,

When Pearse finished, the beaming Connolly took his hand and shook it vigorously. A few ragged cheers hung in the air, but the poet, Stephen McKenna, who listened to Pearse read these words, recorded later that he felt sad for him, for the response from the crowd was chilling. There were no wild hurrahs, no scenes reminiscent of the excitement which had gripped the French mob before they stormed the Bastille. The Irish simply listened and shrugged their shoulders, or sniggered a little, and then glanced round to see if the police were coming.

Nearby young insurgents were posting copies of the Proclamation, or handing them round among the crowd. One copy, weighted down with stones, was placed on the ground at the foot of Nelson Pillar so that everybody could read it.

Slowly the crowd broke up. Some strolled across to the Pillar, where they idly read the Proclamation; others just stood and stared up at the unfamiliar flags (the green flag on the left at the corner of Princes Street and the Tricolor on the right at the corner of Henry Stree) from the roof of the G.P.O. Quite a few, bored with the whole affair, simply turned and wandered away.

Part of the lack of interest came from actions that had occurred from a rift in the organization. During Holy Week, when Eoin MacNeill got word of the Rising, MacDiarmada with other leaders did their best to persuade MacNeill to agree it it. Late on Holy Saturday night MacDiarmada got word of MacNeill's Countermanding Order appearing in the "Sunday Independent" (Note*** MacNeill did not agree with the Rising and knew that the practice maneuvers of the Irish Volunteers planned for Easter Sunday was a cover for an uprising. He sent messengers all over Ireland to tell the Volunteers to do nothing on Easter Sunday, and he published a cancellation notice in the Sunday Independent, with this action he effectively doomed the uprising to failure***)

A conference between Pearse, Plunkett, and Dermot Lynch was called, but Connolly, Clarke and Ceannt, couldn't be reached so the meeting was adjourned, and they all met at Liberty Hall at 08:00.

All members of the Military Council were at the 2nd meeting, it lasted till 01:00 on Easter Sunday. The decision was made to take action on Easter Monday.

1899 Violent miners' strike.       ^top^
      During later decades of the nineteenth century, America's mines erupted in violence. Tired of the endless hours spent toiling in dangerous conditions for paltry pay, miners staged strikes that, thanks in some part to the heavy hand of management, often dissolved into bloodshed and riots. During 1894 alone, roughly 750'000 miners hit the picket line to protest their plight. Nor did this anger abate as the 1890s wore on: indeed, on this day in 1899, a strike by miners in Wardner, Idaho, turned violent when management rebuffed workers' various demands. In particular, the workers had pushed for a pay raise (to $3.50 per day), as well as the closing of the company stores that mine owners had used to pay and, by serving as hard-driving creditors, to enforce their tacit control over workers. When the riots were finally quelled, mine owners were left with approximately $250'000 in damaged or destroyed property.
^ 1898 Spanish-American War begins
      The Spanish-American War officially begins as the Spanish refuse US demands to withdrawal from Cuba and declare war against the United States. The same day, US President William McKinley authorizes US Admiral George Dewey, in command of the US Pacific fleet, to leave Hong Kong and attack Spanish-held Manila in the Philippines.
      Spain's brutal response to the Cuban rebellion against Spanish rule, the mysterious explosion of the US battleship Maine in Havana harbor, and the heavy losses to American investment caused by the Cuban conflict, were all factors that intensified US feeling against Spain. In late April, the US Congress prepared for war; adopting joint congressional resolutions demanding a Spanish withdrawal from Cuba and authorizing President McKinley to use force.
      On 23 April, President McKinley asked for 125'000 volunteers to fight against Spain, and the next day Spain issued a declaration of war. One week later, the US Navy under Admiral George Dewey won a decisive victory over the Spanish fleet at Manila Bay in the Philippines, and on 11 June, six hundred US marines landed at Guantanamo, Cuba. In Cuba, US forces, featuring the Theodore Roosevelt-led cavalry regiment known as the "Rough Riders," triumphed at the battles of El Caney and San Juan Heights, and on 03 July, the remaining Spanish fleet was destroyed near Santiago de Cuba. On 17 July, nearly 25'000 Spanish soldiers surrendered at Santiago de Cuba, and the war effectively came to an end. An armistice was signed on 12 August, and representatives were sent to Paris, France, to arrange peace. On 10 December, the Treaty of Paris was signed, officially ending the Spanish-American war, virtually dissolving the once-proud Spanish Empire, and granting the United States its first overseas empire. Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines were ceded to the United States, and Cuba became a US protectorate. Hawaii, an independent republic run by American expatriates since 1894, was also formally annexed during the Spanish-American War.
1895 Joshua Slocum completes around-the-world voyage in 11-m boat
1892  En una demostración ante el emperador alemán Guillermo II, un cañón construido por las acerías Krupp logra disparar un proyectil a 20 km de distancia.
1891 Start of Sherlock Holmes adventure The Final Problem
1877 US Federal troops are ordered out of New Orleans, ending the North's post-Civil War rule in the South.
1877 Russia declares war on the Ottoman Empire.
At the Vatican I Ecumenical Council, the dogmatic constitution "Dei filius" was published. Explaining the relationship between faith and reason, it declared that God could be known by human thought processes.
1867 Black demonstrators stage ride-ins on Richmond Va streetcars
1863 Confederate government passes a tax in-kind on one-tenth of all produce
1863 Siege of Suffolk, Virginia by Confederates continues
1862 Federal fleet passes forts below New Orleans, Louisiana
1862 Siege of Yorktown, Virginia continues.
1805 US Marines attack and capture the town of Derna in Tripoli.
1799  La Asamblea Nacional Francesa encarga al ingeniero Étienne Lenoir la construcción de un prototipo de platino iridiado con dos marcas paralelas, cuya distancia es el metro, unidad de longitud.
1794 HENRY Barbe, âgée de 17 ans, fille de Henry, président du bailliage de Verdun, née et domiciliée à Verdun,. est condamnée à 20 ans de détention, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme complices d'un complot tendant à livrer à l'ennemi la place de Verdun (Meuse).
1794 TABOUILLOT Claire, âgée de 17 ans, née et domiciliée à Verdun, est condamnée à 20 années de détention, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme convaincu d'avoir coopéré aux manœuvres et intelligences tendantes à livrer aux Prussiens la ville de Verdun.
1701  Felipe V, nombrado rey de España el año anterior entra en Madrid e instaura la Casa de Borbón en la monarquía española.
1547  Las tropas de Carlos I, rey de España, derrotan a las protestantes del príncipe de Sajonia Juan Federico, el Magnánimo, en la Batalla de Mühlberg. La victoria convierte al monarca español en Carlos V, emperador de Alemania.
1505  La reina Juana de Castilla otorga al navegante italiano Américo Vespucio la carta de naturaleza castellana.
0858 Saint Nicholas I begins his reign as Pope
0387 Augustine of Hippo, 32, is baptized on this Eve of Easter [???]. He told the story of his Christian conversion from a profligate life in his Confessions, written between 397 and 401 — SAINT AUGUSTINE ONLINE: Confessionesde Civitate Deide Trinitatede Dialecticade Fide et Symbolode Catechizandis RudibusSermonesRegula Sancti Augustini //— (in English translations): The City of GodConfessionsConfessions Confessions ConfessionsDe DialecticaEnchiridionExpositions on the Book of PsalmsOn Christian Doctrine
^ Deaths which occurred on an April 24:
Dr. Gene Segro2003 Eugene Segro, 51 [photo >], principal of Red Lion Area Junior High School, 200 Country Club Road, Red Lion, Pennsylvania, after being shot in the chest by 8th-grader James Robert Sheets, 14, who then shoots himself in the head, in the cafeteria, at 07:38, shortly before the start of classes. Sheets had come to school with, hidden in his backpack, three loaded handguns — a .22-caliber revolver, a .44 Magnum, and a .357 Magnum — which he had taken from the safe of his stepfather, Arthur Baker.
2003 Palestinians Osama Arar, 30, taxi driver; and Faker Arar, 17, high school student, as Israeli troops shoot at stone-throwing high school students in village Qarawat Bani Zeit, near Ramallah, West Bank.
2003 Israeli security guard Alexander Kostyuk, 23, and Palestinian suicide bomber Ahmed al-Khatib, 18, at 07:20, as Kostyuk blocks his way into the new train station at Kfar Sava, Israel. 14 persons are injured. The Reuters body count of the al-Aqsa intifada is now “at least” 2007 Palestinians and 734 Israelis.

2002 Ismith Khan, 77, US college teacher and author, descended from ethnic Pathans expelled from India by the British, born in Trinidad. Author, using colorful dialect, of novels The Jumbie Bird (1961, semi-autobiographical), The Obeah Man (1964), The Crucifixion (1987), and a collection of short stories A Day in the Country (1990).
2002 Rudolph de Harak, of bladder cancer, exhibit designer, painter of hard-edged geometric forms, which, he said, were not abstract “because geometry is as real as faces and landscapes.” He was born on 10 April 1924.

1998:: 22 condenados por el genocidio de 1994 en Ruanda en el que murieron alrededor de 800'000 personas en tan sólo tres meses, ejecutados en presencia de decenas de miles de ruandeses.
1997  Luis Andrés Samperio Sañudo, de 37 años, policía nacional español, asesinado en Bilbao por el "comando Vizcaya" de ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna).
1995 Gilbert Murray, president of the California Forestry Association, in Sacramento, by a mail bomb sent by the “UNAbomber”.
1992, Four persons, by a car driven by an elderly New York woman, which careens through a crowded Greenwich Village park. 27 are injured.
^ 1980 Eight US servicemen in failed hostage rescue
      An ill-fated US military operation to rescue the fifty-two US hostages held in Iran ended with eight US military persons killed and no hostages rescued. With the Iran Hostage Crisis stretching into its sixth month, and all diplomatic appeals to the Iranian government ended in failure, US President Jimmy Carter ordered the military mission as a last ditch attempt to save the hostages. During the operation, three of eight helicopters failed, crippling the crucial airborne plans. The mission was canceled at the staging area in Iran, but during the withdrawal one of the retreating helicopters collided with one of six C-130 transport planes, killing eight soldiers and injuring five.
      On 04 November 1979, the crisis had begun when militant Iranian students, outraged that the US government had allowed the ousted Shah of Iran to travel to the US for medical treatment, seized the US embassy in Teheran. The Ayatollah Khomeini, Iran's political and religious leader, took over the hostage situation, and agreed to release non-US captives and female and minority Americans, citing these groups as among the people oppressed by the US government. The remaining fifty-two captives remained at the mercy of the Ayatollah for the next fourteen months. Even after the Shah died, US President Jimmy Carter was unable to diplomatically resolve the crisis, and on 24 April 1980, he ordered the disastrous rescue mission in which eight US military personnel died.
      In November of 1980, Carter lost the presidential election to Republican Ronald Reagan, and soon after, with the assistance of Algerian intermediaries, successful negotiations began between the US and Iran. On the day of Reagan's inauguration, the US freed almost $8 billion in frozen Iranian assets, and the hostages were released after 444 days. The next day, Jimmy Carter flew to West Germany to greet the Americans on their way home.
1967 Vladimir Komarov cosmonaut is first to die in space, aboard Soyuz 1, when it crashes due to a tangled parachute.
1964  Wenceslao Fernández Flórez, escritor y periodista español.
^ 1947 Willa Cather, author.
      Willa Cather, the author of several celebrated novels examining the lives of western pioneers, dies in New York. Born in Virginia in 1873, Cather moved with her family to Red Cloud, Nebraska, when she was 10 years old. Although she did not attend regular school until high school, she was a bright student who eventually earned a degree from the University of Nebraska. She had long dreamed of being a writer of fiction, but initially she took a more secure route, working as a journalist and editor in New York City. In 1894, she had a chance encounter with the author Stephen Crane, who encouraged her desire to write fiction. In 1903, Cather published a book of poems and, two years later, a collection of short stories. Although well received by critics, sales were modest. Significantly, neither of these books, nor her first novel (Alexander's Bridge, published in 1912), dealt with the frontier West. Still, by 1912, Cather was earning enough money from her writing to quit her job in New York and devote herself to writing full time. That same year, Cather and her brother made a trip to the Southwest, sparking her interest in the western frontier as a setting for her novels.
      In her next novel, O Pioneers! (1913), Cather first developed the frontier themes that would give her works a uniquely western voice. Five years later, she produced her best-known work, My Antonia. These two novels, along with her 1927 work, Death Comes to the Archbishop, established Cather as a brilliant novelist focusing on the American pioneer experience. Though Cather's novels unflinchingly explore the hardships of pioneer life, they also celebrate the optimism of hardworking men and women who are confident of better days to come. Criticized by some for romanticizing pioneer life and by others for portraying it too harshly, Cather's goal had never been to recreate accurately a vanished period from the past. Rather, she used her frontier settings as a useful stage on which to examine broader universal themes, like the power of humans to overcome adversity through faith in the future. By choosing to set many of her novels in the West, Cather was instrumental in creating a serious literature for a region that had previously provided fodder primarily for dime novelists.
1930 Henry Ernest Dudeney, English recreational mathematician born on 10 April 1857, who published many mathematical problems and pastimes, some of which provoked serious mathematical research. Example: Is it possible to seat n people at a round table on a maximum of (n - 1)(n - 2)/2 occasions so that each person has the same pair of neighbors exactly once? Other examples: The Damaged EngineThe Man and the DogCrossing the RiverThe 22 Game
1918  José Menéndez Menéndez, millonario español, llamado rey de la Patagonia.
^ 1915 Armenian Genocide starts as Ottoman Turks kill some 600 Armenian leaders.
      In all the Ottoman Turks would massacre up to a million and a half Armenians by hanging, beatings, shooting, starvation, owerwork, and death marches to the desert. (Turks still minimize or deny this). (conmemorated as Armenian Martyrs Day)
      Here is what the Encyclopedia Britannica says:
      The greatest single disaster in the history of the Armenians came with the outbreak of World War I. In 1915 the Young Turk government resolved to deport the whole Armenian population of about 1'750'000 to Syria and Mesopotamia. It regarded the Turkish Armenians--despite pledges of loyalty by many--as a dangerous foreign element bent on conspiring with the pro-Christian tsarist enemy to upset the Ottoman campaign in the east. In what would later be known as the "first genocide" of the 20th century, hundreds of thousands of Armenians were driven from their homes, massacred, or marched until they died. The death toll of Armenians in Turkey is estimated to have been between 600'000 and 1'500'000 in the years from 1915 to 1923. Tens of thousands emigrated to Russia, Lebanon, Syria, France, and the United States, and the western part of the historical homeland of the Armenian people was emptied of Armenians.
1913::  115 mineros, en un siniestro en Cincinnati (Estados Unidos).
1903 Walter Frederick Osborne, British painter born on 17 June 1859. — more with links to two images.
1901 Daniel Israel, Austrian artist born in 1859.
1891  Helmuth Karl Bernhard von Moltke, mariscal y estratega militar alemán.
1806  José Solano y Bote, capitán general de la Armada española.
1803 Adélaïde Vincent Labille-Guiard, French Neoclassical painter born on 11 April 1749, specialized in Portraits. MORE ON LABILLE~GUIARD AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.

1794 (5 floréal an II) Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:       ^top^
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
BESLIER Théophile, ex garde-marteau, le 4 pluviôse de la ci-devant maîtrise des eaux et forêts de Chatillon-sur-Seine, domicilié à Chatillon sur Seine (Côte d'Or), comme contre-révolutionnaire.
     ... domiciliés à Paris:
BERTEAU Jeanne Elisabeth, âgée de 48 ans, sage-femme, née à Pithiviers, comme convaincue d'avoir colporté une lettre supposée écrite par Fouquier-Tinville à Robespierre, contenant un plan de conspiration de ce représentant du peuple.
BONNIN François, ouvrier imprimeur, âgé de 47 ans, natif de Souchant (Eure), pour avoir dit dans un cabaret, que Robespierre était un conspirateur et qu'il ne tarderait pas à être puni, ou que lui Bonnin y perdrait son nom.
POMMERAY Jean, âgé de 40 ans, perruquier, et canonnier de la section de la Réunion, né à Orléans (Loiret), comme contre-révolutionnaire.
SCHEVEGER Mathurin, cordonnier, âgé de 40 ans, né à Munxenger, en Brisau, comme ayant affiché un placard aux Tuileries contre Robespierre et la Convention.
     ... domiciliés dans le département de la Meuse:
PIERSON Thérèse, femme Bestel, cordonnière, âgée de 41 ans, née à Genicourt, domiciliée à Verdun, comme convaincue d'avoir appelé chez elle le maire de Genicourt, l'avoir fait arrêter par les Prussiens, et conduire prisonnier dans la citadelle
NEYON Alexandre Joseph, lieutenant colonel du 2ème régiment de la Meuse, âgé de 59 ans, natif de Soizy, domicilié à Drincourt (Meuse), comme complice des manœuvres et intelligences, par suite desquelles la place de Verdun a été livrée aux prussiens.
CROYER Henri François, capitaine d'ouvriers d'artillerie, âgé de 52 ans, natif de Laon (Meuse), comme contre-révolutionnaire.
          ... comme complices d'un complot (ou conspiration) tendant à livrer à l'ennemi la place de Verdun (Meuse):
HERBILLON Christophe, ex curé de St Médard de Verdun, âgé de 76 ans, natif de Bonneuil près de Varennes (Meurthe), domicilié à Bar-sur-Ornain.
NEYON Alexandre Joseph, lieutenant colonel du 2ème régiment de la Meuse, âgé de 59 ans, natif de Soizy, domicilié à Drincourt, comme complice des manœuvres et intelligences, par suite desquelles la place de Verdun a été livrée aux prussiens.
               ... domiciliés à Verdun:
COLLOT Jean Michel, âgé de 72 ans, ex bénédictin, natif du duché de Bouillon, comme conspirateur, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris.
DAUBERMESNIL Jacques Nic., âgé de 75 ans, natif d'Aubermesnil, près de Dieppe (Seine Inférieure), ex major de la citadelle de Verdun
FORTIN François, âgé de 43 ans, natif de Douzeville, marchand cirier
GOSSIN Jean, ex chanoine, domicilié à Verdun, comme conspirateur.
HERBILLON Françoise, veuve de Masson, âgée de 55 ans, née à Donne
LACORDIERE al. Elisabeth, ex doyen de la cathédrale de Verdun, âgé de 59 ans, natif de Juvigny
LAGIROUSIERE Marguerite Angélique, fille, âgée de 48 ans, née à Bonze
LEFERVRE Guilain, ex bénédictin, âgé de 62 ans, né à Carligny, près de Pêronne (Somme)
VATRAIN Anne, âgée de 25 ans, née à Etain, comme convaincue d’avoir contribué à livrer la ville de Verdun aux Prussiens.
VATRAIN Henriette, âgée de 33 ans, née à Etain, comme convaincu d’avoir contribué à la reddition de la place de Verdun aux Prussiens.
VATRAIN Hélène, âgée de 22 ans, née à Etain, comme convaincue d’avoir contribué à la reddition de la place de Verdun aux Prussiens.
LAMERLE Nicolas, avoué, âgé de 47 ans, natif de Morge-Moulin, comme complice de la conspiration de Verdun, et en acceptant des fonctions publiques des agents du despote prussien.
PELLEGRIN Jean Baptiste, capitaine de gendarmerie nationale, âgé de 52 ans, natif de Gondrecourt (Meuse), comme convaincu d’avoir pratiqué des manœuvres tendantes à livrer la place de Verdun aux Prussiens.
LECLERC Badillon, âgé de 52 ans, gendarme national, né à Thionville (Moselle), domicilié à Verdun, comme contre-révolutionnaire, ayant affecté de continuer son service de gendarme sous les ordres du despote prussien.
                    ... et nés à Verdun:
CHOTTAIN François, fils, perruquier, 31 ans. — CROUTTE Marguer, horlogère, 48 ans. — DAUPHIN G. Elisabeth, veuve de Brigand, capitaine des grenadiers, 56 ans. — GRANDFEVRE Anne, femme Tabouillat, vivant de son revenu,46 ans. — GRIMOARD Henri Barthel, colonel d'artillerie, 70 ans. — HENRY Gabrielle, âgée de 25 ans, fille de Henry, président du bailliage de Verdun. — HENRY Marie Françoise, femme Lalance, 69 ans.
PERIN J. B. Philibert, droguiste, 40 ans, comme convaincu d’avoir excité l’attroupement des femmes qui demandaient la capitulation et la reddition de la ville de Verdun.
THUILEUR Pierre, gendarme, âgé de 61 ans,
MILLY Nicolas, gendarme, âgé de 31 ans, comme contre-révolutionnaire, en continuant son service sous les ordres du despote prussien.
Par le tribunal criminel du département des Bouches du Rhône, séant à Marseilles:
JAUSSAUD Michel, marchand, domicilié à Tarascon (Bouches du Rhône) comme contre-révolutionnaire.
CALABDRE Joseph, marchand colporteur, domicilié à Arles (Bouches du Rhône), comme réfractaire.
     ... comme fédéralistes:
, arithméticien, domicilié à Marathon (Var).
          ... domiciliés dans le département des Bouches du Rhône:
GAYDE Etienne, cultivateur et propriétaire, domicilié à Velaux.
               ... domiciliés à Aubagne:
AUBAGNE-GAUTIER Joseph Crespin, trompette de la commune. — DEMANE Pierre François, chirurgien major. — LONGIS Henri, marinier. — MONIER Claire, femme Dondé. — REYNAND Jean, agriculteur propriétaire. — SEIGNEURET Jean François (père), ex-noble, propriétaire agriculteur. — SEIGNEURET Pierre (fils), ex-noble et prêtre.
RASTEGUE Jean Jacques, ex noble, agriculteur et propriétaire, .par la commission militaire du tribunal criminel dudit département.
A Arras:
BONNEL André Pierre, âgé de 71 ans, demeurant à Arras, né à Erquinghem sur la Lys, guillotiné.
CORBEAU Adrien Louis Joseph, âgé de 58 ans, né à Arras, écrivain, époux de Thomas N., guillotiné.
LAIGNEL Barthélémy François, âgé de 52 ans, né à Armentière, guillotiné.
LAIGNEL Jacques Philippe, guillotiné.
DE GENEVIERES DU VIELFORT Philippe Lamoral Joseph, âgé de 63 ans, né à Divion, demeurant à la Vasserie,
DE MOISSET ou DE MARISEL Albert Joachim Joseph, âgé de 50 ans, cultivateur, né à Lières.
WARTELLE Jean Baptiste, âgé de 72 ans, né à Arras, veuf de Evrard N.,
WARTELLE Ursule Angélique, âgée de 63 ans, née à Arras, rentière, veuve de Lannoy de Ranguilly
GOUST Nicolas, greffier du juge de paix, domicilié à Essarts (Vendée), comme Brigand de la Vendée.
BAILLEUT Marie Anne, femme Boulogne, fileuse, domiciliée à Ousttersléene, canton d'Hazebrouck (Nord), comme distributrice de faux assignats, par la commission militaire de l'armée du Nord.
LIBERGE Anne, femme Georget, domiciliée à Laferté-sur-l'Huisne (Sarthe), comme conspiratrice, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
POUSSEL Marguerite, femme Bayol, liquoriste, domiciliée à Toulon département du Var, comme émigrée, par le tribunal criminel du département des Alpes-Maritimes.

1793 RONSERAY Jean, cuisinier, domicilié à Maxent, département d’Ille-et-Vilaine, condamné à mort par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
1731 Daniel Defoe, English novelist       ^top^
  • Dickory Cronke: The Dumb Philosopher: or, Great Britain's Wonder
  • Everybody's Business is Nobody's Business
  • The Fortunes and Misfortunes of the Famous Moll Flanders
  • The Fortunes and Misfortunes of the Famous Moll Flanders
  • Robinson Crusoe (both "The Life and Adventures..." and "The Further Adventures...")
  • From London to Land's End
  • Giving Alms No Charity
  • A Journal of the Plague Year
  • The Shortest Way With the Dissenters
  • Tour Through the Eastern Counties of England
  • 1656 Thomas Fincke, Danish physician, astronomer, astrologer, mathematician born on 06 January 1561. Author of Geometriae Rotundi (1583).
    1546  Jofre García de Loaisa, cardenal y confesor del emperador Carlos V, que fue presidente del Consejo de Indias.
    1521 Juan Bravo, [Juan de Padilla y Francisco Maldonado, cabecillas de la revuelta comunera (Guerra de las Comunidades), ejecutados en Villalar.
    1484 (or 24 March 1476, or in 1496) Antonio Vivarini da Murena, Italian painter born in 1415MORE ON VIVARINI AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
    1479  Jorge Manrique, poeta y escritor palentino, en Cuenca, durante el asalto al castillo de Garcimuñoz.
    Births which occurred on an April 24:
    1984 Apple IIc portable computer presented.       ^top^
          Apple introduces its new Apple IIc portable computer at a media extravaganza in San Francisco, featuring banners announcing "Apple II Forever." They should perhaps have read, "Apple II For Now": The company let the Apple II line languish in the late 1980's and stopped making new Apple IIs by 1990. The Apple IIc weighed 12.5 pounds (including a five-pound battery) and was about the size of a briefcase. The computer included an optional mouse, a feature that had been introduced with the company's new Macintosh computer in January.
    1981 IBM PC introduced       ^top^
          IBM introduces its first personal computer, the IBM PC. By 1980, the PC market had grown to $1 billion but was dominated by relatively small players liked Apple, Atari, Commodore, and Radio Shack. IBM had long controlled most of the computer mainframe market but had not yet ventured into microcomputers. When IBM asked Bill Gates at Microsoft to develop a version of BASIC for the new PC, Gates also suggested creating a more powerful 16-bit computer (all other computers on the market used an 8-bit chip). He also offered to provide an operating system. The operating system, DOS, which he purchased from Seattle Computer Products, would fuel Microsoft's growth for the next ten years. The PC quickly became the top-selling microcomputer. Competitors quickly figured out how to clone the machines, and within a few years, more clones were made than authentic IBM computers.

    1947  Josep Borrel Fontelles
    , ingeniero aeronáutico y político español.
    1942 Richard M. Daley, son of Chicago mayor, would grow up to be Chicago mayor too.
    ^ 1940 Sue Grafton, bestselling mystery novelist.
    creator of tough, divorced private eye Kinsey Millhone, celebrates her birthday today. Starting with A Is for Alibi in 1982, Grafton reached O Is for Outlaw, the 15th book featuring Millhone, in 1999. Grafton was born and raised in Louisville, Kentucky. Her father, a Louisville attorney, wrote three critically acclaimed mystery novels between 1943 and 1951, and her mother was a passionate reader. Grafton grew up surrounded by books. She wrote three novels by the time she was 27, but all remained unpublished. She entered a novel in a British book contest and landed a contract for her first published novel, Kezia Dane (1967), which was not a mystery. Neither was her second book, The Lolly-Madonna War (1969), which was made into a movie in 1973. Grafton worked on the screenplay, which led to a scriptwriting career for television in the mid-1970s, a job she hated. She came up with the idea for a mystery series featuring a modern female detective while locked in a bitter custody dispute in 1977 with her second husband. At the time, mystery novels featured few female detectives besides Nancy Drew and Miss Marple. Coincidentally, Sara Paretsky's first mystery featuring V.I. Warshawski, another modern female detective, was published in 1982, the same year as A Is for Alibi. Grafton has three children and two grandchildren (one named Kinsey). She and her third husband divide their time between California and Kentucky.

    1931 Bridget Riley
    , British abstract painter, specialized in Optical Art. — MORE ON RILEY AT ART “4” APRIL with images and links to more images.
    1930  José Sarney, político, abogado y periodista brasileño.
    1919  Clavkcos John Clerides, político grecochipriota.
    1918  Fernando Díaz Plaja, historiador y escritor español.
    1906 William Joyce “Lord Haw Haw”, English (Irish?) radio propagandist for Germany during World War II. Executed as a traitor by the British on 03 January 1946.
    1905 Robert Penn Warren, US novelist, first poet laureate of the US, critic and teacher. He died on 15 September 1989.
    1904 Willem de Kooning, Dutch-born US Abstract Expressionist painter who died on 19 March 1997. MORE ON DE KOONING AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
    ^ 1903 José Antonio Primo de Rivera, J. A. Primo de Riveramarqués de Estella, eldest son of the dictator General Miguel Primo de Rivera [08 Jan 1870 – 16 Mar 1930].
          After a university education and military service, José Antonio Primo de Rivera began a career as a lawyer in 1925. In October 1933 he founded the Falange Española as a fascist movement committed to overthrowing the government if the political parties of the left should manage to impose their policies on the country. He expounded his fiery if rather nebulous fascist views in his periodicals F.E. (1934) and Arriba (1935), and when these publications were suppressed, he addressed meetings across the country and made speeches in the Cortes, to which he had been elected in 1933. The Falange remained a tiny party, dependent on subsidies from Benito Mussolini's Italy for its survival. Shortly after losing his seat in the Cortes following the elections of 16 February 1936, Primo de Rivera was arrested. While in prison he was reelected for Cuenca, but his candidature was annulled by the Popular Front government, which then proceeded to dissolve his party, which had been responsible for the upsurge in street violence. With the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War (17 Jul 1936 – 28 Mar 1939), Primo de Rivera was held in prison, subjected to a summary trial, and executed by the Republican authorities on 20 November 1936. The party of General Francisco Franco Bahamonde [04 Dec 1892 – 20 Nov 1975] treated him as a martyr and merged the Falange party with other groups to form the Nationalist movement. Primo de Rivera's articles and speeches formed the doctrine of Franco's Nationalist movement in the years after the Civil War. Rivera's Obras completas appeared in 1944.

    1899 Asher Zaritzky “Oscar Zariski
    , Jewish Belarus US mathematician who died on 04 July 1986. His specialty was the foundations of algebraic geometry using algebraic methods. He worked on the theory of normal varieties, local uniformisation and the reduction of singularities of algebraic varieties.
    1897 Benjamin Lee Whorf, US linguist noted for his hypotheses regarding the relation of language to thinking and cognition and for his studies of Hebrew and Hebrew ideas, of Mexican and Mayan languages and dialects, and of the Hopi language.
    1889 Sir Stafford Cripps, English chancellor of the exchequer (1947-1950). He died on 21 April 1952.
    1889 Liubov' Sergeyevna Popova, Moscovite painter and designer who died on 25 May 1924. — MORE ON POPOVA AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
    1888 Eastman Kodak forms.
    ^ 1876 Erich Raeder.
        He would grow up to be commander in chief of the German navy. Erich Raeder, proponent of an aggressive naval strategy and the man who convinced Adolf Hitler to invade Norway, began his career by violating the terms of the post-World War I Treaty of Versailles, advocating the construction of submarines in 1928 to strengthen the German navy. He was made grand admiral during World War II and executed the invasion of Norway and Denmark. He fell out with Hitler over strategy and was ultimately removed from his command. He would end his career before the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. Sentenced to life imprisonment for “instigation of the navy to violate the rules of war,” he was released because of ill health in 1955.

    1873 André Bauchant
    , French artist who died in August 1958. [Mais on ne connait pas de chanteur du nom de Bautableau]
    1867 Fannie Thomas, who would become the oldest known person in the US (113 y 273 d at death on 22 January 1981) (Check how close to that you are likely to get with this Life Expectency Calculator.)(the oldest verified human was Jeanne Calment, of France, who died on 04 August 1997 at 122)
    1863 Giovanni Vailati, Italian mathematician who died on 14 May 1909.
    Pétain as Nazi puppet1856 Henri Philippe Pétain, future French hero then villain.       ^top^
          Pétain is born in Cauchy-à-la-Tour. General Pétain became a military hero during World War I and was promoted to maréchal, He was appointed vice premier of France on 18 May 1940 to boost morale in a country crumbling under the force of the Nazi invasion. Instead, Pétain, realizing that defeat was inevitable, decided to sign an armistice with the Nazis. The armistice went into effect on 25 June, and more than half of France was occupied by the Germans. On 10 July, Pétain was given “full powers” as “chief of state” in Vichy, a city in unoccupied France. The Vichy government under Pétain collaborated with the Nazis, and French citizens suffered on both sides of the divided nation.
          On 18 April 1942, Pierre Laval, an opportunistic French Fascist and dutiful Nazi collaborator, who won the trust of Nazi leader Adolf Hitler forms a new Vichy government and the elderly Pétain becomes merely a figurehead in the regime.
          On 06 June 1944, the Allies successfully landed in Normandy and in late August, Pétain and Laval were forced to flee to German protection to the east.
          On 26 April 1945, with Germany days away from surrender, Pétain crossed into France from Switzerland and turned himself in to the by Free French authorities to stand trial on treason charges.. He was subsequently found guilty of treason by the High Court of Justice and sentenced to death, but French President Charles de Gaulle commuted the sentence to life imprisonment. Pétain died in the Île d'Yeu prison on 23 July 1951.
    1854  Felipe Angulo, abogado y político colombiano.
    1817  La draisina, primer prototipo de lo que hoy es la bicicleta, que todavía no tenía pedales, es presentada por el barón Carlos Federico von Drais, en Karlsruhe (Alemania).
    1815 Anthony Trollope, England, novelist, poet, who died on 06 December 1882.      ^top^
  • Barchester Towers
  • Barchester Towers
  • Can You Forgive Her?
  • Dr. Wortle's School
  • The Eustace Diamonds
  • Hunting Sketches
  • Ayala's Angel
  • Ayala's Angel
  • Lady Anna
  • Phineas Finn
  • Phineas Redux
  • Phineas Redux
  • North America volume I volume II
  • North America (page images)
  • The Prime Minister
  • Rachel Ray
  • Short Stories of Today and Yesterday
  • The Warden
  • ^ 1800 Library of Congress established
          The US Congress passes and President John Adams signs legislation appropriating $5000 to purchase “such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress,” and the Library of Congress was born.
          The first books, ordered from London, arrived in 1801 and were stored in the US Capitol, the library's first home. The first library catalog, dated April 1802, listed 964 volumes and nine maps. In 1814, the British army invaded the city of Washington and burned the Capitol, including the 3000-volume Library of Congress. Former president Thomas Jefferson, who advocated the expansion of the library during his two terms in office, responded to the loss by selling his personal library, the largest and finest in the country, to Congress to "recommence" the library.
          The purchase of Jefferson's 6487 volumes was approved in the next year, and a professional librarian, George Watterston, was hired to replace the House clerks in the administration of the library.
          In 1851, a second major fire at the library destroyed about two-thirds of its fifty-five thousand volumes, including two-thirds of Thomas Jefferson's library. Congress responded quickly and generously to the disaster and within a few years the majority of the lost books were replaced.
          After the Civil War, the collection was greatly expanded, and by the twentieth century the Library of Congress had become the de facto national library of the United States and one of the largest in the world.
          Today, the collection, housed in three enormous buildings in Washington, contains more than seventeen million books, as well as nearly ninety-five million maps, manuscripts, photographs, films, audio and video recordings, prints and drawings, and other special collections.

    1769 Arthur Wellesley
    General, Duke of Wellington
    1766 Robert Bailey Thomas (founder, editor: The Farmer's Almanac)
    1750 Simon Antoine Jean Lhuilier, Geneva Huguenot mathematician who died on 28 March 1840.
    1718 Nathaniel Hone, Irish painter who died on 14 August 1784. MORE ON HONE AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
    1704 The Boston News Letter becomes the first American newspaper to be published on a regular basis.
    1703 José Francisco Isla de la Torre, jesuita y literato español.
    1660 Cornelis Dusart (or Dusaert, du Sart), Dutch painter who died on 01 October 1704. He studied under Adriaen van Ostade. MORE ON DUSART AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
    1624 Jan Peeters I, Flemish artist who died between 1677 and 1680.
    1620 John Graunt statistician, founder of science of demography.
    1581 Saint Vincent De Paul, French founder of the Congregation of the Mission. He went to Heaven on 27 September 1660.
    Holidays: Armenia : Armenian Martyrs' Day (1915)

    Religious Observances RC : Saint Fidelis of Sigmaringen, priest/martyr (opt) / Santos Fidel de Sigmaringen, Gregorio, Eusebio, Leoncio y Sabas.
    Easter Sunday in 2011, 2095 (latest possible date).

    Thoughts for the day: “Toil is most pleasant when done.”
    “Toil is most pleasant when done by others.”
    “Calling the tune is least pleasant when it's time to pay the piper.”
    “To change and to improve are two different things.”
    — German proverb.
    “German proverbs will never improve if they don't change.”
    “Perfection cannot be improved.”
    “No buddy is prefect.”
    “If it ain't broke, don't fix it.”
    “If it ain't fixed, don't break it.”

    updated Saturday 24-Apr-2004 1:23 UT
    safe site
    site safe for children safe site