<< Apr 22|      HISTORY “4” “2”DAY      |Apr 24 >>
Events, deaths, births, of APR 23

[For Apr 23 Julian go to Gregorian date:
1583~1699: May 031700s: May 041800s: May 051900~2099: May 06]
• San Francisco fires under control 5 days after quake... • Shakespeare dies... • Army~McCarthy hearings... • “Baedeker Raids”... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Vikings murder king Brian... • Pénurie de poisson: Vatel se suicide... • Vietnam War vets protest... • MLK's murderer (or not?) dies... • Teletypesetter... • Chrysler to buy Lamborghini... • IBM's kiddy computer... • More Internet domain names... • Biondi starts work at MCA... • President Ford: for US, Vietnam War is ended...
CRIS price chartOn a 23 April:
2003 After the markets closed the previous day, it was announced that the US Patent and Trademark Office yesterday issued Patent 6'552'016 to Curis (CRIS) covering pharmaceutical preparations containing small molecule compounds that selectively inhibit a biological signaling pathway controlled by a protein called Hedgehog. Included among the small molecules covered by this patent is CUR-61414, a compound that is under development by Curis as a treatment for basal cell carcinoma..On the NASDAQ, 10 million of the 32 million shares of CRIS are traded, surging from their previous close of $1.45 to an intraday high of $2.99 and closing at $2.90. They had traded as low as $0.50 as recently as 18 October 2002, and as high as $27.25 on 01 August 2000, a few days after they had started trading. [3~year price chart >]
2003 Andrew Granville of the Université de Montréal and K. Soundararajan of the University of Michigan discover that it was too early to sound a rah-rah when Daniel Goldston [04 Jan 1954~], of San Jose State University, California, announced on 13 March 2003, and confirmed on 28 March 2003 that he had completed, together with Cem Yalcin Yildirim of Istanbul's Bogazici University, the proof that liminf (p_{n+1} - p_n)/log p_n = 0. It would have been a big step towards proving the twin prime conjecture. The largest twin primes discovered so far are numbers with 51'090 digits each. But Granville and Soundararajan find a mistake buried in one of the arguments in the preprint of Goldston and Yildrim. The main issue is that some quantities which were believed to be small error terms are actually the same order of magnitude as the main term.
2001 In Istanbul's Swissotel, 13 pro-Chechen gunmen surrender and release the 120 guests they took as hostages 12 hours earlier, late on 22 April. The gunmen are led by Muhammed Tokcan, Turkish citizen of Chechen origin who, on 16 January 1996, at the Turkish Black Sea port of Trebzon, hijacked a ferry with more than 200 hostages on board, which he freed unharmed after four days. He was imprisoned and, late in 2000, released under an amnesty law.
2001  Francisco Umbral recibe, de manos de los Reyes, el 25º Premio Miguel de Cervantes, máximo galardón de las letras españolas.
2000 Elian Gonzalez, 6, spends a secluded Easter with his father at Andrews Air Force Base outside Washington, a day after the terrified boy was removed at gunpoint from his Miami relatives' home in a pre-dawn raid by immigration agents. It is the first time in months that the little boy is not photographed over and over again. Attorney General Janet Reno does not know yet, that by antagorizing most Cuban-Americans with her heavy-handed handling of the custody dispute as an immigration matter, instead of leaving it to a family court, she has insured that George Bush Jr. could successfully manipulate the Florida vote and become the next US President.
2000: 21 tourists and workers are kidnapped from a Malaysian diving resort by Abu Sayyaf rebels.
1998 IBM presents overpriced kiddy computer.       ^top^
      In a joint venture with Rubbermaid's Little Tikes toy division, IBM demonstrated a computer for children ages three to seven. The red, yellow, and purple unit, called Young Explorer, sported a keyboard, monitor, and purple bench seat built into a desk unit. The computer boasted a Pentium processor, internal CD-ROM drive, sixteen megabytes of memory, and a two-gigabyte hard drive. The Young Explorer, priced at $2399, was aimed at preschools rather than parents. Industry observers pointed out that the same computer minus the splashy colors and kid-proofing features would cost from $1000 to $1500. Newspapers reported that IBM and Little Tykes decided to work together at the behest of IBM chairman Lou Gerstner, who had participated in several CEO forums with Rubbermaid's chairman.
1997 More Internet domain names.      ^top^
      In a memo released on 23 April 1997, the US National Science Foundation announces that it will not renew its agreement with Network Solutions to assign Internet domain names. The agreement is scheduled to expire in March 1998. The memo also proposed the addition of seven new top-level domain names (.store, .info, .nom, .firm, .web, .arts, and .rec).
1997  El Rey de España entrega al poeta José García Nieto el premio Cervantes de las Letras Españolas.
1996 A Bronx civil-court jury orders Bernhard Goetz to pay $43 million to Darrell Cabey, one of four young Blacks he'd shot in a NY subway car on 22 December 1984.
1996 Biondi starts work at MCA.       ^top^
      After protracted haggling and high-powered corporate squabbling, Frank Biondi begins work at Seagram Co. Ltd.'s MCA. Seagram honcho Edgar Bronfman Jr. had been aggressively pursuing Biondi to run MCA; however, his efforts had been rebuffed by Viacom Chairman Sumner Redstone. Redstone, who had tacitly anointed Biondi as his successor, had hoped to wheedle "business concessions" from Seagram in return for relinquishing his prized employee. Business-related wrangling between MCA and Viacom, both big-rollers in the cable industry who had formed partnerships in a number of ventures, including the USA Network, further complicated these negotiations. But, in a move that took most observers, including Bronfman, by surprise, Redstone suddenly decided to "free" Biondi from his contract with Viacom. Though he was ostensibly clearing the path for his heir to take the reigns at MCA, Redstone cited Biondi's passive business approach as a prime motivation for the termination of his contract.
1993  Los brasileños se manifiestan, en referéndum, partidarios del régimen republicano y presidencialista, en lugar de monárquico (???) y parlamentario.
1992  El escritor Francisco Ayala recibe de manos de los reyes de España el premio Cervantes.
1992 McDonald's opens its first fast-food restaurant in the Chinese capital of Beijing.
1990  Namibia es admitida oficialmente como miembro de la ONU
1989 Students in Beijing announce class boycotts
1987 Chrysler to buy Lamborghini.      ^top^
      The Chrysler Corporation announced its pending purchase of Lamborghini on this day in 1987. Lamborghini had been through a tumultuous series of financial difficulties since its founder Ferrucio Lamborghini sold out of the company in 1974. The company had been owned by a group of Swiss businessmen who kept the Lamborghini name. Riding the sales of the Countache, the company's popular but impractical 1971 release, they stayed above water until 1978, when they were forced into bankruptcy. Lamborghini was purchased by the Mimran family, who owned the company until the mid-1980s. In the early '80s, Lamborghini produced two new Countaches, the LP500 and the Quattrovalvole. Both cars enjoyed great success. The company's financial status rebounded, and its comeback sparked the attention of the Chrysler Corporation. Chrysler bought the company in 1987 and in 1988 it released the final Lamborghini Countache, which it called the 25th Anniversary in recognition of the company's founding in 1963. The 25th Anniversary Countache was the most popular ever. It reached a top speed of 184 mph and traveled from zero to 60 in five seconds. No one imagined Lamborghini would ever build a better car. In 1990, Chrysler built the Lamborghini Diablo, arguably the crowning achievement in the company's quest to build the ultimate sports car. The Diablo was sleeker than the Countache, and employed the traditional V-12 engine. It was the first four-wheel-drive road car to break 200 mph with its top speed of 204 mph. It made zero to 60 in four seconds. Despite being owned by Chrysler, Lamborghini lived up to its founder's ideals.
1985  El escritor argentino Ernesto Sábato gana el premio Cervantes de literatura.
1984  El poeta Rafael Alberti recibe el premio Cervantes.
1977  Más de cien mil personas se manifiestan en Barcelona para reclamar el Estatuto de Autonomía.
1975 President Ford says that Vietnam War is finished for US.       ^top^
      At a speech at Tulane University, President Gerald Ford says the Vietnam War is finished as far as the US are concerned. "Today, Americans can regain the sense of pride that existed before Vietnam. But it cannot be achieved by re-fighting a war." This was devastating news to the South Vietnamese, who were desperately pleading for US support as the North Vietnamese surrounded Saigon for the final assault on the capital city. The North Vietnamese had launched a major offensive in March to capture the provincial capital of Ban Me Thuot (Darlac province) in the Central Highlands. The South Vietnamese defenders there fought very poorly and were quickly overwhelmed by the North Vietnamese attackers.
      Despite previous promises by both Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford to provide support, the United States did nothing. In an attempt to reposition his forces for a better defense, South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu ordered his forces in the Highlands to withdraw to more defensible positions to the south. What started out as a reasonably orderly withdrawal soon degenerated into a panic that spread throughout the South Vietnamese armed forces. The South Vietnamese abandoned Pleiku and Kontum in the Highlands with very little fighting and the North Vietnamese pressed the attack from the west and north. In quick succession, Quang Tri, Hue, and Da Nang in the north fell to the communist onslaught. The North Vietnamese continued to attack south along the coast, defeating the South Vietnamese forces at each encounter.
      As the North Vietnamese forces closed on the approaches to Saigon, the politburo in Hanoi issued an order to Gen. Van Tien Dung to launch the "Ho Chi Minh Campaign," the final assault on Saigon itself. Dung ordered his forces into position for the final battle. The South Vietnamese 18th Division made a valiant final stand at Xuan Loc, 40 miles northeast of Saigon, in which the South Vietnamese soldiers destroyed three of Dung's divisions. However, the South Vietnamese finally succumbed to the superior North Vietnamese numbers. With the fall of Xuan Loc on 21 April and Ford's statement at Tulane, it was apparent that the North Vietnamese would be victorious. President Thieu resigned and transferred authority to Vice President Tran Van Huong before fleeing Saigon on 25 April. By 27 April, the North Vietnamese had completely encircled Saigon and began to maneuver for their final assault. By the morning of 30 April, it was all over. When the North Vietnamese tanks crashed through the gates of the Presidential Palace in Saigon, the South Vietnamese surrendered and the Vietnam War was officially over.
1973  La guerrilla comunista de los Khmers Rouges pone sitio a Pnon Penh, capital de Camboya.
1971 Vietnam veterans protest the war.       ^top^
     On the steps of the US Capitol in Washington DC, nearly a hundred Vietnam veterans ceremoniously return their medals and military decorations.
      The next day, major demonstrations against the Vietnam War are held across the nation's capital.
      In 1961, US President John F. Kennedy sent the first US military personnel to bolster the ineffectual autocratic regime of South Vietnam against the Communist North. Three years later, with the South Vietnamese government crumbling, President Lyndon B. Johnson ordered limited bombing raids on North Vietnam and Congress authorized the use of US troops. By 1965, North Vietnamese offensives left President Johnson with two choices: escalate US involvement or withdraw. Johnson ordered the former, and troop levels soon jumped to over 300'000 as US air forces commenced the largest bombing campaign in history.
      Over the next few years, the extended length of the war, the high number of US casualties, and the exposure of US involvement in war crimes such as the massacre at My Lai helped to turn many in the United States against the Vietnam War, and created a perilous national division. Some Vietnam veterans cooperated with antiwar protestors in their condemnation of the war, while thousands of military draftees burned their draft notices and hundreds of military personnel deserted their ranks.
      In the early 1970s, President Richard M. Nixon began withdrawing US troops but increased bombing across Indochina. In 1973, a peace agreement was reached and the last US troops left Vietnam. Two years later, the last Americans were evacuated from Saigon as Communist forces launched their final triumphant offensive into South Vietnam. It was the longest and most unpopular war in US history, and cost fifty-eight-thousand US lives.
1969 Sirhan Sirhan is sentenced to death for assassinating Bobby Kennedy. The sentence would later be reduced to life imprisonment.
1969  Manifestantes palestinos y fuerzas del orden se enfrentan en Líbano.
1968 In Dallas, the 10.3 million-member Methodist and the 750 thousand-member Evangelical United Brethren churches joined together to form the United Methodist Church. The merger made this the second largest Protestant denomination in the United States (after the Southern Baptists).
1968  Se pone en circulación en el Reino Unido la moneda decimal.
1965  Se pone en órbita el primer satélite soviético de telecomunicaciones, el Molniya 1.
1965  Estados Unidos prepara envíos de refuerzo a las tropas estacionadas en Vietnam del Sur.
1962 Ranger 4, first US satellite to reach Moon launched from Cape Canaveral
1953 Beginning of Army-McCarthy hearings,       ^top^
     They are a US Senate investigation into allegations by Senator Joseph McCarthy that Secretary of the Army Robert P. Stevens had hampered his investigative committee's attempts to uncover Communists in the military, begin on Capitol Hill.
      However, under encouragement from President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Stevens countercharged that McCarthy and his chief counsel, Ray Cohn, had tried to get preferential treatment in the US Army for a former McCarthy aide. The televised hearings, which stretched over two months, exposed McCarthy to the American public as a reckless and excessive tyrant who never produced proper documentation for a single one of his charges.
      The political movement known as McCarthyism had begun on 09 February 1950, when Joseph Raymond McCarthy, a relatively obscure Republican senator from Wisconsin, announced during a speech in Wheeling, West Virginia, that he had in his hand a list of 205 Communists who had infiltrated the US State Department. The unsubstantiated declaration, which was little more than a publicity stunt, suddenly thrust Senator McCarthy into the national spotlight. Asked to reveal the names on the list, the opportunistic senator named officials he deemed guilty by association, such as Owen Lattimore, an expert on Chinese culture and affairs who had advised the State Department and President Franklin D. Roosevelt. McCarthy described Lattimore as the "top Russian spy" in America.
      These and other equally shocking accusations prompted the Senate to form a special committee headed by Senator Millard Tydings of Maryland to investigate the matter. The committee found little to substantiate McCarthy's charges, but McCarthy nevertheless touched a nerve in the American public and over the next two years made increasingly sensational charges, even attacking President Harry S. Truman's respected former secretary of state, George C. Marshall.
      In 1953, a newly Republican Congress appointed McCarthy chairman of the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of Governmental Operations, and McCarthyism reached a feverish pitch. In widely publicized hearings, McCarthy bullied defendants under cross-examination with unlawful and damaging accusations, destroying the reputations of hundreds of innocent citizens and officials.
      In the early months of 1954, McCarthy, who had already lost the support of much of his party, finally overreached himself when he took on the US Army. Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower pushed for the investigation of McCarthy's conduct, and the subsequent televised hearings finally exposed McCarthy. In December, the Senate voted to censure him. By the time of his death from alcoholism in 1957, the influence of Senator Joseph McCarthy in Congress was negligible.
1953  Comienza una gran ofensiva del Vietminh en Laos.
1951  La huelga general en Vizcaya y Guipúzcoa concluye con 2000 detenidos.
1951 AP establishes remote typesetting system.       ^top^
      The Associated Press opened its first teletypesetter circuit, which allowed the news agency to transmit stories for typesetting to papers around the country. The first circuit was established in Charlotte, North Carolina. Messages were sent by perforated paper tape fed into a transmitter, and receiving stations picked up the signal and re-perforated paper tape in the same pattern. The new tape was fed into a monitor printer, which typeset the story. The first message to be transmitted was "Greetings. This is the opening of the first teletypesetter circuit." The AP had been at the cutting edge of technology since it was founded in 1848 as a way for newspapers to pool the expense of using the telegraph to transmit news
1950 Chiang evacuates Hainan, leaving mainland China to Mao and the Communists.
1947  Higinio Moriñigo acepta la mediación brasileña en la guerra civil paraguaya.
1945 The Soviet Army fights its way into Berlin.
1945  Hermann Wilhelm Goering es destituído por formular una pregunta sobre la sucesión de Adolf Hitler.
1942  Finaliza el bombardeo aéreo británico, de cuatro días de duración, sobre la ciudad alemana de Rostock.
1942 Germans begin "Baedeker Raids" on England       ^top^
     In retaliation for the British raid on Lubeck, German bombers strike Exeter and later Bath, Norwick, York, and other "medieval-city centres." Almost 1000 English civilians are killed in the bombing attacks nicknamed "Baedeker Raids."
      On 28 March 28 of the same year, 234 British bombers struck the German port of Lubeck, an industrial town of only "moderate importance." The attack was ordered (according to Sir Arthur Harris, head of British Bomber Command) as more of a morale booster for British flyers than anything else, but the destruction wreaked on Lubeck was significant: Two thousand buildings were totaled, 312 German civilians were killed, and 15'000 Germans were left homeless.
      As an act of reprisal, the Germans attacked cathedral cities of great historical significance. The 15th-century Guildhall, in York, as an example, was destroyed. The Germans called their air attacks "Baedeker Raids," named for the German publishing company famous for guidebooks popular with tourists. The Luftwaffe vowed to bomb every building in Britain that the Baedeker guide had awarded "three stars."
1941  El Ejército griego capitula ante las fuerzas alemanas tras ofrecer encarnizada resistencia durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial.
1933  Los partidos gubernamentales en España obtienen mayoría de concejales sobre republicanos y conservadores.
1930  Se publica el dato de que las ciudades de Madrid y Barcelona sobrepasan el millón de habitantes, cuando en 1910 tenían unos 600.000.
1923  Se inaugura en Lausana (Suiza) la Conferencia por la Paz en Oriente, que reúne a representantes de Gran Bretaña, Grecia e Italia.
1923  Los ministros italianos del Partido Popular (católico) abandonan el Gobierno de Benito Mussolini.
1920 Turkish Grand National Assembly first meets, in Ankara. —  La Asamblea Nacional de Ankara proclama la destitución del sultán turco Mehmet VI y el nuevo Gobierno inicia la lucha contra el régimen anterior.
1920 El ex primer ministro francés Joseph-Marie-Auguste Caillaux [30 Mar 1863 – 22 Nov 1944] recibe una condena de tres años de cárcel por ayudar involuntariamente a Alemania. His three-year prison sentence was commuted, but he was deprived of his civil rights for 10 years.
1913  El piloto francés Letort completa un vuelo de París a Berlín (920 kms.), sin escala, en 7 horas y 45 minutos.
1906  Se aprueba la primera Constitución del pueblo ruso.
1903  El ministro de Hacienda británico, Charles Thomson Ritchie [19 Nov 1838 – 09 Jan 1838], hace pública la cifra del coste de la guerra de los bóers y la expedición a China que asciende a 217 millones de libras.
1891 Jews are expelled from Moscow Russia
1864 Engagement of Cane River Crossing, Louisiana (Red River Expedition)
1863 Siege of Suffolk, Virginia by Confederates continues
1862 Siege of Yorktown, Virginia continues
1861 Affair at San Antonio, Texas
1861 Arkansas troops seize Fort Smith.
1848  Los franceses votan por primera vez de acuerdo con el sufragio universal establecido en el país.
1521  Las fuerzas de Carlos I, rey de España (y V Emperador de Alemania), derrotan a las tropas de los comuneros en la batalla de Villalar.
1500  Una flota portuguesa, bajo el mando de Pedro Álvares Cabral, arriba a las costas de Brasil.
1497  Los Reyes Católicos dan autorización a Cristóbal Colón para fundar un mayorazgo en la isla de La Española. El almirante impone un sistema de prestaciones personales a los indios que les obliga a cultivar los campos y a buscar oro.
0033 According to Christian tradition, Jesus Christ, crucified three days earlier, rises from the dead — the very first Easter. (In the Gregorian calendar, Easter falls on 23 April in 1905, 1916, 2000, 2079)
^ Deaths which occurred on an April 23:
2003 Some 20 persons by 2-km landslide of Cocol mountain which buries 17 houses of hamlet Chichicaste, departemento de San Marcos, Guatemala. It is near the end of the 6-month dry season, so that rains did not cause the slide, but the mountain is deforested and eroded.
2003 Hadhrat Mirza Tahir Ahmed, grandson and fourth successor, or khalifatul-masih (caliph of the Messiah), of Hadhrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, Last of the Prophets, Messiah, Incarnation of Krishna, Reappearance of the prophet Muhammad.
     Hadhrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad was born in Qadian, India, on 18 December 1928. He studied at Government College, Lahore, and at the School of African and Oriental Studies at London University. In 1982 he was elected to succeed his father as khalifatul-masih.
     His grandfather Hadhrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad founded the Ahmadiyya Muslim Association in Qadian, India, in 1889. He rejected orthodox Muslim beliefs, and preached that he and not Muhammad was the last of the prophets, with the divinely inspired task of bringing God's teaching into harmony with the present-day world. He also said he was the Messiah whose advent was awaited by Muslims, Christians and Jews alike, as well as the incarnation of the Hindu god Krishna and a "reappearance" of the Prophet Muhammad. He also taught that Jesus feigned death on the cross and escaped to India where he died at the age of 120. He reinterpreted the Muslim concept of jihad, or holy war, saying the battle against unbelievers was to be fought by peaceful, not warlike, means.
     After Indian independence in 1947, the headquarters of the sect was moved to Rabwah in Pakistan. The Ahmadiyya sect is believed to have nearly 20 million members, concentrated mainly in the Indian subcontinent, West Africa, and Indonesia, though important communities also exist in the United States and Britain. Prominent Ahmadiyya believers include the late Sir Muhammad Zafrulla Khan, the first foreign minister of Pakistan, and Dr. Abdus Salam, who won the Nobel Prize for physics in 1979.
     After being elected caliph, Hadhrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad began a campaign to attract more converts to his faith. This disturbed Pakistan's orthodox Muslim clergy, who prevailed on the government of Gen. Zia ul-Haq to start persecuting the Ahmadiyya. Their mosques were desecrated and some followers beaten to death in a campaign of repression that many Ahmadiyya felt was really intended to distract Pakistanis from the country's domestic difficulties.
      This was not the first time the sect had found itself in trouble with the Pakistani authorities. In 1974 the government of Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto started a campaign against them that culminated in a constitutional amendment declaring the Ahmadis to be non-Muslims in the eyes of the law.
      In 1984 Hadhrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad fled to Britain in fear that the government planned to arrest him. Many of his followers also left the country, settling mainly in Britain, Germany and Canada. Hadhrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad moved into a southwest London mosque, from which he directed the worldwide affairs of the community. He had the sect build mosques, hospitals, and schools all over the world and, at the time of his death it was constructing one of Europe's largest mosques in Morden, Surrey. He also founded the Muslim Television Ahmadiyya, a 24-hour religious TV network, sent by satellite to large areas of the world.
2001 Muhamad Muhareb, 12, Palestinian, shot just above the left eye by Israeli soldiers guarding a settlement near the Khan Yunis cemetery, where Muhamad was attending the funeral of a Palestinian policeman who died of wounds from an IDF rocket attack the previous week. The funeral had a 21-gun salute, after which IDF soldiers fired at the mourners. 11 Palestinians were wounded, including one critically.
1999  María Àngels Anglada, escritora española.
1998  Konstantinos Karamanlis, born on 08 March 1907 (23 Feb Julian), Greek statesman who was prime minister from 1955 to 1963 and again from 1974 to 1980. He thenserved as president from 1980 to 1985 and from 1990 to 1995. Karamanlis gave Greece competent government and political stability while his conservative economic policies stimulated economicgrowth. In 1974–75 he successfully restored democracy and constitutional government in Greece after the rule of a military junta there had collapsed.
^ 1998 James Earl Ray, 70.
     He was the alleged assassin of Black civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr., dies at a Nashville prison hospital. Even on his deathbed, Ray still claimed that he had been coerced into making his 1969 guilty plea, and maintained that he was a scapegoat in a larger conspiracy.
      In the last few years of his life, inconsistencies in the case against him and in the official analysis of the King assassination led some to support Ray's theory. The family of Martin Luther King met with Ray and joined him in unsuccessfully petitioning the government to grant him a jury trial. After his death was announced, Coretta Scott King, the widow of the assassinated civil rights leader, called his passing "a great tragedy."
      On 04 April 1968, in Memphis, Tennessee, King was fatally wounded by a sniper's bullet while standing on the balcony outside his second-story room at the Motel Lorraine. Three months later, James Earl Ray, a Memphis resident with a history of petty crime, was arrested in London, England, charged with the King assassination, and extradited to the United States. US authorities reported that Ray's fingerprints matched those found on a rifle at the scene of the crime and that some of Ray's belongings had also been found along with the murder weapon. In addition, the authorities produced an eyewitness, Charles Stephens, who claimed that he had seen Ray leaving the boarding house from where the shot was allegedly fired. After his extradition, Ray maintained his innocence, arguing that he had not killed King but had been set up. He claimed that shortly before the assassination he had been approached by a mysterious man named "Raoul" who recruited him into a smuggling enterprise.
      After King's assassination, whether on a smuggling mission or on a flight from the assassination investigators, Ray made his way to London via Atlanta, Canada, and Portugal. Back in the United States, Ray spent eight months in prison while investigators apparently gathered more conclusive evidence against him. His first and second attorney both pressured him to enter a guilty plea, and finally on 10 March 1969, Ray agreed, fearing that an innocent plea under his current counsel would result in his execution. The same day, he was sentenced to ninety-nine years in prison. Just three days later, he hired a new attorney and filed a motion to vacate his plea and obtain a trial. The motion was denied, as were his dozens of other requests for a jury trial over the last twenty-nine years of his life.
Cesar Chavez^ 1993 Cesar Estrada Chavez, US organizer of farm workers, born on 31 March 1927. [photo >]
     Chavez was the grandson of Mexican immigrants, son of migrant farm workers, migrant worker himself, then, inspired by Gandhi and Saul Alinsky, he became an organizer and leader of migrant farm workers in the US (United Farm Workers). After a 5-year boycott of table grapes, Chavez got growers to sign a contract on 30 June 1970. He had less success later, as growers signed sweetheart contracts with the corrupt Teamsters union.
     Chavez was born near Yuma, Arizona, the second of five children of Juana and Librado Chavez. His father's parents migrated from Mexico in 1880. His early years were spent on the family's 160-acre farm. But in the seventh year of the Depression, when he was 10, the family fell behind on mortgage payments and lost its farm. They made their living in California, picking carrots, cotton, and other crops in arid valleys, following the sun in search of the next harvest and the next migrants' camp. Chavez never graduated from high school, and once counted 65 elementary schools he had attended "for a day, a week or a few months."
      Beginning with the Industrial Workers of the World at the turn of the century, unions tried for decades to organize immigrant unskilled workers, first Chinese, then Japanese, and later Filipinos and Mexican-Americans, on whom California growers depended. But the field hands, their organizing drives vulnerable to the competition of other poor migrants seeking work, found themselves fighting not only powerful growers, but also the police and government officials.
      After two years in the US Navy during World War II, Chavez returned to migrant farm work in Arizona and California. His initial training as an organizer was provided by the Community Services Organization (CSO) in California, a creation of Saul Alinsky's Industrial Areas Foundation. In 1958 Chavez became general director of the CSO, but he resigned in 1962 to found the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA). In September 1965 he began leading what became a five-year strike by California grape pickers and a nationwide boycott of California grapes that attracted liberal support throughout the US. Subsequent battles with lettuce growers, table-grape growers, and other agribusinesses generally ended with the signing of bargaining agreements. In 1966 the NFWA merged with an American Federation of Labor–Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) group to form the United Farm Workers Organizing Committee.
     In 1965 the wages of farm workers in California averaged less than $1.50 an hour. They had no fringe benefits, no seniority rights, and no standing to challenge abuses by employers or exploitative labor contractors. Unionization brought sharp pay increases. For the first time, migrant workers were eligible for medical insurance, employer-paid pensions, unemployment insurance and other benefits, and they had a mechanism to challenge employer abuses. And the union's impact extended far beyond its membership. The threat of unionization by Chavez raised agricultural wages throughout California.
      In 1971 this organization became the United Farm Workers of America (UFW). By the late 1960s the Teamsters Union had recognized an opportunity in Chavez's success. It entered the fields as a rival organizer, signing up farm workers for its own union. In 1972 Chavez sought assistance from the AFL-CIO, which offered help against the inroads being made by the Teamsters. After much conflict—both in the fields and in the courts—the UFW signed a peace pact with the Teamsters in 1977, giving the UFW the sole right to organize farm workers and field-workers.
     Largely because of Chavez, the California Legislature in 1975 passed the nation's first collective bargaining act outside Hawaii for farm workers, who are largely excluded from Federal labor law coverage. But Chavez failed to realize his dream of forging a nationwide organization. In most of the US, farm workers continue to toil for low wages, without job security, vulnerable to exploitation. Even in California he found it difficult to translate the early triumphs of what he called La Causa into a viable labor organization. The union that Mr. Chavez founded, the United Farm Workers of America, became troubled by dissent and other problems and was unable to organize more than 20% of California's 200'000 farm workers. The tactics that he used so effectively in the 1960's and early 70's -- strikes and boycotts, fasting and the long march -- eventually lost their appeal. And, as the United Farm Workers were no longer seen as a social cause but as a conventional labor union, he was disappointed by the disaffection of politicians and other supporters.

1988  Al menos 54 personas
mueren y 125 resultan heridas tras la explosión de una camioneta cargada de explosivos en un mercado de Trípoli (Líbano).
1986  Más de 20 suicidios japoneses en una sucesión en cadena provocada por el suicidio en Tokio (08 Apr) de la cantante pop Yukito Okada, de 18 años.
1985 Sam Ervin (Sen-D-NC)
1981  Josep Pla i Casadevall, escritor español.
1978  Juan de Contreras y López de Ayala, marqués de Lozoya (una sola persona, con demasiados apellidos), erudito e historiador español.
1967 Vladimir Komarov becomes first space in-flight casualty as Soyuz 1 explodes at launch.
1967  Edgar Neville, escritor y humorista español.
1940:: 198 persons in fire at the Rhythm Night Club in Natchez, Mississippi.
1936  Eugenio Noel, periodista y novelista español.
1935:: 510 muertos por un terremoto en Mazanderán (Irán).
1934 H. Carter Baum, FBI Special Agent, shot by George "Baby Face" Nelson (real name Lester Gillis) during an FBI raid in northern Wisconsin on John Dillinger's gang, with which Baby Face was at the time. Baby Face would die on 27 November 1934 after a gun battle in which he killed two more FBI agents.
1922  Numerosas víctimas de la erupción del volcán de Colima en México, la que causa también graves daños materiales.
San Francisco after quake and fire
[Above: Ruins of San Francisco, view from the Mechanics' Pavilion (left end of panorama)]
^ 1906 The last victims of the San Francisco earthquake.
      On 18 April at 05:13, an 8.3 magnitude earthquake struck San Francisco, California, collapsing the city's unreinforced brick buildings and closely spaced wooden Victorian dwellings. Shock waves from the quake were felt from Coos Bay, Oregon, to Los Angeles, and as far east as central Nevada, affecting a total area of about 600'000 square km, approximately half of which was in the Pacific Ocean.
      Collapsed buildings, broken chimneys, and a shortage of water due to broken mains led to several large fires that soon coalesced into a deadly city-wide blaze that burned for days. Hundreds, perhaps thousands, of trapped persons died when South-of-Market tenements collapsed as the ground liquefied beneath them. Most of those buildings immediately caught fire, and trapped victims could not be rescued.
      At 07:00, US Army troops from Fort Mason reported to the Hall of Justice, and San Francisco mayor E. E. Schmitz called for the enforcement of a dusk-to-dawn curfew and authorized the soldiers to shoot-to-kill anyone found looting. Meanwhile, in the face of significant aftershocks, firefighters and additional US troops fought desperately to control the spreading blaze, often dynamiting whole city blocks to create firewalls.
      On 20 April, twenty thousand refugees trapped by the massive fire were evacuated from the foot of Van Ness Avenue onto the USS Chicago, in one of history's largest evacuations by sea to that date. By 23 April, most fires were extinguished and authorities commenced the task of rebuilding the devastated metropolis. It was estimated that over three thousand people died as a result of the Great San Francisco Earthquake and the devastating fires that it inflicted upon the city, which was 75% destroyed..
     The first of two vicious tremors shook San Francisco at 05:13, and a second followed not long after. The quake was powerful enough to be recorded in Cape Town, South Africa, and its effect on San Francisco was cataclysmic. Thousands of structures collapsed as a result of the quake itself. However, the greatest devastation resulted from the fires that followed the quake. The initial tremors destroyed the city's water mains, leaving overwhelmed firefighters with no means of combating the growing inferno. The blaze burned for four days and engulfed the vast majority of the city. By the time a heavy rainfall tamed the massive fire, the once proud city of San Francisco was in shambles. More than 28'000 buildings burned to the ground and the city suffered more than $500 million in damages. The human toll was equally disastrous: authorities estimated that the quake and fires killed 700 people, and left a quarter of a million people homeless. The famous writer and San Francisco resident Jack London noted, "Surrender was complete."
      Despite the utter devastation, San Francisco quickly recovered from the great earthquake of 1906. During the next four years, the city arose from its ashes. Ironically, the destruction actually allowed city planners to create a new and better San Francisco. A classic western boomtown, San Francisco had grown in a haphazard manner since the Gold Rush of 1849. Working from a nearly clean slate, San Franciscans could rebuild the city with a more logical and elegant structure. The destruction of the urban center at San Francisco also encouraged the growth of new towns around the bay, making room for a new population boom arriving from the US and abroad. Within a decade, San Francisco had resumed its status as the crown jewel of the American West.
     The fire caused by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake destroyed the production facilities of the fledgling Sunset Automobile Company in San Francisco. Production of the Sunset never resumed and the firm was legally dissolved in 1909. Throughout the history of American automobile production no company has ever succeeded on the West Coast.
[Below: Ruins of San Francisco, view from the Mechanics' Pavilion (right end of panorama)]
San Francisco after quake and fire
1880 Radeaa Saleh (or Sarief Bastaman), Indonesian artist born in 1814.
1876 Otto Grashof, German artist born in 1812.
1867  Ramón María Narváez y Campos, militar y político español, que fue presidente del Consejo de Ministros.
1798  María Vicente de Mendieta y Santiago San Juan, su amante, asesinos del esposo de ella, perecen en el patíbulo, instalado en la Plaza Mayor de Madrid.
1864 Claude-Marie Dubufe, French artist born in 1790.
1794 (4 floréal an II) Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:       ^top^
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
HORION Marguerite, femme Farisol, âgée de 50 ans, née à Baugon (Orne), lingère, condamnée à mort, le 4 floréal an 2, comme conspiratrice.
RECLESNE François Abraham, ex noble, âgé de 61 ans, natif de L’Yonne (Allier), domicilié à Gannat, même département, comme contre-révolutionnaire, ayant dit avec emportement, qu’on ne pourrait pas ôter à son fils sa qualité de noble et de Malthais, qu'il ne pouvait pas lui-même y renoncer et s’en dépouiller, ajoutant avec mépris “malgré vous et votre République, mon fils sera noble et Malthais”.
     ... domiciliés à Paris:
COUTELET Marie Louise, veuve Neuve Eglise, âgée de 36 ans, native de Rheims (Marne), employée dans les filatures nationales, aux Jacobins, .comme conspiratrice et ne devant sa place qu'aux intrigues de Bally et Lafayette (elle s'est montrée la digne apôtre de ses protecteurs, et partageait leurs sentiments contre-révolutionnaire).
          ... comme contre-révolutionnaires:
BORIOUT Marguerite, femme Farizol, ouvrière.
CALMER L. Benjamin, âgé de 44 ans, natif de la Haye, en Hollande, courtier de change.
CHEMIN Jean, âgé de 50 ans, natif de Loigny (Orne), ancien marchand.
GALLAY François, frotteur domestique d'un ex noble, âgé de 50 ans, né à Martigny dans la Valais, en Suisse.
ROUX Louis, âgé de 50 ans, natif de Bourgoin (Allier), tabletier, ayant dit que l’on avait perdu 30'000 hommes à l’armée de Moselle, 10'000 auprès de Valenciennes; que la Vendée, se relevait de plus en plus, que peu d’homme avait accepté la constitution, que si l’on eût demandé à tous leurs sentiments, l’on ne serait pas longtemps sans voir un roi, et que si on lui demandait le sien il donnerait un mode pour en élire un.
A Arras:
BORDEL Alexandre François Joseph, âgé de 64 ans, né à Béthune, commis au district de Béthune.
COUTANT François, guillotiné.
LAVIEVILLE Louis Auguste, âgé de 71 ans, né à Steenvoorde (Nord) en 1723.
LAVIEVILLE Isabelle Claire Eugénie, âgée de 22 ans, épouse de Béthune Eugène.
LEGRAND Roch Joseph, âgé de 70 ans, né à Hesdin, demeurant à Béthune, guillotiné.
MALBRANCHE Antoinette Marie Pauline, âgée de 31 ans, née à Clichy la Garenne (Seine), épouse de Soyer N., guillotinée.
VAUGUENEAU Joseph Henri, âgé de 28 ans, demeurant à Paris, né à Remiremont (Moselle), commis.

ALPAIX Alexandre, sous-lieutenant au 1er bataillon de la 7e demi-brigade d'infanterie, domicilié à Paris, comme traître à la patrie, par le tribunal militaire de l'armée du Nord.
GIRET Julien, domestique, domicilié à Avranches (Manche), par la commission militaire séante à Grandville, comme agent d'émigrés.
LAROUVIERE Jean Antoine Jacques, natif de Codelet (Gard), rentier, domicilié à Lyon, par la commission révolutionnaire de Lyon, comme fédéraliste.
MANFREDINI François, imprimeur, domicilié à Nice (Alpes-Maritimes), comme contre-révolutionnaire, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
REY Marin, ex vicaire à Gressin, domicilié à Cesarieux (Ain), par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme réfractaire à la loi.
1793 BIGUS Charles, (dit Chery) ex noble, domicilié à Crevaut, canton de la Châtre (Indre), condamné à mort comme contre-révolutionnaire, par le tribunal criminel du département de l'Indre.
1793 QUAIREAU François, domicilié à St Georges de Pointindoux (Vendée), condamné à mort par la commission militaire séante aux Sables, comme brigand de la Vendée.
1793 Henri Horace Roland de la Porte, French artist born in 1724.
1774 Christian Wilhelm Ernst Dietrich, German painter born on 30 October 1712. — MORE ON DIETRICH AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1681 Justus (Josse) Susterman (or Soetermans), Flemish artist born on 28 September 1597.
Marchands de Poissons
[ci-dessus: Les marchands de poissons (détail), par Snyders]
1671 Fritz Karl Watel “François Vatel”, 36 ans, suicidé.       ^top^
      Vatel, d'origine suisse, était maitre d'hotel et non le célèbre grand maitre culinaire du siècle de Louis XIV comme a voulu nous le faire croire une légende tenace de trois siècles. D'abord intendant auprès de Fouquet, il passe ensuite au service de la maison de Chantilly où il est chargé de l'organisation, des achats, du ravitaillement et de tout ce qui concernait "la bouche" au chateau. Il n'y a en effet aucune preuve authentique que Vatel fut cuisinier.
      Dans "l'Etat de la Maison du Roi et des Maisons des Princes du sang" aucune trace de l'existence de Vatel n'a été trouvée. Rien ne nous est venu de lui, pourtant à toutes les époques presque tous les grands cuisiniers ont plus ou moins précisement défini par écrit leur oeuvre professionnelle. Le seul document authentique où soit écrit son nom est une lettre adressée le 24 avril 1671 par Mme de Sévigné à Mme de Grignan où elle dit : "Mais voici ce que j'apprends en entrant ici, dont je ne puis me remettre, et qui fait que je ne sais plus ce que je vous mande : c'est qu'enfin Vatel, le grand Vatel, maitre d'hotel de Mr Fouquet, qui l'était présentement de Mr le Prince, s'est poignardé".
      Dans cette lettre, Mme de Sévigné nous dit bien, en toutes lettres, "maitre d'hotel" et à cette époque, comme aujourd'hui encore, il y avait une certaine délimitation entre le chef du service de la table et l'officier de bouche, grand maitre des cuisines. Pourtant, en publiant cette lettre si précise de Mme de Sévigné, Louis Nicolardot, le consciencieux auteur de "l'Histoire de la Table", commet l'erreur de citer Vatel comme cuisinier. Il est pourtant certain que si Vatel eut été cuisinier, Carême n'eut pas manqué de commenter sa fin comme il le fit pour son maitre Laguipière, le cuisinier de Murat, mort à Vilna, au cours de la grande retraite de Russie. De plus, comme l'a dit Philéas Gilbert, cuisinier et collaborateur de P.Montagné : "En admettant que l'on nous fournisse un jour la preuve authentique que Vatel a bien exercé la cuisine, son suicide sensationnel n'en démontrerai pas moins qu'il n'avait pas le caractère "cuisinier" parce qu'il ne sut pas se débrouiller dans une passe critique , qu'il ne se montra pas à la hauteur des circonstances".
      L'histoire nous rapporte en effet qu'en avril 1671 le Prince de Condé confia à Vatel la tache d'organiser une fête en l'honneur de Louis XIV avec trois mille invités. La réception commença un jeudi soir et fut marquée par quelques incidents. Lors du souper le "roti" manqua à plusieurs tables à cause de dineurs imprévus. Le lendemain, à l'aube, Vatel s'informa de l'arrivée de la marée pour la table du jour et apprit que seuls deux paniers de poissons étaient là. Après avoir déclaré : "je ne survivrai pas à cet affront ci" il gagne sa chambre, met son épée contre la porte et appuie à la place du coeur. Quelques minutes plus tard les paniers de poissons arrivent, on cherche partout l'officier de bouche pour effectuer la distribution et on le trouve mort ensanglanté.
     Dans la nuit du 23 au 24 avril 1671, François Vatel (45 ans) meurt dans des conditions rendues célèbres par Madame de Sévigné. Ce fils de laboureur s'est illustré comme maître d'hôtel à Vaux-le-Vicomte, auprès du ministre Nicolas Fouquet. Après la disgrâce de son mécène, il entre au service du fameux prince de Condé comme «contrôleur général de la Bouche de Monsieur le Prince». Voilà que le roi Louis XIV informe le prince de sa venue dans son château de Chantilly, au nord de Paris. Vatel s'apprête à nourrir pendant trois jours, du jeudi au samedi, 600 courtisans et un total de plusieurs milliers de personnes, domestiques compris. Le souper du jeudi est suivi d'un spectacle de deux heures et d'un feu d'artifice à peine terni par les nuages. Le roi est ravi mais Vatel se désole de ce que quelques rôtis ont manqué à certaines tables. Toute la nuit, il court deça delà, à l'affût du moindre désordre. Au petit matin, Vatel guette la «marée» qui doit amener les poissons et les coquillages de Boulogne. Désespéré de ne rien voir venir, il gagne sa chambre et se transperce à trois reprises avec son épée. La marée arrive sur ces entrefaites et l'on fait la macabre découverte du maître d'hôtel tandis qu'on le cherche pour en prendre possession. Le Roi-Soleil, informé par Monsieur le Prince, se montrera affligé d'un tel sens de l'honneur mais la fête n'en continuera pas moins jusqu'à son terme. Référence obligée en matière de grande cuisine, Vatel n'a pourtant aucune recette à son actif. Il est devenu une légende en raison de son suicide et de la publicité qu'en a faite la marquise de Sévigné.
1625 Juan de las Roelas, Spanish Catholic priest and painter born in 1559. — more with links to images.
^ 1616 Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, near Madrid, Spanish novelist best known for El ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha . In English translation: Don Quixote, Don Quixote In italiano: Don Chisciotte
     Cervantes led an adventurous life and achieved much popular success, but he nevertheless struggled financially throughout his life. He was born on 29 September 1547. Little is know about his childhood, except that he was a favorite student of Madrid humanist Juan Lopez, and that his father was an apothecary. In 1569, Cervantes was living in Rome and working for a future cardinal. Shortly thereafter, he enlisted in the Spanish fleet to fight against the Turks. At the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, he took three bullets and suffered permanent damage to his left hand. Later, he was stationed at Palermo and Naples. On the way home to Madrid in 1575, he and his brother Roderigo were captured by Barbary pirates and held captive in Algiers. Cervantes was ransomed after five years of captivity and returned to Madrid, where he began writing.
      Although his records indicate he wrote 20 to 30 plays, only two survive. In 1585, he published a romance. During this time, he married a woman 18 years younger than he was and had an illegitimate daughter, whom he raised in his household. He worked as a tax collector and as a requisitioner of supplies for the navy, but was jailed for irregularities in his accounting. Some historians believe he formulated the idea for Don Quixote while in jail. In 1604, he received the license to publish Don Quixote. Although the book began as a satire of chivalric epics, it was far more complex than a simple satire. The book blended traditional genres to create a sad portrait of a penniless man striving to live by the ideals of the past. The book was a huge success and brought Cervantes literary respect and position, but did not generate much money. He wrote dramas and short stories until a phony sequel, penned by another writer, prompted him to write Don Quixote, Part II in 1615. He died the following year.
     Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, l'auteur de Don Quijote, nait à Alcala de Henares, en Castille, dans la famille d'un chirurgien.
 Cervantes     En muchas ocasiones, la realidad supera a la ficción. Y eso mismo es lo que sucedió con la vida y la obra de Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. Su biografía, sin duda, puede ser considerada como una verdadera novela de aventuras, muy al estilo de la época que le tocó vivir. Su vida, más prolija en experiencias negativas que en vivencias positivas, fue curiosamente paralela a la de su más famosa creación: el ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha.
      Cervantes nació en Alcalá de Henares en 1547, durante el reinado del emperador Carlos I de España y V de Alemania. Su padre, infinitamente alejado de los lujos imperiales, era un modestísimo cirujano que hubo de cambiar frecuentemente de lugar de residencia para poder vivir de su entonces muy desprestigiada profesión. Por eso, el joven Miguel estudió en diferentes escuelas, en Córdoba, en Sevilla, y en Madrid, donde estuvo bajo la tutela del prestigioso maestro López de Hoyos.
      En 1569 marchó a Italia, donde estuvo al servicio del cardenal Acquaviva. Dos años más tarde, en 1571, participó en la batalla de Lepanto contra los turcos. Durante el enfrentamiento, recibió tres tiros, dos en el pecho y uno en el brazo izquierdo. Como consecuencia de estas heridas, perdió el uso de la mano izquierda. debido a lo cual comenzó a ser conocido como «El Manco de Lepanto».
      Después de una breve convalecencia, continuó en el ejército. En 1575, tras ser licenciado e iniciar por mar el camino de vuelta a España desde Nápoles, fue apresado por el corsario argelino Armaute Mamí. Acto seguido, fue trasladado a Argel, donde permaneció cautivo durante cinco largos años.
      Las experiencias acumuladas durante la temporada de secuestro en Argel marcaron profundamente la personalidad del autor, que en repetidas ocasiones trató la cuestión del cautiverio en sus obras.
      Una vez rescatado por los frailes trinitarios, Cervantes volvió a su patria y se instaló en la capital de la monarquía hispana, Madrid. Allí contrajo matrimonio con Catalina Palacios Salazar, y escribió algunas comedias teatrales.
      Posteriormente, se trasladó a Sevilla, donde, además de ejercer como cobrador de impuestos, se ocupó de incautar trigo para la provisión y el abastecimiento de la Gran Armada, la mal llamada Armada Invencible. En la ciudad del Guadalquivir topó con nuevas desgracias. A causa de ciertas irregularidades en la contabilidad de su comisión, fue acusado de fraude y acabó en prisión. Allí comenzó la redacción del Quijote.
    Liberado, en 1604 marchó a Valladolid --población en la que residía la corte filipina--, y fijó allí su residencia. Un año después, en 1605, apareció por fin publicada la primera parte del Quijote.
      En 1606, Cervantes se asentó definitivamente en Madrid, donde desarrolló una intensísima actividad literaria, publicando la mayor parte de sus obras.
      En 1615 fue editada la segunda y esperada parte del Quijote, y en 1617 aparecieron Los trabajos de Persiles y Segismunda, como novela póstuma ya que Cervantes murió en la referida villa de Madrid el 23 de abril de 1616.
Obras completas de Miguel de CERVANTES ONLINE:
Novela Teatro y Poesía
El ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha
La Galatea
Novelas Ejemplares
  • La Gitanilla
  • El amante liberal
  • Rinconete y Cortadillo
  • La española inglesa
  • Licenciado Vidriera
  • La fuerza de la la sangre
  • El celoso extremeño
  • La ilustre fregona
  • Novela de las Dos Doncellas
  • Novela de la Señora Cornelia
  • Novela del Casamiento Engañoso
  • La de los perros Cipión y Berganza
    Novelas Ejemplares (otro sitio)
  • La gitanilla
  • El amante liberal
  • Rinconete y Cortadillo
  • La española inglesa
  • El licenciado Vidriera
  • La fuerza de la sangre
  • El celoso extremeño
  • La ilustre fregona
  • Las dos doncellas
  • La Señora Cornelia
  • El casamiento engañoso
  • La de los perros Cipión y Bergança
    Viaje al Parnaso
    Los trabajos de Persiles y Segismunda
  • La Numancia (1582)
    Tragedia de Numancia

    Trato de Argel
    Ocho comedias y ocho entremeses
  • El gallardo español
  • Los baños de Argel
  • La gran sultana doña Catalina de Oviedo
  • La casa de los celos
  • El laberinto de amor
  • La entretenida
  • El rufián dichoso
  • Pedro de Urdemales
  • El juez de los divorcios
  • El rufián viudo llamado Trampagos
  • La elección de los alcaldes de Daganzo
  • La guarda cuidadosa
  • El vizcaíno fingido
  • El retablo de las maravillas
  • La cueva de Salamanca
  • El viejo celoso

    Índice de primeros versos de todas las poesías
    Índice de primeros versos de poesías sueltas
    Al túmulo del rey Felipe II en Sevilla
    A la entrada del duque Medina en Cádiz
  • 1616 William Shakespeare       ^top^
         Shakespeare dies on his 52nd birthday (or close to it: what is known is that he was baptized on 26 April 1644),
    English poet, dramatist, and actor, often called the English national poet and considered by many to be the greatest dramatist of all time.
          Little is known about Shakespeare's early life. His father was a tradesman who became an alderman and bailiff, and Shakespeare was baptized in Stratford-upon-Avon on 26 April 1564. On 28 November 1582, William Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway, 26. Six months later, Anne gives birth to their daughter, Susanna, and two years later, to twins. Sometime after the birth of his children, Shakespeare set off for London to become an actor and by 1592 was well established in London's theatrical world as an actor and playwright.
          His earliest plays, including The Comedy of Errors and The Taming of the Shrew, were written in the early 1590s. Later in the decade, he wrote tragedies like Romeo and Juliet (1594-1595) and comedies including The Merchant of Venice (1596-1597). His greatest tragedies were written after 1600, including Hamlet (1600-01), Othello (1604-05), King Lear (1605-06), and Macbeth (1605-1606).
          Shakespeare became a member of the popular theater troupe the Lord Chamberlain's Men, which later became the King's Men. The group built and operated the famous Globe Theater in London in 1599. Shakespeare became a major shareholder in the troupe and earned enough money to buy a large house in Stratford in 1597. He retired to Stratford in 1610, where he wrote his last plays, including The Tempest (1611) and The Winter's Tale (1610-11). Meanwhile, he had written more than 100 sonnets, which were published in 1609. Shakespeare's plays were not published during his lifetime. After his death, two members of his troupe collected copies of his plays and printed what is now called the First Folio (1623).
    SHAKESPEARE ONLINE:  Shakespeare search engine     A Shakespeare site
  • As You Like It
  • As You Like It
  • Coriolanus
  • Coriolanus
  • Cymbeline
  • Cymbeline
  • King John
  • King John
  • Macbeth
  • Macbeth
  • Othello
  • Othello
  • Pericles
  • Hamlet
  • Hamlet
  • Hamlet (1623)
  • King Lear
  • King Lear
  • King Lear (1619)
  • King Lear (1623)
  • King Lear (1728)
  • Richard II
  • Richard II
  • Richard III
  • Richard III
  • The Tempest
  • Twelfth Night
  • Twelfth Night
  • Complete Works
  • Complete Works
  • Antony and Cleopatra
  • Antony and Cleopatra
  • The Comedy of Errors
  • The Comedy of Errors
  • Henry IV, Part 1
  • Henry IV, Part 1
  • Henry IV, Part 2
  • Henry IV, Part 2
  • Henry V
  • Henry V
  • Henry VI, Part 1
  • Henry VI, Part 1
  • Henry VI, Part 2
  • Henry VI, Part 2
  • Henry VI, Part 3
  • Henry VIII
  • Julius Caesar
  • Julius Caesar
  • Julius Caesar
  • Romeo and Juliet
  • Romeo and Juliet
  • Timon of Athens
  • Titus Andronicus
  • Troilus and Cressida
  • Venus and Adonis
  • The Winter's Tale
  • The Winter's Tale
  • Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, and Tragedies
  • All's Well That Ends Well
  • All's Well That Ends Well
  • Love's Labour's Lost
  • Love's Labour's Lost
  • Measure for Measure
  • Measure for Measure
  • The Merchant of Venice
  • The Merchant of Venice
  • The Merry Wives of Windsor
  • The Merry Wives of Windsor
  • A Midsummer Night's Dream
  • A Midsummer Night's Dream
  • Much Ado About Nothing
  • Much Ado About Nothing
  • The Phoenix and the Turtle
  • The Taming of the Shrew
  • The Taming of the Shrew
  • The Two Gentlemen of Verona
  • The Two Gentlemen of Verona
  • The Sonnets
  • Poems Written by Wil. Shakespeare, Gent. (1640)
  • The Comedy of Errors (18th century adaptation)
  • Florizel and Perdita (adaptation of The Winter's Tale)
  • Hamlet (19th-century French translated to English)
  • The History of King Lear: Acted at the Duke's Theatre. Reviv'd with Alterations (1681)
  • Richard III (18th century adaptation)
  • The Two Noble Kinsmen, also by John Fletcher
  • Another collection of Shakespeare's works on line: Shakespeare





    All's Well That Ends Well
    As You Like It
    The Comedy of Errors
    Love's Labours Lost
    Measure for Measure
    The Merry Wives of Windsor
    The Merchant of Venice
    A Midsummer Night's Dream
    Much Ado About Nothing
    Pericles, Prince of Tyre
    The Taming of the Shrew
    The Tempest
    Troilus and Cressida
    Twelfth Night
    Two Gentlemen of Verona
    Winter's Tale
    Henry IV, part 1
    Henry IV, part 2
    Henry V
    Henry VI, part 1
    Henry VI, part 2
    Henry VI, part 3
    Henry VIII
    King John
    Richard II
    Richard III
    Anthony and Cleopatra
    Julius Caesar 
    King Lear
    Romeo and Juliet
    Timon of Athens
    Titus Andronicus
    The Sonnets
    A Lover's Complaint
    The Rape of Lucrece
    Venus and Adonis

    Funeral Elegy by W.S.

    1014 King Brian of Ireland, murdered by Vikings.       ^top^
          Brian Boru, 72, the high king of Ireland, is assassinated by a group of retreating Norsemen shortly after his Irish forces decisively defeated the Vikings allied against him.
          Brian, a clan prince, seized the throne of the southern Irish state of Dal Cais from its Eogharacht rulers in 963. He subjugated all of Munster and extended his power over all of southern Ireland, and in 1002, became the high king of Ireland. Unlike previous high kings of Ireland, Brian resisted the rule of Ireland's Norse invaders, and after further conquests, his rule was acknowledged across the whole of Ireland.
          As his power increased, relations with the Norsemen on the Irish coast grew increasingly strained. In 1013, Sitric, king of the Dublin Norse, formed a coalition against Brian featuring Viking warriors from Ireland, the Hebrides, the Orkneys, and Iceland, as well as soldiers of Brian's native Irish enemies.
          On 23 April 1014, Good Friday, forces under Brian's son Murchad met and annihilated the allies at the Battle of Clontarf, near Dublin. After the battle, a small group of Norsemen, flying from their defeat, stumbled on Brian's tent, overcame his bodyguards, and murdered the elderly king. Victory at Clontarf broke Norse power in Ireland forever, but Ireland largely fell into anarchy after the death of Brian. However, his fame was so great that the princes descended from him, the O'Brians, subsequently ranked as one of the chief dynastic families of Ireland.
    ^ Births which occurred on an April 23:
    1985 New Coke debuts: Coca-Cola Co. announces that it is changing the 99-year-old secret flavor formula for Coke. Negative public reaction would eventually force the company to resume selling the original version as Classic Coke, while the New Coke all but disappeared.
    1976  Avui, diario en catalán, aparece por primera vez.
    1970  Reivindicación del conde don Julián, novela de Juan Goytisolo, se publica.
    1962 Nosaltres els valencians de Joan Fuster Ortells se publica.
    1957 Mirando hacia atrás con ira, obra de teatro de John James Osborne, se estrena.
    1949  Las hortensias, libro de relatos de Felisberto Hernández, se publica.
    1947 Bernadette Devlin (McAliskey) (Irish civil rights leader)
    1941  Paavo Tapio Lipponen, político y primer ministro finlandés.
    1940  Jaime Bateman Cayón “el Flaco”, líder revolucionario colombiano.
    1940  La invención de Morel, de Adolfo Vicente Perfecto Bioy Casares, se publica.
    1934  Irene Iribarren, pintora española.
    1928 Shirley Jane Temple Black, Santa Monica Calif, (child actress: Little Miss Marker, Curly Top, Heidi, The Little Colonel, Poor Little Rich Girl, Wee Willie Winkie, Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm; US ambassador to the United Nations and chief of protocol)
    1927 Manuel Rivera Hernández, Spanish painter who died in 1994.
    1926  Gerardo Rueda Salaberry, pintor y escultor español.
    1923  Manuel Mejía Vallejo, escritor colombiano.
    1914 Georgii Nikolaevich Polozii, Russian mathematician who died on 26 November 1968.
    1910 Sheila Scott Macintyre, Scottish mathematician who died on 21 March 1960.
    1902 Halldór Kiljan Gudjónsson “Halldor Laxness”, Icelandic novelist who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1955. He is considered the most creative Icelandic writer of the 20th century. He died on 08 February 1998.
    1899 Vladimir Nabokov St Petersburg, novelist (Lolita, Ada)
    1897 Lester Bowles Pearson (L) 14th Canadian Prime Minister (1963-68) (Nobel Peace Prize 1957). He died on 27 December 1972.
    1896 Vitascope system of movie projection first demonstrated — Première of motion pictures (Koster and Bial's Music Hall, NYC)
    1891 Sergey Prokofiev Ukraine, composer (Peter and the Wolf). He died on 05 March 1953.
    1867 Johannes Fibiger, Danish Nobel Prize-winning pathologist (1926). He died on 30 January 1928.
    1861 Carl Moll, Austrian artist who died in 1945. — more with link to an image.
    1858 Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, German Nobel Prize-winning physicist (1918) who originated quantum theory, mathematician. Planck died on 04 October 1947.
    1856  Marco Fidel Suárez, escritor y político colombiano.
    1852 Edwin Markham, US poet and lecturer who died on 07 March 1940.
    1842 Fritz Beinke, German artist who died on 16 December 1907.
    1834  La conjuración de Venecia - año de 1310 , obra romántica de Francisco de Paula Martínez de la Rosa [10 Mar 1787 – 07 Feb 1862], se estrena en el madrileño teatro del Príncipe.
    1833 Antoine Vollon, French artist who died on 27 August 1900. — MORE ON VOLLON AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
    1820 James Sant, British artist who died on 12 July 1916. — MORE ON SANT AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
    ^ 1813 Stephen Arnold Douglas, US Democratic party leader, congressman, senator, orator, and presidential candidate. Debated Lincoln in 1858 and defeated him in senatorial election. Lost to Lincoln in 1860 presidential election. Douglas died on 03 June 1861.
         Douglas espoused the cause of popular sovereignty in relation to the issue of slavery in the territories before the US Civil War (1861–1865). He was re-elected senator from Illinois in 1858 after a series of eloquent debates with the Republican candidate, Abraham Lincoln [12 Feb 1809 – 15 Apr 1865], who defeated him in the presidential election two years later.
          Douglas left New England at the age of 20 to settle in Jacksonville, Illinois,where he quickly rose to a position of leadership in the Illinois Democratic Party. In 1843 he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives; one of its youngest members, Douglas gained early prominence as a dedicated worker and gifted speaker. Heavyset and only five feet four inches tall, he was dubbed the “Little Giant” by his contemporaries.
          Douglas embraced a lifelong enthusiasm for national expansion, giving consistent support to the annexation of Texas (1845), the Mexican War (1846–1848), taking a vigorous stance toward Great Britain in the Oregon boundary dispute (1846), and advocating both government land grants to promote transcontinental railroad construction and a free homestead policy for settlers.
          Douglas was elected in 1846 to the US Senate, in which he served until his death; there he became deeply involved in the nation's search for a solution to the slavery problem. As chairman of the Committee on Territories, he was particularly prominent in the bitter debatesbetween North and South on the extension of slavery westward. Trying to remove the onus from Congress, he developed the theory of popular sovereignty (originally called squatter sovereignty), under which the people in a territory would themselves decide whether to permit slavery within their region's boundaries. Douglas himself was not a slaveholder, though his wife was. He was influential in the passage of the Compromise of 1850 (which tried to maintain a congressional balance between free and slave states), and the organization of the Utah and New Mexico territories under popular sovereignty was a victory for his doctrine.
          The climax of Douglas' theory was reached in the Kansas–Nebraska Act (1854), which substituted local options toward slavery in the Kansas and Nebraska territories for that of congressional mandate, thus repealing the Missouri Compromise of 1820. The act's passage was a triumph for Douglas, although he was bitterly condemned and vilified by antislavery forces. A strong contender for the Democratic presidential nomination in both 1852 and 1856, he was too outspoken to be chosen by a party that was still trying to bridge the sectional gap.
          The Supreme Court struck indirectly at popular sovereignty in the Dred Scott Decision (1857),which held that neither the Congress nor territorial legislatures could prohibit slavery in a territory. The following year Douglas engaged in a number of widely publicized debates with Lincoln in a close contest for the Senate seat in Illinois, and although Lincoln won the popular vote, Douglas was elected 54 to 46 by the legislature. In the debates, Douglas enunciated his famous “Freeport Doctrine,” which stated that the territories could still determine the existence of slavery through unfriendly legislation and the use of police power, in spite of the Supreme Court decision. As a result, Southern opposition to Douglas intensified, and he was denied reappointment to the committee chairmanship he had previously held in the Senate.
          When the “regular” (Northern) Democrats nominated him for president in 1860, the Southern wing broke away and supported a separate ticket headed by John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky. Although Douglas received only 12 electoral votes, he was second to Lincoln in the number of popular votes polled. Douglas then urged the South to acquiesce in the results of the election. At the outbreak of the Civil War, he denounced secession as criminal and was one of the strongest advocates of maintaining the integrity of the Union at all costs. At President's Lincoln's request, he undertook a mission to the Border States and to the Northwest to rouse Unionist sentiments among their citizenry. Douglas' early and unexpected death was partly the result of these last exertions on behalf of the Union.
    1812 Sir Frederick Whitaker, English politician and businessman; prime minister of New Zealand (1863-1864,1882-1883). He died on 04 December 1891.
    1791 James Buchanan (Fed/Dem) 15th US president (1857-61), in Franklin County, Pennsylvania. He died on 01 June 1868.
    1775 Joseph Mallord William Turner, British painter who died on 19 December 1851, specialized in landscapes and seascapes, considered by the French Impressionists as having given art a turn that impressed them. MORE ON TURNER AT ART “4” APRIL with links to many images and extensive biography.
    1628 Johann van Waveren Hudde, Dutch mathematician, burgomeister of Amsterdam (1672-1702), who died on 15 April 1704. He worked on maxima and minima and the theory of equations. He gave an ingenious method to find multiple roots of an equation which is essentially the modern method of finding the highest common factor of a polynomial and its derivative. He also worked on optics, producing microscopes and constructing telescope lenses. Hudde corresponded with Huygens [14 Apr 1629 – 08 Jul 1695] on problems of canal maintenance, probability and life expectancy. In 1657 Hudde directed the flooding of parts of Holland to block the advance of the French army.
    1605 Boris Godunov tsar of Muscovy (1598-1605) in Time of Troubles.
    ^ 1564 William Shakespeare.
          According to tradition, the great English dramatist and poet William Shakespeare is born in Stratford-on-Avon on 23 April 1564. It is impossible to be certain of the exact day on which he was born, but church records show that he was baptized on 26 April, and three days was a customary amount of time to wait before baptizing a newborn.      Shakespeare's date of death is conclusively known, however: it was 23 April 1616. He was 52 years old and had retired to Stratford three years before. Although few plays have been performed or analyzed as extensively as the 38 plays ascribed to William Shakespeare, there are few surviving details about the playwright's life. This dearth of biographical information is due primarily to his station in life; he was not a noble, but the son of John Shakespeare, a leather trader and the town bailiff. The events of William Shakespeare's early life can only be gleaned from official records, such as baptism and marriage records. He probably attended the grammar school in Stratford, where he would have studied Latin and read classical literature. He did not go to university but at age 18 married Anne Hathaway, who was eight years his senior and pregnant at the time of the marriage. Their first daughter, Susanna, was born six months later, and in 1585 William and Anne had twins, Hamnet and Judith. Hamnet, Shakespeare's only son, died 11 years later, and Anne Shakespeare outlived her husband, dying in 1623. Nothing is known of the period between the birth of the twins and Shakespeare's emergence as a playwright in London in the early 1590s, but unfounded stories have him stealing deer, joining a group of traveling players, becoming a schoolteacher, or serving as a soldier in the Low Countries.
          The first reference to Shakespeare as a London playwright came in 1592, when a fellow dramatist, Robert Greene, wrote derogatorily of him on his deathbed. It is believed that Shakespeare had written the three parts of Henry VI by then. In 1593, Venus and Adonis was Shakespeare's first published poem, and he dedicated it to the young Henry Wriothesley, the 3rd earl of Southampton. In 1594, having probably composed, among other plays, Richard III, The Comedy of Errors, and The Taming of the Shrew, he became an actor and playwright for the Lord Chamberlain's Men, which became the King's Men after James I's ascension in 1603. The company grew into England's finest, in no small part because of Shakespeare, who was its principal dramatist. It also had the finest actor of the day, Richard Burbage, and the best theater, the Globe, which was located on the Thames' south bank. Shakespeare stayed with the King's Men until his retirement and often acted in small parts.
          By 1596, the company had performed the classic Shakespeare plays Romeo and Juliet, Richard II, and A Midsummer Night's Dream. That year, John Shakespeare was granted a coat of arms, a testament to his son's growing wealth and fame. In 1597, William Shakespeare bought a large house in Stratford. In 1599, after producing his great historical series, the first and second part of Henry IV and Henry V, he became a partner in the ownership of the Globe Theatre.
          The beginning of the 17th century saw the performance of the first of his great tragedies, Hamlet. The next play, The Merry Wives of Windsor, was written at the request of Queen Elizabeth I, who wanted to see another play that included the popular character Falstaff. During the next decade, Shakespeare produced such masterpieces as Othello, King Lear, Macbeth, and The Tempest.
          In 1609, his sonnets, probably written during the 1590s, were published. The 154 sonnets are marked by the recurring themes of the mutability of beauty and the transcendent power of love and art.
          Shakespeare died in Stratford-on-Avon on 23 April 1616. Over the next centuries, his plays would be performed and read more often and in more nations than any other's. In a million words written over 20 years, he captured the full range of human emotions and conflicts with a precision that remains timeless. As his great contemporary the poet and dramatist Ben Jonson said, "He was not of an age, but for all time."
    1522 Saint Catherine, Italian Dominican mystic who died on 02 February 1590.
    Holidays: Bermuda : Peppercorn Day / Turkey : National Sovereignty Day/Children's Day (1923)

    Religious Observances Ancient Rome : Vinalia (grape harvest), honoring Jupiter / Santos Jorge, Félix, Fortunato, Adalberto, Marolo, Gerardo y Aquiles. / RC : St George, dragon slayer, patron of England (opt) / Luth : Toyohiko Kagawa, renewer of society / Saint Georges. Cet officier romain a été martyrisé en Palestine au temps de l'empereur Dioclétien, vers 305. Selon une légende médiévale, saint Georges aurait terrassé un dragon en Libye pour délivrer une malheureuse princesse. Cela lui vaut d'être le saint patron des chevaliers, ainsi que des scouts et des éclaireurs. Le drapeau de l'Angleterre s'orne de la «croix de Saint-Georges» depuis 1284.
    Easter Sunday in 2000.

    Thoughts for the day:
    “If you bow at all, bow low.”
    — {Whoever said that does not understand the Japanese rules of courtesy}
    “If you bow at all, bow wow.” — {K-9 rule of courtesy}
    “If you use a bow at all, hold your bow high and aim straight.”
    — {especially when shooting an apple off your son's head}
    “If you wear a bow tie at all, don't wear your bow low.”
    “If you buy at all, buy low.”
    — {and sell high... but not to me}
    “ Some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon them.”
    Twelfth Night 2.5, Shakespeare. —{but the immense majority are free from it}
    “If you bow at all, bow low to those who are born great, lower to those have greatness thrust upon them, and lowest to those who achieve greatness.”
    updated Friday 23-Apr-2004 4:36 UT
    safe site
    site safe for children safe site