<< Apr 29|      HISTORY “4” “2”DAY      |May 01 >>
Events, deaths, births, of APR 30

[For Apr 30 Julian go to Gregorian date:
1583~1699: May 101700s: May 111800s: May 121900~2099: May 13]
• Saigon falls... • WWW creators give it away free... • Hitler murders pet dogs, kills self... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • OAS is formed... • Digital calculator pioneer is born... • Annie Dillard is born... • Dodge company sold... • Date of Louisiana Purchase... • Explosion kills Palestinian children... • PDP7 computer... . • Land Rover... • 1st US presidential inauguration... • Women's prison...
On a 30 April:
2002 Pakistan's general Pervez Musharraf, who made himself President by a bloodless coup on 12 October 1999, wins a referendum for him to extend his term of office for five years, past the October 2002 parliamentary elections, when the 3-year term which the Supreme Court allowed him runs out and the new parliament is supposed to elect a President.
2001 US warplanes conducting routine patrols in the no-fly zone of northern Iraq bomb air defense systems after coming under anti-aircraft fire northwest of Mosul.
2001 Chandra Levy, 24, is last seen alive. She is a former US Bureau of Prisons intern, allegedly romantically connected to married Congressman Gary Condit, 53, who has represented her hometown of Modesto, California, since 1989.
1994  El ministro del Interior español, Antoni Asunción, dimite por su responsabilidad política en la huida de Luis Roldán Ibáñez, ex director general de la Guardia Civil, acusado de diversos delitos.
1992  Militares amotinados en Sierra Leona toman el poder, tras la huida del presidente Joseph Saidu Momoh a Guinea.
1992 WWW creators make it free to all       ^top^
      CERN, the European particle physics lab in Geneva, Switzerland, releases a milestone document, declaring that World Wide Web technology (developed by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN) would be free to anyone, with no fees due to CERN. Berners-Lee, a British computer scientist on fellowship at CERN, proposed a hypertext project in 1989. By 1990, he had created the basic underpinnings of the World Wide Web, which were made available to the public over the Internet in the summer of 1991. Berners-Lee continued to develop the design for the Web through 1993, working with feedback from Internet users.
1990  El Vaticano y Rumanía reanudan sus relaciones, rotas 42 años antes.
1986 Más de 1000 personas resultan detenidas en Santiago de Chile en una redada masiva practicada por militares con la cara tiznada de negro, policías y fuerzas de seguridad.
1986  Se inaugura en Palma de Mallorca el Segundo Congreso Internacional de la Lengua Catalana.
1980 Queen Beatrix of Netherlands ascends to the throne.
1980 Terrorists seized the Iranian Embassy in London.
1978  El Partido Socialista Popular (PSP) de Enrique Tierno Galván y el Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE) se fusionan.
1978 Según un informe del New York Times, el 1% de los adolescentes estadounidenses sufre anorexia nerviosa. [a site that fights anorexia: http://adiosbarbie.com/]
^ 1975 Saigon falls.
      North Vietnamese and Vietcong forces capture Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, and Duong Van Minh, president of South Vietnam for only nine days, surrenders unconditionally to the Communists. The same day, US forces complete the largest helicopter evacuation in history, airlifting select South Vietnamese officials and troops and the last few Americans still in Vietnam to the safety of US aircraft carriers offshore. At 19:52 the last US Marines in the country are lifted off the roof of the US Embassy in Saigon. Hours later, the city is renamed Ho Chi Minh City.
      The reunification of Vietnam under the North Communist regime came two years after representatives of the United States, North and South Vietnam, and the Vietcong signed a peace agreement in Paris, ending the US military involvement in the Vietnam War. By the end of 1973, the US contingent in Vietnam had shrunk to only fifty military advisors. On 30 April 1975, the last of these and other Americans were airlifted out of Vietnam and the war came to end. North Vietnamese Colonel Bui Tin, accepting the surrender of South Vietnam, remarked, "You have nothing to fear. Between Vietnamese there are no victors and no vanquished. Only the Americans have been defeated." The Vietnam War was the longest and most unpopular foreign war in US history, and cost fifty-eight thousand American lives.
      By dawn, Communist forces move into Saigon, where they meet only sporadic resistance. The South Vietnamese forces had collapsed under the rapid advancement of the North Vietnamese. The most recent fighting had begun in December 1974, when the North Vietnamese had launched a major attack against the lightly defended province of Phuoc Long, located due north of Saigon along the Cambodian border, overrunning the provincial capital at Phuoc Binh on 06 January 1975. Despite previous presidential promises to provide aid in such a scenario, the United States did nothing. By this time, Nixon had resigned from office and his successor, Gerald Ford, was unable to convince a hostile Congress to make good on Nixon's earlier promises to rescue Saigon from communist takeover.
      This situation emboldened the North Vietnamese, who launched a new campaign in March 1975. The South Vietnamese forces fell back in total disarray, and once again, the United States did nothing. The South Vietnamese abandoned Pleiku and Kontum in the Highlands with very little fighting. Then Quang Tri, Hue, and Da Nang fell to the communist onslaught. The North Vietnamese continued to attack south along the coast toward Saigon, defeating the South Vietnamese forces at each encounter. The South Vietnamese 18th Division had fought a valiant battle at Xuan Loc, just to the east of Saigon, destroying three North Vietnamese divisions in the process. However, it proved to be the last battle in the defense of the Republic of South Vietnam. The South Vietnamese forces held out against the attackers until they ran out of tactical air support and weapons, finally abandoning Xuan Loc to the communists on 21 April.
      Having crushed the last major organized opposition before Saigon, the North Vietnamese got into position for the final assault. In Saigon, South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu resigned and transferred authority to Vice President Tran Van Huong before fleeing the city on 25 April. By 27 April, the North Vietnamese had completely encircled Saigon and began to maneuver for a complete takeover. When they attacked at dawn on 30 April, they met little resistance. North Vietnamese tanks crashed through the gates of the Presidential Palace and the war came to an end. North Vietnamese Col. Bui Tin accepted the surrender from Gen. Duong Van Minh, who had taken over after Tran Van Huong spent only one day in power. Tin explained to Minh, "You have nothing to fear. Between Vietnamese there are no victors and no vanquished. Only the Americans have been beaten. If you are patriots, consider this a moment of joy. The war for our country is over."
1974  Richard Milhous Nixon entrega a la comisión investigadora las cintas magnetofónicas del asunto Watergate.
1973 US President Nixon announces the resignations of top aides H.R. Haldeman and John Ehrlichman, along with Attorney General Richard G. Kleindienst and White House counsel John Dean (Watergate affair).
1972 The North Vietnamese launched an invasion of the South.
1970 US troops invaded Cambodia to disrupt North Vietnamese Army base areas. The announcement by US President Nixon leads to widespread protests.
1968 US Marines attack a division of North Vietnamese in the village of Dai Do
1963 Francia anuncia la construcción de una base de pruebas nucleares en el atolón de Mururoa.
1970 President Nixon announced the US is sending troops into Cambodia. Widespread protests ensue.
1961  Sudáfrica se retira de la Commonwealth.
1960  Manifestaciones antigubernamentales en las ciudades turcas de Ankara y Estambul obligan a la proclamación de la ley marcial.
1955  Tras un fallido golpe de Estado, Bao Dai es destituido por el primer ministro Ngo Dinh Diem, en Vietnam del Sur.
^ 1948 OAS established
      At an international conference in Bogotá, Colombia, representatives from twenty-one North, South, and Central American nations agreed to establish the Organization of American States (OAS) to promote peace and economic development in the Americas. Designed to work in congruence with the United Nations, the OAS absorbed the Pan-American Union, a less centralized international American organization established in 1890. In 1962, in response to Fidel Castro’s Communist revolution in Cuba, the OAS adopted a resolution to expel the country from its ranks, citing the Cuban government’s attempted subversion of other OAS countries. Although the OAS has traditionally been dominated by the United States, it has condemned US policy in the Americas on several occasions, especially in regard to US policy in Nicaragua. Today, the OAS has thirty-five member states, and is the oldest regional agency of its type in the world.
1947 Boulder Dam renamed in honor of Herbert Hoover.
1946  Un comité británico-estadounidense aboga a favor de la pronta inmigración de 100'000 judíos a Palestina.
1943  Adolf Hitler recibe a su títere francés Pierre Laval para darle órdenes.
1943 The British submarine HMS Seraph drops 'the man who never was,' a dead man on which the British planted false invasion plans, into the Mediterranean off the coast of Spain.
1940  Bolivia suspende sine die los permisos de inmigración a los judíos.
1937  Estados Unidos aprueba la cuarta Neutrality Act, de carácter permanente, que incluye la cláusula de cash and carry.
1934  Queda aprobada la nueva Constitución austriaca.
1934  En España, Severiano Martínez Anido, Callejo, Guadalhorce, Magaz y Calvo Sotelo quedan excluidos de la ley de amnistía por rebeldía.
1932  Se inaugura en Venecia el primer Congreso Internacional "Arte en el presente".
^ 1927 The first US federal prison for women opens
      The Federal Industrial Institute for Women, the first women's federal prison, opens in Alderson, West Virginia. All women serving federal sentences of more than a year were to be brought here. Run by Dr. Mary B. Harris, the prison's buildings, each named after social reformers, sat atop 200 hectares.
      One judge described the prison as a "fashionable boarding school." In some respects the judge was correct; the overriding purpose of the prison was to reform the inmates, not punish them. The prisoners farmed the land and performed office work in order to learn how to type and file. They also cooked and canned vegetables and fruits. Other women's prisons had similar ideals. At Bedford Hills in New York, there were no fences, and the inmates lived in cottages equipped with their own kitchen and garden. The prisoners were even given singing lessons.
      Reform efforts had a good chance for success since the women sent to these prisons were far from hardened criminals. At the Federal Industrial Institute, the vast majority of the women were imprisoned for drug and alcohol charges imposed during the Prohibition era. Only one of the inmates was imprisoned for homicide.
1918 Dodge1925 Dodge sold       ^top^
The Dodge heirs sold Dodge Brothers Inc. to the New York City banking firm of Dillon, Read and Company for $146 million plus $50 million for charity. At the time the sale was reported to be the largest single cash sale in US history.
      The sale of Dodge was not the result of a downturn in the company's fortune, as Dodge still enjoyed a firm position in the marketplace due to its reputation for quality and reliability. Dodge cars contained more heavy steel by percentage than their competitors; they were prized by doctors and traveling salesmen, who couldn't afford a breakdown during the long trips that were often called of them.
      Rather, the company's sale resulted from the Dodge Brothers' offspring's unwillingness to manage the firm's affairs. Both Horace and John Dodge died in 1920. During their lifetimes they had run the company personally, explicitly excluding their family members from participation in the company's management. After the brothers' deaths a brief depression in the stock market in 1921 scared the family members into "cashing out" of the company's affairs.
1921 Pope Benedict XV encyclical On Dante.
1918  Guatemala declara la guerra a Alemania.
1917  El general Henri Philippe Pétain asume la jefatura del Estado Mayor del Ministerio de la Guerra francés para reemplazar a Robert Georges Nivelle.
1915  Ataque aéreo alemán en las costas inglesas.
1911  Una sentencia del Tribunal Constitucional de Portugal reconoce a las mujeres el derecho al voto.
1909  Queda reconocido oficialmente en España el derecho a la huelga.
1900  Hawaii is made a US territory.
1897  El físico británico Joseph John Thomson descubre el electrón, cuya existencia había predicho ya en 1891 su compatriota George Johnstone Stoney.
1889 First US national holiday, on centennial of Washington's inauguration
1864 Engagement at Jenkins' Ferry, Arkansas on Steele's Camden Expedition
1863 Siege of Suffolk, Virginia by Confederates continues
1862 Siege of Yorktown, Virginia continues
1861 New York Yacht Club offers their vessels to the Federal government
1838 Nicaragua declares independence from Central American federation. —   Se proclama la independencia de Nicaragua en Chinandega.
1812 Exactly nine years after the Louisiana Purchase was dated as signed, the first of thirteen states to be carved from the territory — Louisiana — is admitted into the Union as the eighteenth US state.
^ 1803 The Louisiana Purchase document date.
      On 02 May 1803, representatives of the United States and Napoleonic France signed a treaty dated 30 April approving the Louisiana Purchase, a massive land purchase that more than doubled the size of the young American republic.
      Three years earlier, Spain had ceded the territory to France in the secret treaty of San Ildefonso. However, France, embroiled in the French Revolutionary Wars, did not begin administering the territory until just before its transfer to the US
      In its first territorial acquisition since the end of the Revolutionary War, the US government paid France approximately fifteen million dollars, or ten cents a hectare, for some 2'145'000 square kilometers of land. On 20 October, Congress approved the purchase, and, on 20 December 1803, France formally transferred authority over the region to the United States.
      The acquisition of the territory of Louisiana, encompassing the entire region of the Mississippi-Missouri river valleys, was Thomas Jefferson's most notable achievement as president. American expansion westward into the new lands began immediately, and in 1804, a territorial government was established. On 30 April 1812, exactly nine years after the Louisiana Purchase was signed, the first of thirteen states to be carved from the territory — Louisiana — was admitted into the Union as the eighteenth US state.
     Representatives of the United States and Napoleonic France conclude negotiations for the Louisiana Purchase. What was known as Louisiana Territory comprised most of modern-day United States between the Mississippi and the Rocky Mountains, with the exceptions of Texas, parts of New Mexico, and plots of land already controlled by the United States. A formal treaty for the Louisiana Purchase, antedated to 30 April, was signed two days later. Beginning in the 17th century, France explored the Mississippi River valley and established scattered settlements in the region. By the middle of the 18th century, France controlled more of the modern United States than any other European power: from New Orleans northeast to the Great Lakes and northwest to modern-day Montana. In 1762, during the French and Indian War, France ceded its America territory west of the Mississippi River to Spain and in 1763 transferred nearly all of its remaining North American holdings to Great Britain. Spain, no longer a dominant European power, did little to develop Louisiana Territory during the next three decades. In 1796, Spain allied itself with France, leading Britain to use its powerful navy to cut off Spain from America.
      In 1801, Spain signed a secret treaty with France to return Louisiana Territory to France. Reports of the retrocession caused considerable uneasiness in the United States. Since the late 1780s, people from the US had been moving westward into the Ohio and Tennessee River valleys, and these settlers were highly dependent on free access to the Mississippi River and the strategic port of New Orleans. US officials feared that France, resurgent under the leadership of Napoleon Bonaparte, would soon seek to dominate the Mississippi River and access to the Gulf of Mexico. In a letter to the US minister to France, Robert Livingston, President Thomas Jefferson stated, “The day that France takes possession of New Orleans...we must marry ourselves to the British fleet and nation.” Livingston was ordered to negotiate with French minister Charles Maurice de Talleyrand for the purchase of New Orleans. France was slow in taking control of Louisiana, but in 1802 Spanish authorities, apparently acting under French orders, revoked a US-Spanish treaty that granted Americans the right to store goods in New Orleans. In response, President Jefferson sent future president James Monroe to Paris to aid Livingston in the New Orleans purchase talks.
      On 11 April 1803, the day before Monroe's arrival, Talleyrand asked a surprised Livingston what the United States would give for all of Louisiana Territory. It is believed that the failure of France to put down a slave revolution in Haiti, the impending war with Great Britain and probable Royal Navy blockade of France, and financial difficulties may all have prompted Napoleon to offer Louisiana for sale to the United States. Negotiations moved swiftly, and at the end of April the US envoys agreed to pay $11'250'000 and assumed claims of its citizens against France in the amount of $3'750'000. In exchange, the United States acquired the vast domain of Louisiana Territory, some 2'145'000 square kilometers of land. In October, Congress ratified the purchase, and in December 1803 France formally transferred authority over the region to the United States. The acquisition of the Louisiana Territory for the bargain price of seven cents a hectare was Thomas Jefferson's most notable achievement as president. US expansion westward into the new lands began immediately, and in 1804 a territorial government was established. On 30 April 1812, exactly nine years after the Louisiana Purchase agreement was made, the first of 13 states to be carved from the territory — Louisiana — was admitted into the Union as the 18th US state.
—  Napoleón Bonaparte vende la Luisiana a EE.UU. por 80 millones de francos.
click for portraits and text of address1789 The first US Presidential Inauguration       ^top^
      In New York City, George Washington, leader of the War of Independence of the US, is inaugurated as the first president of the modern United States. The ceremony is held on the balcony of the Senate Chamber at Federal Hall, located on the corner of Wall and Broad streets. After he took the oath of office with his right hand resting on a Mason’s bible, Washington delivered his inaugural address in the Senate Chamber, a quiet speech in which the president spoke of “the experiment entrusted to the hands of the American people.
      In 1774, Washington, a former member of the Virginia colonial militia, had represented Virginia at the Continental Congress, which was convened in protest of Britain’s repressive policies in the colonies. After the American Revolution erupted in 1775, Washington, who had served in the Seven Years’ War between Britain and France, was appointed commander-in-chief of the newly established Continental Army.
      With this inexperienced and poorly equipped army of civilian soldiers, Washington led an effective war of harassment against British forces in America, while employing his extraordinary diplomatic skills to encourage the intervention of the French into the conflict on behalf of the colonists.
      On 19 October 1781, British General Charles Lord Cornwallis surrendered his massive British army at Yorktown, Virginia. One of the most powerful nations on earth had been defeated. After the war, the victorious revolutionary general retired to his estate at Mount Vernon, but, in 1787, heeded his nation’s call and returned to politics to preside over the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
      On 04 February 1789, he was unanimously elected the first president of the United States by all sixty-nine presidential electors. The electors, representing ten of the eleven states that had ratified the US Constitution, were chosen by popular vote one month before the election. On 30 April he is inaugurated to his first term, and in 1792, he would be reelected. While in office, he sought to unite the nation and protect the interests of the new republic at home and abroad. In 1797, Washington retired to Mount Vernon, where he died of natural causes two years later.
1774 Pope Clement XIV proclaims a universal jubilee.
1725  Se firma el Tratado de Viena, por el que Felipe V, rey de España, firma la paz con Carlos VI, emperador de Alemania.
1598 In a ceremony at a site near present San Elizario, Texas, Juan de Oñate takes formal possession for Spain of the entire territory drained by the Rio Grande. This is near the location of future twin border cities, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico, on the south or right bank of the Rio Grande and El Paso, Texas, on the opposite side of the river.
1563 Jews are expelled from France by order of Charles VI.
1531  El portugués Martín Alonso de Souza desembarca en el lugar donde, más tarde, se alzaría Río de Janeiro.
1508  Nicolás de Ovando, administrador de las Indias Occidentales, recibe de Fernando el Católico (Fernando II, Rey de Aragón y V de Castilla) la orden de construir iglesias.
1492  Los Reyes Católicos expiden a favor de Cristóbal Colón los títulos de almirante, virrey y gobernador de las tierras que descubriere.
1006 Brightest supernova in recorded history is observed
0642  Chindasvinto es coronado como monarca de la España visigoda.
0418 Roman Emperor Honorius (who ruled 395-423) issued a decree denouncing Pelagianism, which taught that humanity can take the initial and fundamental steps toward salvation by its own efforts, apart from divine grace.
^ Deaths which occurred on an April 30:
2003 Two Iraqi civilians, among some 1000 demonstrating against US occupation soldiers and their 28 April massacre of civilians, in Fallujah, as US troops fire at the crowd, allegedly because some of the demonstrators were throwing rocks and firing guns, which is denied by Iraqis. 14 Iraqis are wounded.
2003 Three Israelis: Yanai Weiss, 46; Ran Baron, 24; Dominique Caroline Hess, 29; and suicide bomber Asif Mohammed Hanif, 21, a Muslim with a British passport, at 01:10, as security guard Avi Taviv (who survives seriously wounded) prevents him from entering the pub Mike's Place on the seafront walkway Herbert Samuel Esplanade in Tel Aviv, Israel. 60 persons are wounded, including 11 Israeli soldiers and 2 tourists. Another would-be suicide bomber was accompanying the first, but, noticing a defect in his explosives, flees; he is Omar Khan Sharif, 27, also a Muslim with a British passport. In May, Sharif's body is found off a beach, apparently drowned.
2001 Malak Barakat, 4, Shahid Barakat, 7, and Hassan al-Qady, Palestinians, by explosion.       ^top^
     In the evening, anThe Ramallah explosion levels a two-story apartment building near Arafat's headquarters in Ramallah. Hassan al-Qady, a leading member in the Fatah movement, was suspected by Israel of killing, earlier in 2001, Israeli Ofir Nahum, 16, lured to Ramallah by a Palestinian woman in an exchange of e-mail messages, dragged out of the car, and killed by gunmen.
     Three others are injured in the Ramallah explosion, including Abeer Barakat, 25, the mother of the two children killed, daughter Wahed, 5. A man who shares the ground floor apartment with al-Qady is also injured.
      Israel denies that the explosion is part of its campaign of assassinations of Palestinian terrorrists, claiming instead that it is an accident in a Palestinian bomb-making operation.
2000  Poul Hartling, político danés.
1999  Dos personas mueren y 37 resultan heridas en un atentado perpetrado por un grupo neonazi contra un conocido pub del centro de Londres, frecuentado por homosexuales.
1999 A shepherd, 6 members of his family, and 101 sheep, in Kuban village, 30 km from Mosul, Iraq, in attack by US warplanes.
1998  Nizar Qabbani, poeta sirio.
1991 Some 125'000 by cyclone in Bangladesh.
1984  Karl Rahner, teólogo alemán.
1977 Charles Fox, English Canadian mathematician born on 17 March 1897.
1956 Alben W Barkley, 78, VP-D-1949-53
1947  Françesc Cambó i Battle
, político catalanista español.
1945 Adolph Hitler and Eva Braun, suicide; dog Blondi and pups, murdered.       ^top^
      Der Führer, Adolf Hitler, dictator of Germany, burrowed away in a refurbished air-raid shelter, consumes a cyanide capsule, then shoots himself with a pistol, as his "1000-year" Reich collapses above him.
      Hitler had repaired to his bunker on January 16, after deciding to remain in Berlin for the last great siege of the war. 17 m under the chancellery (Hitler's headquarters as chancellor), the shelter contained 18 small rooms and was fully self-sufficient, with its own water and electrical supply. He left only rarely (once to decorate a squadron of Hitler Youth) and spent most of his time micromanaging what was left of German defenses and entertaining such guests as Hermann Göring, Heinrich Himmler, and Joachim von Ribbentrop.
      At his side were Eva Braun, whom he married only two days before their double suicide, and his dog, an Alsatian named Blondi. Warned by officers that the Russians were only a day or so from overtaking the chancellery and urged to escape to Berchtesgarden, a small town in the Bavarian Alps where Hitler owned a home, the dictator instead chose suicide. Both he and his wife swallow cyanide capsules (which had been tested for their efficacy on his "beloved" dog and her pups). For good measure, he shoots himself with his service pistol.
      Because Hitler's body was never found, conspiracy theorists have conjecture that Der Führer escaped (usually to Argentina). In fact, the bodies of Hitler and Eva were cremated in the chancellery garden by the bunker survivors (as per Der Führer's orders). Charred remains believed to be theirs were found in a bomb crater. A German court finally officially declared Hitler dead, but not until 1956.
1933  Erwan Bergot, novelista e historiador francés.
1900 John Luther "Casey" Jones, engineer of the Illinois Central Railroad, in a wreck near Vaughan, Mississippi, after staying at the controls in an effort to save the passengers.
1888: 246 by hailstones, in Moradabad India.
1883 Édouard Manet, French Realist Impressionist painter and printmaker born on 23 January 1832. — MORE ON MANET AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1794 (11 floréal an II) Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:       ^top^
Comme émigrés, par la commission extraordinaire de Bayonne:
DANGEST Louis Gabriel, âgé de 48 ans, natif de Rumigny département des Ardennes, Mousquetaire, chevalier du ci-devant ordre de St Louis, grenadier du bataillon des filles St Thomas à Paris, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme complice d'un complot qui a existé entre Capet et sa femme..
GIVRE ou LEGIVRE Jean François Claude, ex chapelain de la ci-devant chapelle aux Images, à Metz (Moselle), domicilié à Thionville même département, par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme émigré.
SAMARY Mathias, tricoteur de bas, domicilié à Forbach (Moselle), comme émigré, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
JANOT François, cultivateur, domicilié à Cournol (Oise), par le tribunal criminel du département du Puy-de-Dôme, comme contre-révolutionnaire.

1793 Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:       ^top^
Domiciliés à Limoges, département de la Haute Vienne, par le tribunal criminel dudit département:
MAILHOT Léonard, commis marchand, comme fabricateur de faux assignats.
     ... comme distributeurs de faux assignats:
BORDIER Jean Baptiste, père, boulanger. — BORDIER Joseph, fils, praticien. — BORDIER Etienne, fils, élève dans le génie. — PINCHOT Léonarde, femme Bordier. — VACQUAND Catherine, veuve Renoir, marchande quincaillière.
Comme brigands de la Vendée:
LEUSSIER François Marie, né en 1720, vraisemblablement de Moisdon ou Belle Rivière, Notaire apostolique et royal, guillotiné sur la place du village de Chateaubriand.
      ... domiciliés dans le département de la Vendée, par la commission militaire des Sables:
COUTUMEAU Louis, laboureur, domicilié à St Hilaire-de-la-Forêt.
MARCETEAU Charles, maréchal, domicilié à la Chaise-Girard.
MARCHAND Pierre Renou, domicilié à St Hilaire-de-Rié.
PETIOT Jacques, maire et curé de St Reverand, domicilié à Reverand.
RENOU Pierre, marchand, domicilié à St-Hilaire-en-Rié.
RORTHAIS René Louis, ex noble, domicilié à Beaulieu.

1755 Jean-Baptiste Oudry, French artist specialized in Animals, born on 17 March 1686. — MORE ON OUDRY AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1657 Jacques de Stella, French painter born in 1596. — MORE ON DE STELLA AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1655 Eustache Le Sueur, French painter born on 19 November 1617. — MORE ON LE SUEUR AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
0065  Lucius Anneus Séneca y Marcus Anneus Lucanus, implicados en la conjura de Pisón, son descubiertos y obligados a suicidarse.
^ Births which occurred on an April 30:
1967  La torre de televisión de Ostankino, de 533 metros de alto, se inaugura en Moscú.
1964 PDP-7 computer       ^top^
      Digital's PDP line, launched in the late 1950's, would evolve into a popular series of computers. Company founder Ken Olsen believed that computers should be easy and relatively fun to use. The PDP (Programmed Data Processors) line worked independently or in conjunction with a larger mainframe computer. The PDP-7 immediately preceded PDP-8, the first computer to use integrated circuits. The machine, unveiled in 1965, became a phenomenal success. Because it was smaller than a mainframe-it could fit in a closet instead of a garage-DEC called the PDP-7 a "minicomputer." By the 1970's, DEC ranked behind IBM as the world's second-largest computer company.
1963  El puente de arco de la línea que une Schleswig-Holstein y la isla de Fehmarn, situada en el mar Báltico, queda terminado, después de cuatro años en construcción.
1948 Land Rover       ^top^
is introduced at the Amsterdam Auto Show on this day in 1948. Brothers Maurice and Spencer Wilks, then the Rover Company's managing director, developed the truck as a result of a conversation about Maurice's American 4x4. Realizing the gap in the British market for such a vehicle, they quickly produced a prototype out of aluminum and steel, metals that were still rationed in England at the time. They used interior components from their Rover saloon cars.
      The first prototype was completed in 1947, but it wasn't launched until the Amsterdam show the following year. The vehicle featured four-wheel drive and a 1.6-liter engine from the Rover P3 60 saloon. It was shown with a canvas top and optional doors. Doors eventually became standard, as did a system where two- and four-wheel drive could be selected in the high range with permanent four-wheel drive in the low range.
      In 1952, the engine was enlarged to 2 liters and the wheelbase was extended to 86 inches. Land Rover would become immensely successful in endurance races and off-road rallies, making it the standard operating vehicle for British Commonwealth wilderness territories. Heavy and easy to repair, the Land Rover earned its name for toughness and reliability.
1946 Carl XVI Gustav king of Sweden (from 19 Sep 1973- )
1945 Annie Dillard, in Pittsburgh, poet, essayist, and novelist.       ^top^
      At age 28, Dillard would become the youngest American woman to win the Pulitzer Prize, for her collection of essays Pilgrim at Tinker Creek (1974). The book, often compared with Henry David Thoreau's Walden, collected her meditations during a year spent living on the shores of a creek. She also wrote a collection of poetry, Tickets for a Prayer Wheel, the same year. Dillard began reading avidly as a child and studied writing at Hollins College in Roanoke, Virginia, where she took her bachelor's and master's. In 1965, she married her creative writing professor, R.H.W. Dillard. Between 1975 and 1978, she was a scholar-in-residence at Western Washington University in Bellingham, Washington. She moved to Connecticut in 1979 and became a professor at Wesleyan University after her second marriage. She wrote prolifically, publishing five more books by 1989 and writing essays, poems, memoirs, and reviews. Her first novel, The Living (1992), a detailed chronicle of Pacific Northwest pioneers, was a critical success.
1944  Félix de Azúa, poeta y novelista español.
1937 Richard Farina, US folksinger and novelist who died on 30 April 1966.
1932  Antonio Tejero Molina, militar golpista español.
1927  El segador, de José Ruiz Martínez “Azorín”, se estrena en Santander.
1916 Claude Elwood Shannon Jr., US electrical engineer and mathematician who died on 24 February 2001. He founded the subject of information theory and he proposed a linear schematic model of a communications system.
1912  Manuel Gutiérrez Mellado, militar y vicepresidente del Gobierno español.
1909 Queen Juliana of Netherlands (1948-80)
1904 George Stibitz       ^top^
     He would grow up to develop an early digital calculator to make his job easier. In 1940, Stibitz worked on relay switching equipment for Bell Telephone Laboratories, a job that required him to perform complex mathematical computations very quickly. One night at home, Stibitz rigged up an electronic adding machine with dry cell batteries, metal strips from a tobacco can, and flashlight bulbs. The adding machine, called the Model I Complex Calculator, was used at Bell for the next nine years. Stibitz later taught physiology at Dartmouth Medical School, where he pioneered computer applications in the biomedical arena.
1904 Las tres casas de Jerez, de Fernández Shaw y Pedro Muñoz Seca, se estrena en el teatro Eslava.
1904  Un aparato capaz de recibir una onda emitida por un barco es patentado por Christian Hismeyes.
1902 Theodore William Schultz, in South Dakota, US economist who shared the 1979 Nobel Economics Prize with Sir Arthur Lewis of the UK “for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries”. He died on 26 February 1998.
1901 Simon Kuznets, Russian-born US Nobel Prize-winning economist and statistician who died on 08 July 1985.
1893 Joachim von Ribbentrop, German foreign minister under the Nazi regime (1933-45). He was chief negotiator of the treaties with which Germany entered World War II. Ribbentrop's greatest diplomatic coup was the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact of 23 August 1939, which cleared the way for Hitler's attack on Poland on 01 September 1939, thus beginning World War II. Together with nine other top Nazis, Ribbentrop was executed for war crimes on 16 October 1946.
1888 John Crowe Ransom, US poet and critic who died on 04 July 1974.
1885 Guido Luigi Russolo, Italian artist who died in 1947.
1883  Indalecio Prieto y Tuero, político español, que fue varias veces ministro en la II República española.
1857 Eugen Bleuler, Swiss psychiatrist who pioneered the study of schizophrenics. He died on 15 July 1939.
1835 Franz von Defregger, Austrian painter who died on 02 January 1921. MORE ON DEFREGGER AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1826  Jerónimo Martínez Sánchez, grabador, fotógrafo, dibujante y pintor venezolano.
1808 First practical typewriter completed by Italian Pellegrini Turri for his blind friend Countess Carolina Fantoni da Fivizzono, though. typewriter patents date back to 1713. Commercial production, however, would begin only with the "writing ball" of Danish pastor Malling Hansen (1870).
1804 Richard Redgrave, British artist who died on 14 December 1888. MORE ON REDGRAVE AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1798 Charles-Auguste van den Berghe, Belgian artist who died on 17 November 1853.
1777 Johann Karl Friedrich Gauss, German, one of the world's great mathematicians and physicists. He died on 23 February 1855. He worked in a wide variety of fields in both mathematics and physics incuding number theory, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, magnetism, astronomy and optics.
1651 Saint Jean-Baptiste de La Salle, French philanthropist and founder of the Brothers of the Christian Schools. He died on 07 April 1719.
1729 chevalier Jacques Antoine Volaire, French painter who died before 1802. MORE ON VOLAIRE AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1504 Francesco Primaticcio di Bologna, Italian Mannerist painter and sculptor who died in 1570. MORE ON PRIMATICCIO AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
Holidays Switzerland : May Day Eve/Maitag Vorabend / Netherland, Neth Antilles, Surinam : Queen Juliana's Birthday / Louisiana : Admission Day (1813) / Vietnam: Victory day (1975)

Religious Observances Witch : Walpurgis Night or Bealtaine, sabbat / RC : St Pius V, pope / RC, Luth : St Catherine of Siena, virgin/doctor / RC : St Pius V, pope (1566-72) (opt) / Nuestra Señora del Villar; santos Pío V y Luis.

Thoughts for the day : “To get ahead and stay ahead, use your head.”
“To get acknowledged and stay acknowledged, use your knowledge.”
“You're never too old to die.”
“Upper classes are a nation's past; the middle class is its future.”
— Ayn Rand, Russian-born author [1905-1982]. {and the lower class gets no present}
updated Friday 30-Apr-2004 5:43 UT
safe site
site safe for children safe site