• Born~to~die child~king Louis XVII... • Krushchev consolidates power as USSR dictator... • Strongest earthquake in US history... • Charles I becomes British king... • First Mormon temple... • Guerre de Crimée... • Japanese cherry trees... • Cray Computer bankrupcy... • Rolls~Royce cofounder is born... • Satellite communication inventor is born... • TV Marti... • Mexicans execute defenders of Goliad... • Bombing of Cambodia to continue... • South Vietnamese attack in Cambodia... • Last German V~2s... • Tarantelli ucciso per le Br...
| On a March
2134 32nd recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet.
2002 Two-day summit meeting of the Arab League starts in Beirut. Heads of state from only 10 of the leagues' 22 members are attending with some hardline leaders like Libya's staying away out of rejection of the Saudi ideas on peace with Israel, while others from the Gulf had to stay home for health reasons. Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat decided not to come after Israel demanded he call a cease-fire before it would let him travel to Beirut and said it may not let him return home if there is violence in his absence. Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak also stays away in solidarity with Arafat, and so does Jordan's King Abdullah II. UN Secretary General Kofi Annan and top EU officials are present.
The acting ruler of Saudi Arabia, Crown Prince Abdullah, gives details of the peace-with-Israel plan he had announced in February. He proposes Wednesday that the Arab world offer Israel normal relations' and security in exchange for full withdrawal from Arab lands held since 1967, establishment of a Palestinian state with Jerusalem as its capital and a right of return for Palestinian refugees.
Only three Arab League members Egypt, Jordan and Mauritania have full diplomatic links with Israel. Qatar and Oman have low-level trade relations with Israel.
Arab leaders consider several other matters for their summit-ending proposal, including resolutions on Iraq, providing financial aid to the Palestinians and reaffirming their positions on terrorism.
2002 The US State Department releases its new list of foreign terrorist organizations, these 23: — Abu Nidal Organization (ANO) — Abu Sayyaf Group — Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade [Palestine] — Armed Islamic Group — 'Asbat al-Ansar — Aum Shinrikyo — Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA = Euskadi Ta Askatasuna) — Gama’a al-Islamiyya (Islamic Group) — Hamas (Islamic Resistance Movement) — Harakat ul-Mujahidin (HUM) — Hizballah (Party of God) — Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) — Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM) (Army of Mohammed) — Al-Jihad (Egyptian Islamic Jihad) — Kahane Chai (Kach) — Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) — Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LT) (Army of the Righteous) — Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) [Sri Lanka] — Mujahedin-e Khalq Organization (MEK) — National Liberation Army (ELN) — Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) — Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) — Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) — PFLP-General Command (PFLP-GC) — Al-Qaida [Islamic] — Real IRA [Northern Ireland] — Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) — Revolutionary Nuclei (formerly ELA) — Revolutionary Organization 17 November [Greece] — Revolutionary People’s Liberation Army/Front (DHKP/C) — Salafist Group for Call and Combat (GSPC) — Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso, SL) [Peru] — United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC)
2000 The US Supreme Court rules that the federal government may not deny food stamps and other welfare benefits to people who live permanently in the US but are not citizens.
2000 DaimlerChrysler AG announces that it will buy 34% of Japan's Mitsubishi Motors Corp.
2000 La Justicia española acepta a trámite la querella por genocidio contra el pueblo maya interpuesta por Rigoberta Menchú contra el régimen militar guatemalteco.
1998 The US Food and Drug Administration approves the drug Viagra, made by Pfizer, saying that it helped about two-thirds of impotent men improve their sexual function. (It would become an E-mail spam plague).
1996 An Israeli court convicts former law student Yigal Amir, Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin's confessed assassin, then sentences him to life in prison.
1994 El colombiano César Gaviria es elegido secretario general de la Organización de Estados Americanos.
1993 El secretario general del Partido Comunista, Jiang Zemin, es elegido presidente de la República Popular China.
1992 La Comunidad de Estados Independientes (surgida de la disolución de la URSS) acuerda el establecimiento de una Asamblea Parlamentaria.
1992 Apple and Sharp announced a deal to co-develop a pocket-sized computer: the Newton would be released in January 1993 and become a failure because of its problems with handwriting recognition. Although Apple poured some $500 million into its development, the struggling product was finally killed off in March 1998.
1991 President George Bush (Sr.) publicly disagreed with Gen. H. Norman Schwarzkopf, who claimed he had urged further fighting in the Persian Gulf War at the time Bush ordered a cease-fire.. (Schwarzkopf later apologized to Bush.) Later events would prove that Bush had made a disastrous decision, which ennabled Saddam Hussein to continue his cruel dictatorship in Iraq and his defiance of international law.
TV Marti begins broadcasting to Cuba.
The US government begins the operation of TV Marti, which broadcast television programs into communist Cuba. The project marked yet another failed attempt to undermine the regime of Cuban leader Fidel Castro. TV Marti was put together under the auspices of the Voice of America, the US radio and television broadcasting system established in the 1940s to beam news and propaganda throughout the world, particularly directed toward communist nations. The new addition to this propaganda arsenal, TV Marti, was primarily the result of intense lobbying by Cuban-American interest groups and a handful of senators and representatives from south Florida and New Jersey (areas with large Cuban-American populations). TV Marti programming tried to give Cubans an accurate look at American life.
The legality and effectiveness of TV Marti were immediately issues for debate. International law forbade the transmitting of television signals into another nation if the transmission interfered with regular programming. TV Marti representatives argued that the signal was being sent on unused channels in Cuba. As for how effective it was, Cuba immediately worked to jam the signal as soon as TV Marti launched, so only a few people on the outskirts of Havana could conceivably see the broadcasts. The first day's programming included some footage of old World Series games, music videos, and replays of the old "Kate and Allie" sitcom. TV Marti was a powerful indication of the strength of Cold War animosities and the Cuban-American lobby in the United States. The United States and Cuba had been locked in a diplomatic war since Fidel Castro came to power in 1959, and the United States resorted to a number of different schemes to try to unseat the dictator during the following decades. During that time, the Cuban-American lobby, which was well organized and well funded, became a powerful voice in Washington. Despite the fact that TV Marti was a dismal failure in terms of weakening the Castro regime, it continues to receive funding and is still in operation.
|1987 Camilo José Cela recibe el Premio Príncipe de Asturias
de las Letras.
1985 El presidente estadounidense, Ronald Reagan obtiene el apoyo oficial de la OTAN a su programa de defensa espacial, conocido como Star Wars.
1980 Mount St Helens becomes active after 123 years, shooting out ash and steam. On 18 May 1980 it will blow its top in the most destructive eruption in US history.
1962 Archbishop Joseph Francis Rummel ordered all Roman Catholic schools in the New Orleans diocese to end segregation.
1961 Se autorizan de nuevo en Turquía los partidos políticos.
| 1945 General Eisenhower declares German defenses on
Western Front broken
1945 Tras la aceptación del Conferencia del acta de Chapultepec, Argentina declara la guerra a Alemania y Japón.
1944 Children's AktionNazis collect all the Jewish children of Lovno
1944 1000 Jews leave Drancy, France, for Auschwitz Concentration Camp
1944 El Gobierno de Vichy autoriza la incorporación de franceses en la SS.
1941 Britain leases defense bases in Trinidad to US for 99 years
1940 Décision francobritannique de ne pas conclure de paix ou d'armistice séparés.
1940 Himmler ordena la construcción del campo de concentración de Auschwitz.
1935 Entra en vigor la retirada de Japón de la Sociedad de Naciones.
1934 El Gobierno Alejandro Lerroux restablece la pena de muerte en España para contener el terrorismo y la inestabilidad social.
1933 Japón se retira de la Sociedad de Naciones.
1925 Cecil Kimber registered his first modified Morris car, the prototype of the MG. With their overhead cam engines, MG’s would be popular in the US as sports cars.
1920 El socialdemócrata Hermann Müller es nombrado canciller de la república de Weimar.
1918 Besarabia queda incorporada a Rusia.
1912 La Cámara de los Comunes británica aprueba una ley de salario mínimo para los mineros para dar respuesta a las promesas realizadas durante la huelga de la minería.
1899 El ingeniero y físico italiano Guglielmo Marconi establece la primera conexión mediante telegrafía sin hilos entre Inglaterra y Francia.
1884 The first long-distance telephone call is made, between Boston and New York City.
1868 El canciller alemán, Bismarck, firma con el zar de Rusia un acuerdo por el que Rusia se comprometía a concentrar sus tropas en la frontera para y detener a las fuerzas de Austria-Hungría en caso de producirse un conflicto franco-prusiano.
1866 US President Andrew Johnson vetoes civil rights bill; it later becomes 14th amendment to the Constitution.
1865 Lincoln meets with Generals US Grant and William T. Sherman at City Point, Virginia
1865 Siege at Spanish Fort, Alabama continues
1863 Skirmish at Palatka, Florida.
1863 Confederate President Davis calls for this to be a day of fasting and prayer
1861 El Parlamento piamontés, reunido en Turín, declara a Roma capital de Italia, aunque hasta 1870 no entrarían en la ciudad las tropas de Víctor Manuel.
1855 The distillation of kerosene from petroleum is patented by Abraham Gesner [02 May 1797 – 29 April 1864]. Petroleum had previously been considered either a nuisance, or a miracle cure (by Amerindians first). Kerosene is a light fraction petroleum product refined from the raw petroleum. Kerosene is one of the lighter "distillates" in a petroleum refinery, lighter than gasoil/diesel, and often in the same mix with jet fuel (e.g., Jet A1). It has been used for lighting [in lanterns such as this >], cooling and refrigeration for one hundred years. Kerosene is found throughout the world, and is one of the most common lighting fuels in the developing world. It is also often used for cooking, primarily in urban areas in the developing world. It is used as an ingredient in lamp oils, charcoal starter fluids, jet engine fuels and insecticides. K-1 kerosene has a low sulfur content and is used in portable space heaters. Kerosene is a variable mixture usually of about 10 hydrocarbons, each containing from 10 to 16 carbon atoms per molecule, including n-dodecane, alkyl benzenes, and naphthalene and its derivatives. Kerosene saved the whales (by becoming a cheaper replacement for sperm oil).
1803 Par la loi du du 7 Germinal an XI, le Premier consul Napoléon Bonaparte donne une base stable à la monnaie née de la Révolution en définissant la nouvelle pièce de 1 Franc par “5 grammes d'argent au titre de neuf dixièmes de fin”. Une pièce en or de 20 francs est également créée sous le nom de “Napoléon”.
1802 Treaty of Amiens:: French Revolutionary War ends. Francia firma la Paz de Amiens con Inglaterra, por la que España recupera Menorca y cede Trinidad.
1794 US President Washington and Congress authorized creation of the US Navy.
1512 Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León sights Florida.
1123 Finaliza el primer concilio ecuménico universal, bautizado como Concilio de Letrán, celebrado por la Iglesia de Occidente a instancias del papa Calixto II.
which occurred on a March 27:
2003 Two of the five aboard a crashing US Forest Service Bell 407 helicopter among the seven searching for debris remaining from the 01 February 2003 crash of the space shuttle Columbia near Broaddus in the Angelina National Forest, San Augustine County, Texas. The other three aboard are injured.
2003 Amir Beeks, 3, of being beaten with a baseball bat, the previous afternoon, by a boy, 10, who enticed him from a library in Woodbridge NJ, and sexually assaulted him.
2003 Dusan Spasojevic, 35, and Mile Lukovic, 34, in a shootout with Serbian policemen who find them hiding in a suburb of Belgrade. The two were members of the criminal gang Zemun Clan and suspected of involvement in the 12 March 2003 assassination of Prime Minister Zoran Djindjic.
2003 Gunnery Sgt. Joseph Menusa, 33; and Lance Cpl. Jesus A. Suarez Del Solar, 20; US Marines killed in action in Iraq.
2003 Ricardo Munguía, 39, Salvadoran-Swiss water engineer working for the Red Cross in Afghanistan, shot at 10:00 by some 25 gunmen who stop the Red Cross convoy in which he was traveling in Orugan province towards Kandahar, drag out Munguía, the only non-Afghan, radio their commander, ex-Taliban Mullah Dadullah, then follow his orders to kill the foreigner. They leave the Afghan Red Cross workers unharmed, but steal a Red Cross vehicle and loot the others, setting one on fire.
2003 Two of the 14 passengers and both crew members of a de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter of PT Air Regional which crashes at 12:30 into a 2100-meter mountain 3 minutes after taking off from Mulia, Indonesia, bound for Wamena.
2002 Perla Hermele, 79, of Sweden; and Israelis David Anichovitch, 70; Shimon Ben-Aroya, 42; Andre Fried, 47; Idit Fried, 47; Ami Hamami, 44; Dvora Karim, 73; Michael Karim, 78; Marianne Myriam Lehmann Zaoui, 77; Furuk Na'imi, 62, all 9 of Netanya; Eliahu Nakash, 85, and Yulia Talmi, 87, both of Tel-Aviv; Ernest Weiss, 79, and Eva Weiss, 75, both of Petah Tikva; Meir (George) Yakobovitch, 76, and Shula Abramovitch, 63, both of Holon; Sergeant Major Avrahakm Beckerman, 25, of Ashdod; Miriam Gutenzgan, 82, of Ramat Gan; Yehudit Korman, 70, of Ramat Hasharon; Lola Levkovitch, 85, of Jerusalem; Irit Rashel, 45, of Moshav Herev La'et; St.-Sgt. Sivan Vider, 20, of Bekaot; and Abdel-Basset Odeh, suicide bomber of the Iz a Din al-Kassam Brigades, who blows himself up at about 19:30 in the dining hall of the Park Hotel on the boardwalk of Netanya, Israel, where about 250 persons were for the Passover Seder. 62 persons are wounded seriously enough to remain hospitalized for a day or more. Seven of them die later of their injuries: Chanah Rogan, 92, of Netanya; Zee'v Vider, 50, of Moshav Bekaot; Alter Britvich, 88, and his wife Frieda Britvich, 86, of Netanya, on 02 April and 03 April; Sarah Levy-Hoffman, 89, of Tel-Aviv, on 07; Anna Yakobovitch, 78, of Holon, on 11 April; Eliezer Korman, 74, of Ramat Hasharon, on 05 May.
2002 Eight council members: Louiza Benakli, 40, Christian Bouthier, 46, Jacotte Duplenne, 48, Monique Leroy-Sauter, 43, Olivier Mazzotti, 38, Valérie Méot, 40, Michel Raoult, 58, Pascal Sternberg, 30, shot by Richard Durn, 33, mentally disturbed, in the Nanterre (working-class western Paris suburb) city hall at about 01:15 following a city council meeting. 17 council members and two other persons are wounded. As brave council members subdue him, Durn shouts: Kill me! Kill me! The next day, during a police interrogation, he would jump to his death out of a 5th-story window.. Détails sur les morts: Benakli (PCF, adjointe déléguée à l'enfance), avocate _ Bouthier (PCF), professeur de collège _ Duplenne (PCF, adjointe déléguée à la jeunesse et à l'enseignement), institutrice _ Leroy-Sauter (Groupe l'Union pour Nanterre, droite), expert-comptable _ Mazzotti (Groupe l'Union pour Nanterre, droite), enseignant _ Méot (PCF, secrétaire de la section locale du PCF), institutrice _ Raoult (Groupe l'Union pour Nanterre, droite), cadre _ Sternberg (Verts), conseiller régional et chargé de mission.
2001 Mahmoud Darawish, 11, Palestinian boy, by Israeli gunfire, at a refugee camp near Hebron.
1995 René Allio, cineasta, pintor y hombre de teatro francés.
1972 Maurits C. Escher, mathematician.
1968 Col. Yuri A. Gagarin and Col. Vladimir S. Seryogin, some 50 km east of Moscow, in 10:31 crash of a MiG-15 fighter plane on a training flight in which Seryogin was the instructor of Gagarin, born on 09 March 1934, famous for making man's first flight in space on 12 April 1961, lasting from 09:07 to 10:55 including an 89-minute orbit.
1944 40 Jewish policemen in Riga, Latvia, ghetto are shot by the Gestapo
1942 Julio González, Spanish artist born on 21 September 1876. Julio González, escultor español conocido fundamentalmente por sus trabajos con el hierro forjado, fallece en la localidad francesa de Arcueil.
1929 Shatunovsky, mathematician.
1925 Carl Neumann, mathematician.
1899 Myles Birket Foster, British painter born on 04 February 1825. — more with links to images.
1888 Faà di Bruno, mathematician.
1882 (29 Mar?) Thomas Jones Barker, British painter born on 19 April 1813. — more
1875 Francisco Javier Parcerisa, pintor y litógrafo español.
1843 Jakob Gauermann, German artist born on 03 September 1773.
1809 Joseph Marie Vien, French Neoclassical painter born on 18 June 1716.. MORE ON VIEN AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1770 Giovanni-Battista Tiepolo, Italian painter born on 05 March 1696. MORE ON TIEPOLO AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1723 Constantyn Netscher, Dutch artist born on 16 December 1668.
1677 Jan Meerhout, Dutch artist.
1625 James I, king of Great Britain (as he called himself), born on 19 June 1566. He became king James VI of Scotland on 24 July 1567, upon the abdication of his mother Mary, Queen of Scots (he never saw her after the age of 2). He became the first Stuart king of England in 1603 at the death of childless queen Elizabeth I.
1378 Gregorio XI, Papa.
which occurred on a March 27:
1955 Mariano Rajoy, político español, vicepresidente primero y ministro de Interior.
1944 Enrique Barón, político español.
1917 Cyrus R Vance, US Secretary of State (1977-1980)
1915 Denton Welch, English painter and novelist who died on 30 November 1948. ART LINKS
1912 Lord Callaghan, he would become British prime minister. James Callaghan, sindicalista y político británico.
1903 Xavier Villaurrutia, poeta y escritor mexicano.
1901 Sato Eisaku, (Lib) Japanese PM (1964-72) (Nobel Peace Prize 1974). He died on 03 June 1975.
1897 Hartree, mathematician.
1894 Leroy Leveson Laurent Joseph de Maistre, British artist who died in 1968.
1879 Edward J. Steichen, US photographer; a leader of the Photo-Secession Group. He died on 25 March 1973. — more with links to images.
1875 Albert Marquet, French Fauvist painter who died on 13 June 1947. [Il y avait un peintre du nom de Marquet / qui était souvent recherché par le Parquet. / Mais alors pour outremer il s'embarquait, / et personne ne le remarquait] MORE ON MARQUET AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1857 Karl Pearson, mathematician.
1853 Wilhelm Gause, German artist who died in 1916.
1851 Vincent d'Indy Paris France, dandy composer (Symphonie Cévenole)
1847 Otto Wallach Germany, chemist (Nobel 1910). He died on 26 February 1941.
1846 Kerosene: Dr. Abraham Gesner MD [1797-1864], a Canadian living at this time in the US, patents a process for retorting an illuminating liquid from oil shale, which is given the trade name "Kerosene". Gesner also invented a kerosene lantern [shown here >]. After 1859 when E.L. Drake drilled the first petroleum well in Pennsylvania, kerosene was mainly distilled from petroleum crude (of which it constitutes 10 to 25%) and became plentiful. It was the major refinery product until the advent of the automobile.
1845 Wilhelm Konrad Rõntgen Germany, discovered X-rays (Nobel 1901)
1832 William Quiller Orchardson, British artist who died on 13 April 1910. — link to images.
1813 Nathaniel Currier, lithographer, founder of Currier & Ives firm which mass-produced hand-colored lithographic prints. — more with links to images.
1797 baron Alfred-Victor de Vigny, [< à 17 ans, en uniforme de gendarme de la Maison du Roi] French poet, dramatist and novelist who died on 17 September 1863. Jusqu'en 1827, capitaine dans la garde royale, il mena une vie de garnison monotone. En 1826, il publia les Poèmes antiques et modernes et un roman historique, Cinq-Mars, suivi de Stello (roman à thèse, 1832), Chatterton (drame, 1835), Servitude et grandeur militaires (récits, 1835).Très affecté par la perte de sa mère et sa rupture avec l'actrice Marie Dorval (1837), déçu par les milieux littéraires (discours offensant du comte Molé à l'Académie française, où il a été élu en 1845) et par son échec à la députation en 1848, Vigny se retira en Charente dans son manoir du Maine-Giraud. Les Destinées, recueil posthume de poèmes philosophiques, furent publiées en 1864. (La Mort du loup, 1843 ; la Maison du berger et le Mont des Oliviers, 1844). L'œuvre de Vigny est empreinte d'un stoïcisme hautain, qui s'exprime en vers denses et dépouillés, souvent riches en symboles. DE VIGNY ONLINE: (images de pages): Poèmes ; Héléna ; le Somnanbule ; la Fille de Jephté ; la Femme adultère ; le Bal ; la Prison, etc. Théâtre. Les destinées : poèmes philosophiques Poésies Les consultations du docteur Noir : première consultation : Stello Servitude et grandeur militaire Cinq-Mars ou Une conjuration sous Louis XIII (texte): Les consultations du docteur Noir ; Stello : première consultation ; Daphné : seconde consultation du docteur Noir ; ...
1797 Noël-Dieudonné Finart, French artist who died in 1852.
1678 Karel Breydel chevalier d'Anvers, Flemish artist who died on 12 September 1733.