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Events, deaths, births, of 09 MAY
[For May 09 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: May 191700s: May 201800s: May 211900~2099: May 22]
• West Germany joins NATO... • Abolitionist John Brown is born... • Union victory at Snake Creek... • US provoked to war against Mexico... • Peter Pan's author is born... • Reuther dies... • Buffalo Bill's Wild West show... • Crown jewels stolen... • Goering captured... • Hostage Moro murdered... • Nixon impeachment proceedings... • Byrd flies over North Pole?... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • 121 die crushed at soccer game...
TFR price chartOn a May 09:
2002 Tefron Ltd. manufactures boutique-quality everyday intimate apparel sold throughout the world by such name-brand marketers as Victoria's Secret and Warnaco/Calvin Klein. Its stock (TFR) of apparel and accessories company Tefron Ltd (TFR) rises from its previous day's close of $1.45 to an intraday high of $3.44 and closes at $3.15. It had traded as high as $27 on 27 April 1998, less than a year after it went public. [5~year price chart >]
2002 Maryland Governor Parris Glendening imposes a moratorium on executions in Maryland until the state completes a study of whether there is racial bias in the use of the death penalty. Only one other US state that has capital punishment, Illinois, has imposed a similar moratorium, declared by its Governor George Ryan in 2000.
2002 Municipal elections in Bahrain, its first elections after almost 30 years of autocratic emirate, and first elections in which women can vote and be candidates.
2000 Former four-term Louisiana Governor Edwin Edwards is convicted of extortion schemes to manipulate the licensing of riverboat casinos. (In January 2001, Edwards would be sentenced to 10 years in prison and fined $250'000.)
1997 Former POW becomes US ambassador to Communist Vietnam.       ^top^
      Twenty-two years and ten days after the fall of Saigon, former Florida Representative Douglas "Pete" Peterson became the first ambassador to Vietnam since Graham Martin was airlifted out of the country by helicopter in late April 1975.
      Peterson himself served as a US air force captain during the Vietnam War, and was held as a prisoner of war for six-and-a-half-years after his bomber was shot down near Hanoi in 1966. Thirty-one years later, Peterson returned to Hanoi on a different mission, presenting his credentials to Communist authorities in the Vietnamese capital on 09 May 1997.
      Normalization with America's old enemy began in early 1994, when US President Bill Clinton announced the lifting of the nineteen-year-old trade embargo against Vietnam, explaining that the Vietnamese government was cooperating in the US government's efforts to locate the 2238 Americans still listed as missing in action.
      However, although the embargo was lifted, high tariffs remained on Vietnamese exports pending the country's qualification as a "most-favored-nation," a US trade status designation that Vietnam might earn after broadening its program of free market reforms. In July of 1995, in light of continued Vietnamese cooperation in accounting for the US servicemen still listed as missing (POW/MIAs), the Clinton administration established diplomatic relations with Vietnam.
      In May 1996, President Bill Clinton terminated the combat zone designation for Vietnam and later in the year nominated Democratic Congressman Pete Peterson as the first US ambassador to Vietnam. Confirmed by Congress in the next year, Ambassador Peterson began his mission to Vietnam on 09 May 1997.
1996 In video testimony to a courtroom in Little Rock, Arkansas, President Clinton insists that he had nothing to do with a $300'000 loan at the heart of the criminal case against his former Whitewater partners.
1996 TVs to Surf the Web       ^top^
      Zenith announces that by the end of the year it will sell televisions that can surf the Web. Several other companies had announced similar plans, some for set-top boxes that would let ordinary televisions surf the Web, and others that let personal computers receive television signals.
1994 South Africa's newly elected parliament chooses Nelson Mandela to be the country's first Black president.
1994 Kinshasa is placed under quarantine after an outbreak of the Ebola virus.
1994 James Clark introduces Mosaic       ^top^
      James Clark, founder of Silicon Graphics, Inc., announces he will start a new company called Mosaic Communications Corporation. (The company would later change its name to Netscape Communications.) Clark teamed up with Marc Andreessen and six other programmers to create Mosaic, one of the earliest Web browsers, at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois. When Netscape went public in December 1995, it broke records for the most successful opening day of stock trading in history. Unfortunately, the company later found itself in a fierce and expensive battle with Microsoft, which ultimately led to its sale to AOL in late 1998.
1994 Gates sued for TV reporter's arrest       ^top^
      Television journalist Scott Rensberger, a 33-year-old reporter for a Seattle television station, filed a suit against Bill Gates and others for Rensberger's arrest and imprisonment on New Year's Day in Hawaii. (Rensberger had been arrested in a public park on Lanai for trespassing at Bill Gates' wedding on the island.) In April 1995, the suit was settled for an undisclosed amount of money. Gates and David Murdock, the CEO of Dole Food and owner of most of Lanai, where the wedding took place, both sent letters of apology to Rensberger. Another Microsoft executive and Murdock donated more than $120'000 to a charity of Rensberger's choice.
1990 Son anunciadas reformas radicales en Albania.
1989 Journalist petition Chinese govt for freedom of press.
1985 En Moscú, desfile militar conmemorativo del cuarenta aniversario de la victoria sobre Alemania, en el que se ven, por primera vez en público, los cohetes SS-21.
1984 Marcelino Oreja Aguirre, ex Ministro de Asuntos Exteriores español, es elegido Secretario General del Consejo de Europa.
1983 John Paul II announced the reversal of the Catholic Church's 1633 condemnation of Galileo Galilei, the scientist who first espoused the Copernican (i.e., heliocentric) view of our solar system.
1979 En España, el Rey Juan Carlos I preside la apertura de la primera legislatura constitucional.
1977 Saving Social Security       ^top^
     President Jimmy Carter proposes a tax hike aimed at bolstering Social Security's "fiscal integrity." Along with bumping the tax rate up from 7to 7.5%, the president's proposal also called for federal funds to be shifted to Social Security if unemployment ever left the retirement program impotent. The latter point aroused considerable debate and prompted legislators to perform a heady round of revisions to the tax bill. In the winter of 1977, Congress gave the green light to the overhauled version of the president's legislation.
     Just a few months after taking the oath of office, Carter had set about healing America's various ills. One of the areas in dire need of attention was Social Security, America's program for paying out retirement benefits, which was increasingly threatened by the slumping economy and the ever-swelling unemployment rolls.
1975 El gobierno español reconoce el derecho de huelga.
1974 El primer ministro de Canadá, Pierre Trudeau, es derrocado por una moción de censura.
1974 US House votes to initiate impeachment proceedings       ^top^
      The House of Representatives Judiciary Committee opens impeachment hearings against President Richard Nixon, voting to impeach him on three counts on 30 July. The impeachment was the result of the scandal involving the bungled burglary of the offices of the Democratic National Committee in the Watergate apartment complex in Washington, D.C., on 23 June 1972. Eventually, it was learned that there was a criminal cover-up that went all the way to the White House. Nixon, facing the impeachment proceedings, resigned the presidency on 08 August 1974.
      Nixon's resignation had a major impact on the situation in Vietnam. Nixon had convinced South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu to consent to the provisions of the Paris Peace Accords by personally promising (on more than 30 occasions) that the United States would re-enter the conflict if the North Vietnamese violated the peace agreement. However, when Nixon resigned, his successor, Gerald R. Ford, was not able to keep Nixon's promises. Ford could not, despite Thieu's desperate pleas for help, get Congress to appropriate significant funds to help the South Vietnamese. Having lost its sole source of aid and support, South Vietnam fell to the North Vietnamese in April 1975.
1972 El presidente de EE.UU., Richard Milhous Nixon, ordena el bloqueo y minado de los puertos de Vietnam del Norte.
1970 Between 75'000 and 100'000 young persons, mostly from college campuses, demonstrate peacefully in Washington DC, at the rear of a barricaded White House, for US withdrawal from Vietnam. Afterwards, a few hundreds spread through surrounding streets, causing limited damage. Police attack the most threatening crowds with tear gas.
1969 Reporter breaks the news of secret bombing in Cambodia       ^top^
      William Beecher, military correspondent for the New York Times, publishes a front page dispatch from Washington, "Raids in Cambodia by US Unprotested," which accurately described the first of the secret B-52 bombing raids in Cambodia. Within hours, Henry Kissinger, presidential assistant for national security affairs, contacted J. Edgar Hoover, the director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, asking him to find the governmental sources of Beecher's article. During the next two years, Alexander Haig, a key Kissinger assistant, transmitted the names of National Security Council staff members and reporters who were to have their telephones wiretapped by the FBI.
1968 Violentos enfrentamientos entre policías, obreros y estudiantes en París, con 367 heridos graves y 720 leves.
1965 Luna 5 launched (USSR) first attempt to soft land on Moon. (fails)
1962 A laser beam is successfully bounced off the Moon for the first time.
1960 The US FDA approves contraceptive pill       ^top^
      The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves the world's first commercially produced birth-control pill — Enovid-10, made by the G.D. Searle Company of Chicago, Illinois.
      Development of "the pill," as it became popularly known, was initially commissioned by birth-control pioneer Margaret Sanger and funded by heiress Katherine McCormick. Sanger, who opened the first birth-control clinic in the United States in 1916, hoped to encourage the development of a more practical and effective alternative to contraceptives currently in use.
      In the early 1950s, Gregory Pincus, a biochemist at the Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology, and John Rock, a gynecologist at Harvard Medical School, began work on the birth-control pill. Clinical tests of the pill, which used synthetic progesterone and estrogen to repress ovulation in women, were initiated in 1954. On 09 May 1960, the FDA approved the pill, granting greater reproductive freedom to American women.
1958 Insurrección en Líbano contra el presidente, Camille Chamoun.
1955 West Germany joins NATO       ^top^
      Ten years after the Nazis were defeated in World War II, the German Federal Republic joins the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), a mutual defense group aimed at containing Soviet expansion in Europe. This action marked the final step of West Germany's integration into the Western European defense system. Germany had been a divided nation since 1945. The Americans, British, and French held zones of occupation in Western Germany and West Berlin; the Soviets controlled Eastern Germany and East Berlin.
      Although publicly both the US and the USSR proclaimed a desire for a reunited and independent Germany, it quickly became apparent that each of these Cold War opponents would only accept a reunified Germany that served their own nation's specific interests. In 1949, the US, UK, and France combined their zones of occupation in West Germany to establish a new nation, the Federal Republic of Germany. The Soviets responded by setting up the German Democratic Republic in East Germany.
      On 05 May 1955, the US, French, and British forces formally ended their military occupation of West Germany, which became an independent country. Four days later, West Germany is made a member of NATO. For US policymakers, this was an essential step in the defense of Western Europe. Despite the reluctance of some European nations, such as France, to see a rearmed Germany — even as an ally — the United States believed that remilitarizing West Germany was absolutely vital in terms of setting up a defensive perimeter to contain any possible Soviet attempts at expansion.
      The Soviet response was immediate. On 14 May 1955, the Soviet Union established the Warsaw Pact, a military alliance between Russia and its Eastern European satellites-including East Germany. The entrance of West Germany into NATO was the final step in integrating that nation into the defense system of Western Europe. It was also the final nail in the coffin as far as any possibility of a reunited Germany in the near future. For the next 35 years, East and West Germany came to symbolize the animosities of the Cold War. In 1990, Germany was finally reunified; the new German state remained a member of NATO.
1950 Journée de l'Europe
      Robert Schuman, ministre français des affaires étrangères, reprenant un projet élaboré par Jean Monnet, propose la création d'une autorité commune supervisant les productions française et allemande de charbon et d'acier, ouverte aux autres pays intéressés, comme première étape d'un «rassemblement des nations européennes».
     Cette déclaration est considérée comme l'acte fondateur de la future Union européenne. Elle a été choisie par le Conseil européen de Milan, en 1985, pour devenir la journée symbole de l'Europe et se célèbre chaque année à cette date comme "Journée de l'Europe".
1946 King Victor Emmanuel III [11 Nov 1869 – 28 Dec 1947] of Italy abdicates in favor of his son Umberto, in the vain hope of influencing a coming plebiscite, which turned out to chose to replace the monarchy by a republic, so that both went into exile. — El rey de Italia, Víctor Manuel III, abdica la corona en su hijo, el Príncipe del Piamonte, quien se proclamó a sí mismo como rey con el nombre de Humberto II.
1945 Czechoslovakia is liberated from Nazi occupation (National Day)
1945 Herman Goering is captured by the US Seventh Army       ^top^
     The commander in chief of the Luftwaffe, president of the Reichstag, head of the Gestapo, prime minister of Prussia, and Hitler's designated successor is taken prisoner by the US Seventh Army in Bavaria. Goering was an early member of the Nazi Party and was wounded in the failed Munich Beer Hall Putsch in 1923. That wound would have long-term effects; Goering became increasingly addicted to painkillers. Not long after Hitler's accession to power, Goering was instrumental in creating concentration camps for political enemies. Ostentatious and self-indulgent, he changed his uniform five times a day and was notorious for flaunting his decorations, jewelry, and stolen artwork. It was Goering who ordered the purging of German Jews from the economy following the Kristallnacht pogrom in 1938, initiating an "Aryanization" policy that confiscated Jewish property and businesses.
      Goering's failure to win the Battle of Britain and prevent the Allied bombing of Germany led to his loss of stature within the Party, aggravated by the low esteem with which he was always held by fellow officers because of his egocentrism and position as Hitler's right-hand man. As the war progressed, he dropped into depressions and battled drug addiction. When Goering fell into US hands after Germany's surrender, he had in his possession a rich stash of pills. He was tried at Nuremberg and charged with various crimes against humanity. Despite a vigorous attempt at self acquittal, he was found guilty and sentenced to be hanged, but before he could be executed, he committed suicide by swallowing a cyanide tablet he had hidden from his guards.
1944 Country singer Jimmie Davis becomes governor of Louisiana
1941 The German submarine U-110 is captured at sea by Britain's Royal navy.
1941 Ataque aéreo inglés contra Hamburgo.
1940 II Guerra Mundial: tropas británicas ocupan Islandia y las islas Feroe.
1940 Dimite Chamberlain, primer ministro británico.
1940 Hitler autoriza la eutanasia en Alemania.
1940 Le président Lebrun refuse la démission de Paul Reynaud
1936 Italy takes Addis Abba, annexing Abyssinia (Ethiopia) — El rey de Italia, Víctor Manuel III, es proclamado emperador de Etiopía por el Consejo Fascista, y el mariscal Badoglio virrey de dicho país.
1936 El dirigible alemán Hindenburg realiza el vuelo Francfort-Nueva York
1927 Australian Parliament first convenes in new capital, Canberra — La ciudad de Canberra es elegida sede del gobierno de Australia. .
1926 Byrd flies over the North Pole?       ^top^
      According to their claims, polar explorer Richard Evelyn Byrd and co-pilot Floyd Bennett flew over the North Pole on this day in the Josephine Ford, a triple-engine Fokker monoplane. It would have been the first time an aircraft flew over the top of the world. The pair had taken off from Spitsbergen, Norway, and they reportedly covered the 2486-km trip to the pole and back in fifteen hours and thirty minutes (average 160 km/h). For the achievement, both men were awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.
      However, in later decades, an analysis of Byrd's diary seemed to suggest that he may have turned back 240 km short of his goal. If so, Italian adventurer Umberto Nobile, American Lincoln Ellsworth, and Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen (who was in 1911 the first person to reach the South Pole by land) would receive the credit for their airship flight over the North Pole on 12 May 1926, three days after Fletcher and Byrd's flight.
      Regardless, Byrd's place in polar exploration is firmly set; in 1929, he established a US base in Antarctica and late in the same year, accompanied by aviator Bernt Balchen, he made the undisputed first aircraft flight over the South Pole.
1915 German and French fight the Battle of Artois.
1914 President Wilson proclaims Mother's Day
1913 The 17th amendment to the US Constitution, providing for the election of US senators by popular vote rather than selection by state legislatures, is ratified.
1887 Buffalo Bill's Wild West show opens       ^top^
      Buffalo Bill's Wild West show opens in London, giving Queen Victoria and her subjects their first look at real cowboys and Indians. A well-known scout for the army and a buffalo hunter for the railroads (which earned him his nickname), Cody had gained national prominence 15 years earlier thanks to a fanciful novel written by Edward Zane Carroll Judson. Writing under the pen name Ned Buntline, Judson made Cody the hero of his highly sensationalized dime novel The Scouts of the Plains; or, Red Deviltry As It Is. In 1872, Judson also convinced Cody to travel to Chicago to star in a stage version of the book. Cody broke with Judson after a year, but he enjoyed the life of a performer and stayed on the stage for 11 seasons.
      In 1883, Cody staged an outdoor extravaganza called the "Wild West, Rocky Mountain, and Prairie Exhibition" for a Fourth of July celebration in North Platte, Nebraska. When the show was a success, Cody realized he could evoke the mythic West more effectively if he abandoned cramped theater stages for large outdoor exhibitions. The result was "Buffalo Bill's Wild West," a circus-like pageant celebrating life in the West. During the next four years, Cody performed his show all around the nation to appreciative crowds often numbering 20'000 persons. Audiences loved Cody's reenactments of frontier events: an attack on a Deadwood stage, a Pony Express relay race, and most exciting of all, the spectacle of Custer's Last Stand at the Little Big Horn. Even more popular were the displays of western outdoor skills like rope tricks, bulldogging, and amazing feats of marksmanship. Cody made a star of Annie Oakley, an attractive young Ohio woman who earned her nickname "Little Sure Shot" by shooting a cigar out of an assistant's mouth.
     Many people were convinced that Cody's spectacle was an authentic depiction of the Wild West. Cody encouraged the impression by bringing audiences "genuine characters" — real Amerindian performers Cody had recruited from several tribes. Even the famous Sitting Bull toured with the show for one season. Enthralled by the site of "genuine" Indians, few audience members questioned whether these men wearing immense feathered headdresses and riding artfully painted horses accurately represented tribal life on the Great Plains.
      Having effectively defined the popular image of the West for many in the US, Cody took his show across the Atlantic to show Europeans. He staged his first international performance at the Earls Court show ground in London on this day in 1887 to a wildly appreciative audience. Queen Victoria herself attended two command showings. After London, Cody and his performers amazed audiences throughout Europe and then became a truly international success. One bronco rider, who stayed with the show until 1907, traveled around the world more than three times and recalled giving a performance in Outer Mongolia.
      Though Cody's Wild West show waned in popularity in the 20th century — in part because of competition from thousands of local rodeos that borrowed his idea — Cody remained on the road with the show for 30 years. When the show finally collapsed from financial pressures in 1913, Cody continued to perform in other similar shows until two months before his death in 1917. More than 18'000 attended the great showman's funeral, and the romantic power of his vision still draws thousands of visitors a year to his gravesite on Lookout Mountain above Denver.
1864 Union troops take Snake Creek Gap, Georgia       ^top^
      Union troops secure a crucial pass during the Atlanta campaign. In the spring and summer of 1864, Union General William T. Sherman and Confederate General Joseph Johnston conducted a slow and methodical campaign to seize control of Atlanta. Pushing southeast from Chattanooga toward Atlanta, Sherman continually tried to flank Johnston, but Johnston countered each move.
      On 03 May, 1864, two of Sherman's corps moved against Confederate defenses at Dalton, while another Yankee force under James McPherson swung wide to the south and west of Dalton in an attempt to approach Johnston from the rear. It was along this path that McPherson captured Snake Creek Gap, a crucial opening in a long elevation called Rocky Face Ridge. On one hand, seizure of the strategic pass was a brilliant Union victory. Rocky Face Ridge was a key geographic feature for Johnston and his army. It was a barrier against Sherman's army that could neutralize the superior numbers of Federal troops. When the Yankees captured the gap, Johnston had to pull his men much further south where the terrain did not offer such advantages.
      But securing Snake Creek Gap was also a missed opportunity for the Union. McPherson had a chance to cut directly into the Confederate rear but encountered what he judged to be strong Rebel defenses at Resaca. Union troops reached the Western and Atlantic Railroad, Johnston's supply line, but they did not have adequate numbers to hold the railroad, and did not have enough time to cut the line. McPherson halted his advance on Resaca and fell back to the mouth of Snake Creek Gap, causing Sherman to complain for years later that McPherson was timid and had lost the chance to route the Confederates. The campaign would eventually be successful, but the failure to secure or destroy the Confederate supply line prolonged the campaign, possibly by months.
1864 Engagement at Swift Creek, Virginia.
1864 Union failure at Snake Creek Gap, Georgia.
1864 Battle of Spotsylvania, Virginia continues.
1862 Confederates evacuate Norfolk, Virginia.
1862 Bombardment of Pensacola, Florida.
1846 Mexican ambush sparks the Mexican-US War.       ^top^
      Word reaches Washington that an American patrol had been ambushed by Mexican forces north of the Rio Grande. This leads four days later to the US Congress granting President James K. Polk’s request for a declaration of war.
      The Mexican-American War began with a dispute over the US government’s 1845 annexation of Texas, which had won independence from Mexico in 1836. In January of 1846, President James K. Polk, a strong advocate of westward expansion, ordered General Zachary Taylor to occupy disputed territory between the Nueces and Rio Grande rivers.
      On 12 May 1846, Mexican troops attacked the forces of General Taylor, who went on to win the Battle of Palo Alto
      On 13 May 1846, Congress, yet unaware of that battle, approved a declaration of war, appropriating ten million dollars for the war effort and authorizing the president to call for 50'000 volunteers.
      On 09 March 1847, US forces under General Winfield Scott invaded Mexico 5 km south of Vera Cruz. Encountering little resistance from the Mexicans massed in the fortified city of Vera Cruz, by nightfall the last of Scott’s 10'000 men had come ashore without the loss of a single life. By 29 March, with very few US casualties, Scott’s forces had taken Vera Cruz and its massive fortress, San Juan de Ulua.
      On 09 April, Scott began a devastating march to Mexico City, ending on 14 September, when triumphant US forces entered the Mexican capital and raised the American flag over the Hall of Montezuma.
      On 02 February 1848, representatives from the US and Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, formally ending the Mexican War, recognizing Texas as part of the United States, and extending the boundaries of the United States west to the Pacific Ocean.
1841 El general Baldomero Espartero es proclamado Regente de España.
1814 Se publica en Francia la Declaración de Saint-Ouen, en la que se exponen las bases de la Constitución que Luis XVIII otorga a los franceses al recuperar el trono tras la caída de Napoleón.
1769 Les Corses se soumettent à la France.
1754 A cartoon in Benjamin Franklin's Pennsylvania Gazette shows a snake cut into sections, each part representing an American colony; the caption reads, ''Join or die.''
1697 Se inician las negociaciones de la Paz de Ryswick, tratado que pone fin a la guerra sostenida entre Francia y la liga de Augsburgo (el emperador austriaco, el duque de Baviera, el elector del Palatinado, los príncipes de Renania y Franconia y los reinos de España y Suecia).
1671 Captain Blood steals Crown Jewels       ^top^
      In London, Thomas Blood, an Irish adventurer born in 1618, who called himself Colonel Blood, but is better known as "Captain Blood" (the fictional character, Peter Blood, of the 1922 novel Chivalry by Rafael Sabatini [29 April 1875 – 13 Feb 1950]) was captured attempting to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London.
      Blood, a Parliamentarian during the English Civil War and an officer in Cromwell's army, was deprived of his estate in Ireland with the restoration of the English monarchy in 1660. In 1663, he put himself at the head of a plot to seize Dublin Castle from supporters of King Charles II, but the plot was discovered and his accomplices executed. In 1671, he hatched a bizarre plan to steal the new Crown Jewels, refashioned by Charles II as most of the original jewels were melted down after Charles I's execution in 1649.
      On 09 May 1671, Blood, disguised as a priest, managed to convince the Jewel House keeper to hand over his pistols. Blood's three accomplices then emerged from the shadows, and together they forced there way into the Jewel House. However, they were caught in the act when the keeper's son showed up unexpectedly, and an alarm went out to the Tower guard. One man shoved the Royal Orb down his breeches while Blood flattened the Crown with a mallet and tried to run off with it.
      The Tower guards apprehended and arrested all four of the perpetrators. Blood refused to talk to anyone but the King. For some reason (it is supposed that Blood may have been at one time his secret agent) Charles, instead of punishing him, he restored his estates in Ireland and made him a member of his court with an annual pension of 500 pounds. Captain Blood became a colorful celebrity all across the kingdom, and after he died on 24 August 1680, his body had to be exhumed in order to persuade the public that he was actually dead.
1619 In Holland, the six month long Synod of Dort ended. Confirming the authority of the Heidelberg Catechism, the decisions of the Synod led to some 200 Arminian clergy being afterward deprived of their offices.
1502 Christopher Columbus leaves Cadiz, Spain, on his fourth and final trip to the New World.
Deaths which occurred on a May 09:
2003 Norman E. Wallace, 30, a Black MBA student, shot at 20:10 by Biswanath Halder, 52, who had just entered the Peter B. Lewis Building at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, and continues on a wild shooting rampage through the building, wounding a man and a woman, until police wound and capture him at 23:00. He is a 1999 MBA graduate of Case Western and former employee who had filed a lawsuit against another Case Western employee for having "added and deleted things from a personal Web site". His lawsuit was dismissed, and he lost an appeal in April 2003.
2003:: 129 of the police officials and relatives crowded into a chartered Ilyushin-76 cargo plane, sucked out at 10'000 m altitude, when the rear door opens, near Mbuji-Mayi, Congo ex-Zaire, 45 minutes into a Kinshasa to Lumumbashi flight. The pilot manages to return to Kinshasa with the survivors.
2002 Yu Qin Zheng, 35, and her son Andy Zheng, 8, stabbed in their Philadelphia apartment in the evening by enraged Chang Qi, 46, who had come to collect a debt from Mr. Zheng who was not there. Mindy Zheng, 12, was injured and would have been killed had not her brother Andy tried to pull away Qi who then killed the boy, while Mindy broke away and called 911.
2002:: 41 persons by a remote control mine which explodes at about 09:45 in Kaspiisk, Dagestan, on the Caspian Sea, at the passage of a Victory Day parade of a military band surrounded by children and World War Two veterans. Among the dead (which include those who died later of injuries) are 17 children and 18 servicemen (including 3 lieutenant colonels and 1 major). Some 30 children and 130 adults are injured. Without actual evidence, Russian authorities instantly blame “terrorists” from nearby Chechnya.
2001 At least 126 crushed in stampede at soccer game.       ^top^
     In Ghana, at Accra Stadium, a stampede begins when police fired tear gas at fans who were throwing bottles and chairs, creating a panic as spectators rush to escape. Accra Hearts of Oak was leading 2-1 against Asante Kotoko with five minutes left when Asante supporters began hurling the objects onto the field. Most of the victims were crushed to death. 53 injured were treated at one hospical.
      This was the fourth soccer disaster in Africa in a month. On 11 April, 43 people were killed at a stadium in Johannesburg, South Africa. Another stampede on 29 April killed eight people in Lubumbashi, Congo. And on 06 May, fighting broke out among fans at a soccer match in Ivory Coast, killing one person and injuring 39.
1995 Hide Ohira, who did not try to hide the fact that he was born on 15 September 1880. He dies on the very day that Mary Electa Bidwell celebrates her 114th birthday (her last).
1990  Dalmiro de la Valgoma, abogado, escritor, historiador y académico español.
1987: 183 personas al estrellarse un avión de la compañía polaca LOT tras despegar del aeropuerto de Varsovia.
1986 Anxel Fole, escritor gallego.
1980: 35 motorists, as a Liberian freighter rams the Sunshine Skyway Bridge over Tampa Bay in Florida, causing a 430-meter section to collapse.
1978 Aldo Moro, murdered while held as hostage.       ^top^
     As prime minister, Aldo Moro was considered the most capable politician in Italy after World War II. Ironically, after allowing Communist participation in the government, Moro was kidnaped by Red Brigade terrorists who demanded the release of Communist prisoners. The Italian government refused to bargain with them.
      The body of former Italian prime minister Aldo Moro is found, riddled by bullets, in the back of a car in the center of Rome. He was kidnapped by Red Brigade terrorists on March 16 after a bloody shoot-out near his suburban home. The Italian government refused to negotiate with the extreme left-wing group, which, after numerous threats, executed Moro on 09 May. He was a five-time prime minister of Italy and considered a front-runner for the presidency of Italy in elections due in December.
      Aldo Moro (born on 23 Sep 1916) was regarded by many as Italy's most capable post-World War II politician. A centrist leader of the Christian Democratic Party, he served five times as prime minister in the 1960s and 1970s and promoted cooperation between Italy's disparate political parties. When he formed his first cabinet in 1963, he included some Socialists, who were thus participating in the Italian government for the first time in 16 years. Moro last served as prime minister in 1976, and in October 1976 became president of the Christian Democrats.
      On 11 March 1978, he helped end a government crisis when he worked out a parliamentary coalition between the Communist Party and the dominant Christian Democrats. Just five days later, Mr. Moro's car was attacked by a dozen armed Red Brigade terrorists. His five guards were killed, and Moro was abducted and taken to a secret location. On 18 March, the Red Brigade issued a communiqué claiming responsibility for the kidnapping and stating that Moro would undergo a “people's trial.”
      The Red Brigade, established in 1970 by Italian Renato Curcio, employed bombings, assassinations, kidnappings, and bank robberies as a means of promoting communist revolution in Italy. The Italian Communist Party, which supported democracy and participated in Parliament, condemned the terrorist Red Brigade, and the Red Brigade accused the Communist Party of being a pawn of the bourgeoisie. Renato Curcio and 12 other Red Brigade members were on trial in Turin when Moro was kidnapped, and legal proceedings were only briefly halted after his abduction. The Italian government declined to negotiate with the kidnappers, claiming that such an action would undermine the state and throw Italy into chaos. Some critics accused the Christian Democrats of yielding to pressure from the Communist Party, whose leaders were even more strongly opposed to a dialogue with the Red Brigade. Police and the army arrested hundreds of suspected terrorists and scoured the country looking for the “people's prison” where Moro was being held but failed to find any solid clues.
      On 19 March and 04 April, letters apparently freely written by Moro were delivered pleading with the government to negotiate. The government attempted secret talks, but, on 15 April, the Red Brigade rejected these negotiations and announced that Moro had been found guilty in the people's trial and sentenced to death. Threats to execute him led nowhere, and, on 24 April, the terrorists demanded the release of 13 Red Brigade members held in Turin in exchange for Moro's life. On 07 May, Moro send a farewell letter to his wife, saying, “They have told me that they are going to kill me in a little while, I kiss you for the last time.” Two days later, his body was found on Via Caetani, within 300 meters of the headquarters of the Christian Democrats and 200 meters from the Communist Party headquarters. According to a wish expressed by Moro during his abduction, no Italian politicians were invited to his funeral. During the next decade, many Red Brigade leaders and members were arrested, and the organization was greatly weakened.
1970 Walter Philip Reuther, 62, president of the UAW since 1946, in an airplane crash.       ^top^
     Born in Wheeling, West Virginia, to German immigrants, Reuther's socialist leanings were fostered by his father, Valentine. A master brewer, Valentine had left Germany to escape the repressive Lutheran authorities there, and to avoid what he viewed as the increasing militarization of his homeland. He imbued his three sons, Walter, Victor, and Roy, with the values of labor organization and social equality.
      Walter dropped out of high school to become an apprentice die maker at the Wheeling Steel Company. Before he could finish his training, he moved to Detroit during the heavy production years of the Model T and talked his way into a job as a die maker in a Ford factory. Reuther returned to high school while working at the Ford plant, and he maintained his interest in Socialism and organized labor.
      During the Depression, he and his brothers traveled to Germany to visit their relatives. The trip proved formative as the totalitarian conditions in Germany, and the bitter split between the National Socialists and the Left, disappointed the brothers terribly. They even briefly ran pamphlets for the Socialist underground there. They continued on to Russia, where Walter employed his skill as a die maker in Russian auto plants that had purchased Ford machinery. They remained in Gorki from 1933 to 1935. Reuther was greatly moved by the camaraderie of the autoworkers there. "To a Ford employee especially," he said, "[the social and cultural life] was absorbing."
      Reuther returned to Detroit and began his career as an activist and labor organizer. At first considered a radical and a communist, Reuther worked his way up the ranks of the UAW as the union became a more and more legitimate force. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal reached out to the leftist elements of the labor movement, and in response Reuther's left moved center to meet the Democratic Party.
      Reuther played vital roles in the formation of the UAW and in the merger of the AFL-CIO. He championed integrationist policies when few other labor organizers cared, "The UAW-CIO will tell any worker that refused to work with a colored worker that he could leave the plant because he did not belong there." During Reuther's benevolent reign atop the ranks of the UAW, autoworkers became members of the middle class, as measured by earnings, employment security, medical care, and retirement pensions.
1950 Esteban Terradas e Illa, ingeniero y físico español.
1949  Luis II, príncipe de Mónaco.
1947 Miguel Abadía y Méndez, escritor y político colombiano.
1945 Heinrich Himmler, político alemán Nazi, criminal de guerra y contra la humanidad.
1916 Thomas Kent, Irish patriot, executed by British firing squad for his participation in the Easter Rising.
1915  Javier Gozé, ilustrador español.
1889 William Hammer, Danish artist born on 31 July 1821.
1880 Johann Michael Wittmer, German artist born on 15 October 1802.
1851 Johann Heinrich Schilbach, German artist born in 1798.
1850 Louis-Joseph Gay-Lussac, físico y químico francés.
1844 (Jo)hanne Hellesen, German artist born on 20 January 1801.
1805 Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller, poeta alemán.
Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:       ^top^
1794 (20 floréal an II):

BLANC Pierre (dit Pierragues), domicilié à Claviers, canton de Draguignan (Var), comme voleur, avec récidive, par le tribunal criminel du département du Var.
JOUAN François, couvreur tonnelier, domicilié à St Martin (Morbihan), par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme séditieux.
SOREDE Jean, domicilié à Taillé (Pyrénées-Orientales), comme émigré, par le tribunal militaire du 1er arrondissement de l'armées des Pyrénées-Orientales.
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
FOUGERET Jean, ex noble, receveur général des finances, 60 ans, né et domicilié à Paris, comme conspirateur.
JOUDRIER Claude, perruquier, âgé de 36 ans, né et domicilié à Dijon (Côte-d'Or), comme complice d'une conspiration dans la maison d'arrêt de Dijon où il était détenu.
BEAULIEU Louis, Alexandre
, 36 ans, natif de Chartres, domicilié à Paris, comme conspirateur, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme complice de Mauny, aide major des ci-devant suisses de l'Artois.
REVIERS Jacques François Vincent, major de la garde suisse du 2ème frère du dernier tyran roi, 40 ans, né et domicilié à Douy (Eure et Loire), par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme convaincu d'émigration.
1701 Jacob de Heusch, Dutch artist born in 1657.
1682 Pieter Wouwerman, Dutch artist born on 03 September 1623.
1651 Cornelis de Vos, Flemish painter born in 1584. — MORE ON DE VOS AT ART “4” MAY LINKSPortrait of a Lady with Her DaughterPortrait of a GentlemanPortrait of a WomanGroup Portrait of Three ChildrenPortrait of the Artist with his Family (1621) — The Family of the Artist (1633) — Magdalena and Jan-Baptist de Vos — (not the de Vos) Family PortraitElisabeth (or Cornelia) Vekemans as a Young Girl The Triumph of Bacchus
1586 Luis de Morales “el Divino”, Spanish Mannerist painter born in 1520 (1509?) — MORE ON MORALES AT ART “4” MAY LINKSEcce Homo — another Ecce Homo (head and shoulders only) — The Virgin and Child (1567) — a different Madonna with the Child = Virgin and Child — yet another Madonna with the ChildSaint Stephen
Births which occurred on a May 09:
1955 Ato Meles Zenawi, presidente de Etiopía.
1954  Paloma Díaz Mas, profesora y escritora española.
1934 Alan Bennett, actor-writer.
1924  Bulat Shalvovich Okudzhava, poeta, novelista y cantautor ruso.
1923 Carlos Bousoño, poeta y filólogo español.
1916 William du Bois, US author and illustrator of children's books. He died on 05 February 1993.
1898 Arend Heyting, Dutch mathematician who died on 09 July 1980. He is important in the development of intuitionistic logic and algebra.
1891 George Barker Jeffrey, English mathematician who died on 27 April 1957.
1883 José Ortega y Gasset, Spanish philosopher and humanist (Revolt of the Masses) who died on 18 October 1955. — José Ortega y Gasset, escritor y filósofo español.
baby Mary BidwellMary Bidwell 19951882 Henry John Kaiser, US industrialist who built dams, bridges, Liberty Ships, Jeeps; aviation, aluminum, steel, magnesium; founder of Hawaii Kai residential neighborhood in Honolulu. He died on 24 August 1967.
1883  José Ortega y Gasset, escritor y filósofo español.
1881 Mary Electa Bidwell, [< photos: as a baby, and in 1995 >]. She would die on 25 April 1996.
1881 Carrie Harrison, who would die on 23 December 1991.
1876 Gilbert Ames Bliss, Illinois mathematician who died on 08 May 1951.
1873 Howard Carter, Egyptologist who found King Tutankhamen's tomb.

1860 James Barrie, creator of Peter Pan, in Scotland       ^top^
      Barrie attended the University of Edinburgh and worked as a reporter for the Nottingham Journal for two years after college. He moved to London in 1885 and became a freelance writer. His first collection of sketches, Auld Licht Idylls, was published in 1888 and became a success, followed by an account of his newspaper days, When a Man's Single. He published a collection of stories in 1889 and a bestselling novel, The Little Minister, in 1891, which was dramatized in 1897, and then Barrie shifted his focus from prose to drama, enjoying a series of successes. In 1904, he wrote Peter Pan. Although he wrote many other plays (The Admirable Crichton, What Every Woman Knows, Dear Brutus), few are still performed today, and none had the staying power of Peter Pan (alternatively titled Peter and Wendy). In 1913, he was made a baronet and in 1922 received the Order of Merit. He became president of the Society of Authors in 1928 and Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh in 1930. Barrie died in London on 19 June 1937.
  • The Little White BirdThe Little White BirdMargaret Ogilvy Margaret Ogilvy Peter and Wendy = Peter PanPeter Pan in Kensington Gardens — co-author of libretto of Jane Annie (multimedia)
  • 1845 Carl Gustaf Laval, Swedish scientist, engineer and inventor who died on 02 February 1913. In 1878 he invented the centrifugal cream separator. Later he applied rotation to the manufacture of bottles. He built an impulse steam turbine in 1882 and then perfected it. In 1883 he patented a reaction turbine that could reach 42'000 RPM. In 1893 he built and operated a reversible marine turbine. With his continually improved turbines, by 1896 he was operating a power plant using an initial steam pressure of 10 tons per square centimeter. He invented and developed the divergent nozzle to shoot the steam at the turbine blades. Most later steam turbines used Laval inventions: the flexible shaft which eliminates wobbling, and the double helical gear.
    1844 Belle Boyd, US actress and Confederate spy during the Civil War. She died on 11 June 1900.
    1843 Anton Alexander von Werner, German painter and illustrator who died on 04 January 1915. — more
    1810 Joseph Banvard, author, in New York City. He was graduated at Newton theological institute in 1835, and has been pastor of Baptist Churches in Salem, Boston, and West Cambridge, Massachusetts, New York City, Pawtucket, Rhode Island, Paterson, New Jersey, and Independence, Missouri. He was chosen president of the National theological institute and University at Washington, District of Columbia, but resigned. He has written Priscilla, a historical tale (1854); Novelties of the New World; The Romance of American History ; Tragic Scenes in the History of Maryland (1856) ; The American Statesman, a memoir of Daniel Webster (1853); Wisdom. Wit, and Whims of the Old Philosophers (1854); Plymouth and the Pilgrims ; many books for children on natural history, and a large number of Sunday-school question-books. His brother John, famous for painting a 370-meter panorama of the Mississippi, was born on 15 November 1815.
    1800 John Brown, violent abolitionist, would lead attack on Harper's Ferry in 1859       ^top^
         Brown, born in Connecticut in 1800, first became militant during the mid-1850s, when as a leader of the Free State forces in the territory of Kansas he fought pro-slavery settlers, contributing to the sharply divided territory's popular designation as "Bleeding Kansas." Achieving only moderate success against slavery on the Kansas frontier, Brown settled on a more ambitious plan in 1859.
          On 16 October 1859 , leading a group of 21 racially mixed followers, Brown set out to Harpers Ferry ( in present-day West Virginia), intending to seize the Federal arsenal of weapons and retreat to the Appalachian Mountains of Maryland and Virginia, where they would establish an abolitionist republic of liberated slaves and abolitionist whites. Their republic would form a guerilla army to fight slaveholders and ignite slave insurrections, and its population would grow exponentially with the influx of liberated and fugitive slaves. At Harpers Ferry, Brown's well-trained unit was initially successful, capturing key points in the town, but Brown's plans began to deteriorate after his raiders stopped a Baltimore-bound train, and then allowed it to pass through.
    click for large image      News of the raid spread quickly and militia companies from Maryland and Virginia arrived the next day, killing or capturing several raiders. On 18 October, US Marines commanded by Colonel Robert E. Lee and Lieutenant J. E. B. Stuart, both of whom were destined to become famous Confederate generals, recaptured the Federal arsenal, taking John Brown and several other raiders alive. On 02 November, Brown was sentenced to death by hanging, and on the day of his execution, ten months before the outbreak of the Civil War, he prophetically wrote, "The crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away but with blood."
          John Brown of Kansas was a militant abolitionist who attempted to use force to free the slaves in the South. On the night of 16 October 1859, Brown and a small band of followers seized the Federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry. The weapons were to be used by his "army of emancipation." They took 60 hostages and held out against the local militia, but were then attacked by US Marines under the command of Col. Robert E. Lee (who would later command the Confederate Armies). Two of Brown's sons and ten others were killed in the fighting. Brown was wounded and taken prisoner. He was tried by the Commonwealth of Virginia and convicted of treason, murder and inciting slaves to rebellion. He was sentenced to death and hanged on 02 December 1859. In Charles Town, Virginia (now West Virginia), militant abolitionist John Brown is executed on charges of treason, murder, and insurrection.
    [click for reproduction of painting John Brown's Last Moments by Hovenden]
    1764 Johann Nepomuk Mayrhofer, Austrian artist who died in 1832.
    1746 Gaspard Monge, French mathematician who died on 28 July 1818. He is considered the father of differential geometry because of his work Application de l'analyse à la géométrie where he introduced the concept of lines of curvature of a surface in 3-space.
    1699 Gregorio Mayáns y Siscar, erudito español.
    1638 Gregorio Vásquez de Arce y Ceballos, pintor colombiano.
    Holiday Channel Island : Liberation Day / Poland, USSR : Victory Day [in World War II] / World : North Pole Flight Day (1926)
    Religious Observances Christian : St Joan / old RC, Ang : St Gregory Nazianzen, bishop of Constantinople / doctor of the Church. / Santos Hermás, Gregorio, Pacomio y Geroncio.
    Thoughts for the day : “Honni soit qui mal y pense.”
    “Honni soit qui mal panse.”
    “Honni soit qui au Mali pense.”
    “Honni soit le mal de panse.”
    “Honnie soie qui mal y pend.”
    “Honey soy key mall E pounce.”
    “Honni soit qui mal dépense.”
    “Haut Niçois Kim Ali: pense!”
    “Au nid soit qui, mâle, y pense.”
    “Honni soit qui mal y pend ce
    ‘Honni soit qui mal y pense’.”

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