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29 MAY
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ALTH price chartOn a 29 May:

2003 Allos Therapeutics (ALTH) announces that it will submit a New Drug Application to the US Food and Drug Administration to market RSR13 (efaproxiral) as a treatment for brain metastases from breast cancer. On the NASDAQ, 6.7 million of the 26 million ALTH shares are traded, rising from their previous close of $2.31 to an intraday high of $4.15 and closing at $3.73. They had traded as low as $1.66 as recently as 25 April 2003 and as high as $9.89 on 21 October 2002 and $14.63 on 17 July 2000, after starting trading at $13.00 on 27 March 2000. [3~year price chart >]

OPWV price chart

2003 Openwave Systems (OPWV) was not helped by the acquisition of SignalSoft, which it announced on 29 May 2002. On the NASDAQ, the drop in the price of the shares of OPWV from it 06 March 2000 high of $200.75 to its $6.06 close of 30 May 2002, was further aggravated down to a low of $0.45 on 10 October 2002, from which it has not, to this date, recovered beyond $3.19 (on 02 December 2002). On 29 May 2003, OPWV shares close at $2.51 . They had started trading on 07 June 1999, at $20.06 . [4~year price chart >]

SGSF price chart

2002 On the NASDQ the shares of location-based wireless service provider SignalSoft Corporation rise from their previous close of $1.06 (not much above its all-time low of $1.03 in the previous session, 24 May 2002) to close at $2.22. Its all-time high was $49.56 on 28 Aug 2000, after it had gone public at $20 on 31 July 2000. [<  price chart] The reason? The announcement that Openwave Systems (OPWV) will buy out SignalSoft.

The US Supreme Court rules that the PGA Tour must allow Casey Martin [photo >] to ride a cart in tournaments, rejecting the PGA's argument that it would give him an unfair advantage. No one seems to have considered the possibility of removing the alleged advantage by allowing all the golfers to ride a cart. Martin, 28, suffers from Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome, a rare circulatory disorder that has left him with a withered right leg. He may eventually face amputation.
Casey Martin
The US Supreme Court refuses to hear the case of Elkhart v. Books (00-1407) thus letting stand the 7th US Circuit Court of Appeals' ruling that the display of the Ten Commandments on an Elkhart, Indiana, city monument is in violation of the 1st Amendment to the US Constitution providing for the separation of chuch and state. In 1996 the Supreme Court had let stand a ruling by the 10th US Circuit Court of Appeals approving a similar monument in a park near the Colorado state Capitol.
2000 Indonesia's state prosecutors place former President-dictator Suharto under house arrest. He is suspected of embezzling millions of dollars. However his trial on corruption charges would be abandoned because of his ill health.
1998 CompuServe executive convicted on German pornography charges       ^top^
      A German court found the former head of CompuServe Germany guilty of complicity in spreading pornography on the Internet. Felix Somm was held responsible for the users who distributed objectionable material and was sentenced to two years probation and fined more than $56,000. The case began in December 1995 when prosecutors searched CompuServe offices as part of an investigation into online pornography. The company later blocked access to two hundred bulletin boards, sparking an international debate on Internet censorship.
1996: Israelis go to the polls for an election that results in a narrow victory for opposition leader Benjamin Netanyahu over Prime Minister Shimon Peres.
1992 First long-distance test of digital television.       ^top^
      Newspapers reported that Zenith Electronics and ATandT sent a digital television signal seventy-five miles, from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to Glenview, Illinois. Several companies were vying to set the standard for digital television transmission in the early and mid-1990s. The first group to send a digital high-definition signal was the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, working with General Instrument Corporation, but the signal was sent only over a short distance. Broadcasters and the Federal Communications Commission touted the benefits of digital TV, which provided much higher bandwidth permitting the broadcast of sharper pictures and better sound, the distribution of several television programs at one time, or the ability to provide additional data like Web pages or software. However, the transition to digital TV got off to a slow start. In 1997, the FCC agreed on a plan to speed the adoption of digital television. The phase-in began in the fall of 1998, when NBC, CBS, ABC, Fox, and PBS began digital broadcasting in the country's largest media markets. The changeover to digital TV was expected to take at least nine years [more likely double that].
1992 Suiza ingresa en el Fondo Monetario Internacional (FMI).
1992 Francisco Nieva, primer dramaturgo galardonado con el Premio Príncipe de Asturias de las Letras.
1992 Concept model of Newton demonstrated       ^top^
      On this day in 1992, Apple unveiled a concept model of the ill-fated Newton handheld computer. The demonstration, at the Consumer Electronics Show in Chicago, featured a computer the size of a videocassette that could read handwriting, dial telephones, and swap data with other machines. However, Apple's Newton proved to be an extravagant flop, selling only 200'000 Newtons in five years, compared with the popular PalmPilot, which sold one million units in its first two years on the market. The Newton was discontinued in 1998 after the company had spent an estimated $500 million developing the product over ten years.
1991 Mueren nueve personas y otras 19 resultan heridas por la explosión de un coche-bomba lanzado por terroristas de ETA (Euzkadi Ta Askatasuna) contra la casa-cuartel de la Guardia Civil en Vic (Barcelona), que quedó completamente destruída.
1991 El escritor Miguel Delibes obtiene el Premio Nacional español de las Letras, dotado con cinco millones de pesetas.
1990 Dow Jones avg hits a record 2870.49
1988 Reagan arrives in Moscow for summit talks       ^top^
      President Ronald Reagan travels to Moscow to begin the fourth summit meeting held in the past three years with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. Though the summit produced no major announcements or breakthroughs, it served to illuminate both the successes and the failures achieved by the two men in terms of US-Soviet relations. In May 1988, President Reagan made his first trip to Moscow to meet with Gorbachev and begin their fourth summit meeting. Just six months earlier, during a summit in Washington, D.C., in December 1987, the two men had signed the historic Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty, which eliminated an entire class of nuclear weapons from Europe. In many ways, Reagan's trip to Moscow in May was a journey of celebration. Demonstrating the famous Reagan charm, the president and his wife waded into crowds of Russian well wishers and curiosity-seekers to shake hands and exchange pleasantries. Very quickly, however, the talks between Reagan and Gorbachev revealed that serious differences still existed between the Soviet Union and the United States. From the beginning, Reagan — who had in the past referred to the Soviet Union as the "evil empire" — pressed Gorbachev on the issue of human rights. He urged Gorbachev to ease Soviet restrictions on freedom of religion and also asked that the Soviet Union relax the laws that kept many Russian Jews from emigrating. The Soviets were obviously displeased at Reagan's insistence on lecturing them about what they considered purely internal matters. A spokesman from the Soviet Foreign Ministry showed his irritation when he declared to a group of reporters, "We don't like it when someone from outside is teaching us how to live, and this is only natural." Despite the tension introduced by the human rights issue, the summit was largely an opportunity for Reagan and Gorbachev to trade compliments and congratulations about their accomplishments, most notably the INF Treaty. As Reagan stated after their first day of meetings, "I think the message is clear — despite clear and fundamental differences, and despite the inevitable frustrations that we have encountered, our work has begun to produce results."
1988 El Papa nombra 25 nuevos cardenales, entre ellos los españoles Eduardo Martínez Somalo y Antonio María Javierre.
1978 US first class postage now 15 cents (13 cents for 3 years)
1975 US President Ford vetoes jobs bill.       ^top^
      The United States limped through the mid-1970s, suffering through the political and moral implications of the Watergate scandal. On top of these woes, America's economy was in terrible shape. The prices of oil, wood, and grain all skyrocketed, unleashing a heady wave of inflation. The nation's fragile finances also resulted in rampant unemployment and, by the end of May 1975, the jobless rate had climbed to a whopping 9.2 percent. Looking to stop the bleeding, Congress green-lighted a $5.3 billion jobs-creation bill in the spring of 1975. Though the legislation promised to create 1 million badly needed jobs, Nixon's successor, President Gerald Ford was wary of the program's hefty price tag and,on this day in 1975, vetoed the job creation bill. In place of the jobs program, Ford moved to pass a bill that extended the ceiling on unemployment benefits to sixty-five weeks.
1972 Joint US-USSR communiqué on Vietnam.      ^top^
     In a joint communique issued by the United States and the Soviet Union following the conclusion of summit talks with General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev during President Richard Nixon's visit to Moscow (the first visit ever by an US president), both countries set forth their standard positions on Vietnam. The United States insisted that the future of South Vietnam should be left to the South Vietnamese without interference. The Soviet Union insisted on a withdrawal of US and Allied forces from South Vietnam and an end to the bombing of North Vietnam. Despite this disagreement over the situation in Southeast Asia, Brezhnev and Nixon had reached a détente and Brezhnev did not want the Vietnam War to threaten the thawing of relations with the United States.
      Nixon, who had also visited China in February 1972, had hoped that the rapprochement with the Chinese and Soviets would scare North Vietnam into making concessions at the Paris peace talks. He was wrong, however, and the North Vietnamese continued to pursue the massive invasion of South Vietnam that they had launched on March 30 and proved intractable in the ongoing negotiations. The Soviet Union had supported North Vietnam because it served Soviet interests well by keeping the United States fully occupied in an area not of crucial importance to the USSR. After the 1968 Tet Offensive, the Soviets believed for the first time that a total victory was possible, but as the fighting continued, the Soviet leaders became increasingly weary of the war. They came to believe that little more was to be gained from a war that was proving very expensive for the Soviet Union. The Soviets had supplied weapons and equipment that were used in the 1972 spring offensive, but when the Paris peace talks became deadlocked later that year, the Soviets pressured Hanoi to accept a compromise settlement with South Vietnam and the United States that was finally reached in January 1973.
1968 Finalizan 28 días de revuelta estudiantil, conocida como "Mayo francés".
1953 Hillary and Norgay on top of Everest.       ^top^
     As early as the 1920s, attempts were made to scale Mount Everest, the world's tallest mountain. However, none succeeded this day, when British explorer Edmund Hillary of New Zealand and his Sherpa guide Tenzing Norgay of Nepal plant four flags at its peak, more than 10'000 meters above sea level. The two made their final assault on the summit after their party of twelve climbers and twenty-seven Sherpas had failed two previous attempts. Hillary was later knighted by Queen Elizabeth II for the achievement.
1942 Jews in Paris are forced to sew a yellow star on their coats.       ^top^
      On the advice of Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels, Adolf Hitler orders all Jews in occupied Paris to wear an identifying yellow star on the left side of their coats. Joseph Goebbels had made the persecution, and ultimately the extermination, of Jews a personal priority from the earliest days of the war, often recording in his diary such statements as: "They are no longer people but beasts," and "The Jews … are now being evacuated eastward. The procedure is pretty barbaric and is not to be described here more definitely. Not much will remain of the Jews." But Goebbels was not the first to suggest this particular form of isolation. "The yellow star may make some Catholics shudder," wrote a French newspaper at the time. "It renews the most strictly Catholic tradition." Intermittently, throughout the history of the papal states, that territory in central Italy controlled by the pope, Jews were often confined to ghettoes and forced to wear either yellow hats or yellow stars.
1940 L'évacuation de Dunkerque, commencée la veille, continue; el sera terminée le 03 Jun.
1940 II Guerra Mundial. Paracaidistas alemanes ocupan la isla de Creta.
1937 Guerra Civil española: Se establece la censura de prensa en la España "nacional".
1932 Bonus Marchers arrive in Washington.       ^top^
     World War I veterans began arriving in Washington to demand cash bonuses they weren't scheduled to receive for another 13 years.
      In the depths of the Great Depression, the so-called "Bonus Expeditionary Force," a group of some 1000 World War I veterans seeking cash payments for their veterans’ bonus certificates, arrived in Washington, D.C. In June, other veteran groups spontaneously made their way to the nation’s capital, swelling the Bonus Marchers to nearly 20'000 strong, most of them unemployed veterans in desperate financial straits. Camping in vacant government buildings and in open fields made available by District of Columbia police chief Pelham D. Glassford, they demanded passage of a veterans’ payment bill introduced by Representative Wright Patman. The veterans conducted themselves in an orderly and peaceful way, and on June 15, the Patman bill passed in the House of Representatives.
      However, two days later, its defeat in the Senate infuriated the marchers, who refused to return home. In an increasingly tense situation, the US government provided money for the protestors’ trip home, but 2000 refused the offer and continued their protest. On July 28, President Herbert Hoover ordered the army, under the command of General Douglas MacArthur, to evict them forcibly. MacArthur’s men set their camps on fire, and the veterans were driven from the city. Hoover, increasingly regarded as insensitive to the needs of the nation’s many poor, was much criticized by the public and press for the severity of his response.
1919 Einstein's light-bending prediction confirmed by Arthur Eddington
1916 US forces invade Dominican Republic, stay until 1924
1900 Trademark "Escalator" registered by Otis Elevator Co
1879 El Congreso Internacional de Geografía, reunido en París, adopta el proyecto de Ferdinand de Lesseps para la apertura del Canal de Suez.  
1865 President Andrew Johnson proclaims amnesty for most ex-Confederates
1864 Guerilla raids at Winchester, Tennessee
1864 Confederates capture wagon train at Salem, Arkansas
1864 Mexican Emperor Maximilian arrives at Vera Cruz
1864 Union troops reach Totopotomoy Creek, Virginia       ^top^
      Union troops lose another foot race with the Confederates in a minor stop on the long and terrible campaign between Ulysses S. Grant's Army of the Potomac and Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia. During the entire month of May 1864, Grant and Lee had pounded each other along an arc swinging from the Wilderness forest south to the James River. After fighting in the Wilderness, Grant moved south to Spotsylvania Court House to place his army between Lee and Richmond. Predicting his move, Lee marched James Longstreet's corps through the night and beat the Federals to the strategic crossroads. For 12 days the two armies fought in some of the bloodiest combat of the war. Finally, Grant pulled out and again moved south, this time to the North Anna River, where he probed the Rebel lines on the high banks of the river, but found no weakness. He moved south again, this time to Totopotomoy Creek. Once again, Lee and his men beat him there and stood ready to defend Richmond from the Union army. Grant was getting frustrated. After the Totopotomoy, Grant slid south to Cold Harbor, just 10 miles from Richmond. His impatience may have gotten the best of him. At Cold Harbor, Grant would commit the foolish mistake of hurling his troops at well-fortified Confederates, creating a slaughter nearly unmatched during the war. 1865 President Andrew Johnson issues general amnesty for all Confederates
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1851, the Ohio Woman's Rights Convention's second and last day in Akron.
1848 Wisconsin becomes the 30th US state       ^top^
      Following approval of statehood by the territory’s citizens, Wisconsin enters the Union as the thirtieth state.
      In 1634, French explorer Jean Nicolet landed at Green Bay, becoming the first European to visit the lake-strewn northern region that would later become Wisconsin. In 1763, at the conclusion of the French and Indian Wars, Wisconsin, a major center of the American fur trade, passed into British control. Two decades later, at the end of the American Revolution, the region came under US rule, and was governed as part of the Northwest Territory. However, British fur traders continued to dominate Wisconsin from across the Canadian border, and it was not until the end of the War of 1812 that the region fell firmly under American control.
      In the first decades of the nineteenth century, settlers began arriving via the Erie Canal and the Great Lakes to exploit Wisconsin's agricultural potential, and in 1832, the Black Hawk War ended Native-American resistance to white settlement.
      In 1836, after several decades of governance as part of other territories, Wisconsin was made a separate entity, with Madison, located midway between Milwaukee and the western centers of population, to be established as the territorial capital. By 1840, population in Wisconsin had risen above 130'000, but the people voted against statehood four times, fearing the higher taxes that would come with a stronger central government. Finally, in 1848, Wisconsin citizens, envious of the prosperity that federal programs brought to neighboring Midwestern states, voted to approve statehood. On 29 May 1848, Wisconsin entered the Union as the thirtieth state.
1843 Fremont begins his second Western expedition       ^top^
      John C. Fremont again departs from St. Louis to explore the West, having only recently returned from his first western expedition. The son of a French father and American mother, Fremont had an unstable and nomadic childhood, and money troubles often plagued his family. As a young man, he showed an aptitude for mathematics and surveying, and in 1838, he won a commission as a second lieutenant in the US Corps of Topographical Engineers. In 1842, he received an assignment to make a survey of the Platte River, and set out with 24 companions, including the famous guide Kit Carson. During five months of travel, Fremont crossed the South Pass in central Wyoming and explored the Wind River Mountains. Scarcely before he had time to recover from his first expedition, Fremont was preparing to depart on his second. On this day in 1843, Fremont left St. Louis on a much more ambitious journey to explore the Oregon country. In Colorado the party met up with Carson, who had again agreed to serve as a guide. On September 6, the Fremont caught site of the Great Salt Lake in Utah, "stretching in still and solitary grandeur far beyond the limits of our vision." By early November, they arrived at Fort Vancouver, across the Columbia River from the present-day site of Portland. Having surveyed the Oregon country, Fremont's orders were to return east via the Oregon Trail. Fremont, however, apparently decided this would be an inadequately grand approach, and decided instead to head south and cross the Sierra Nevada in the middle of the winter. The journey was awful and nearly disastrous. Fremont and his men struggled with the deep snow and bitter cold; they often got lost and ate their horses to survive. Thanks to the skill of Carson and amazing good luck with the weather, the expedition eventually emerged from the mountains and limped into Sutter's Fort on March 6, 1844. After resting for three weeks, they returned east by a route that took them through the Wasatch and Uinta Mountains of Utah. With the help of his wife, Jessie, Fremont wrote a detailed account of his western adventures. The report made some notable errors. Fremont foolishly identified the country around the Great Salt Lake as fertile-a mistake that contributed to the Mormons decision to migrate to the area. However, Fremont's account did provide the first comprehensive scientific survey of vast areas of the West. Fremont went on to lead two other successful expeditions to the West. His reports of these and his earlier journeys made him a national hero and he later went into politics. He lived into his early 70s, but the four western journeys he made before he was 40 remained his greatest achievements.
1808 El pueblo de Cádiz se levanta en masa pidiendo armas para atacar a la escuadra francesa fondeada en la bahía.
1795 (10 prairial an III) MANIFROY Louis, natif de Boutigny (Seine et Oise), maçon, est condamné à la déportation, par le conseil militaire établi à Paris, comme convaincu d'avoir tenu des propos tendants à avilir la Convention nationale, et à faire assassiner, par ces faits d'avoir participé à la conspiration qui a éclaté les 2 et 4 prairial an 3.
1791 Revolución francesa: se habla por primera vez de la divisa "Libertad, Igualdad, Fraternidad", en la Sociedad de Amigos de los Derechos Humanos.
1790 Rhode Island becomes the 13th US state       ^top^
      Under threat of severed commercial relations with the United States, Rhode Island narrowly votes to ratify the US Constitution, making it the thirteenth US state.
      In 1786, when defects in the Articles of Confederation became apparent, such as the lack of central authority over foreign and domestic commerce, a call was issued to all of the states to send representatives to Philadelphia to draft a new constitution. Rhode Island, which under the Articles of Confederation had refused to provide the central US government with financial support, declined to attend the Constitutional Convention.
      On September 17, 1787, after three months of debate moderated by convention president George Washington, the new US constitution, which created a strong federal government with an intricate system of checks and balances, was signed by thirty-eight of the forty-one delegates present at the conclusion of the convention. As dictated by Article VII, the document would not become binding until it was ratified by nine out of the thirteen states.
      Beginning on December 7, five states — Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, and Connecticut — ratified it in quick succession. However, other states, especially Rhode Island and Massachusetts, opposed the document as it failed to reserve powers not delegated by the Constitution for the states, unless specifically prohibited, and lacked constitutional protection of basic political rights, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press, and the right to bear arms.
      In February 1788, a compromise was reached under which states would ratify the document with the assurance that amendments would be immediately proposed. The Constitution was thus narrowly ratified in Massachusetts, followed by Maryland and South Carolina. On June 21, 1788, New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify the document and it was subsequently agreed that government under the US Constitution would begin on March 4, 1789.
      On September 25, 1789, the first Congress of the United States adopted twelve amendments to the US Constitution — the Bill of Rights — and sent them to the states for ratification. This action led to the ratification of the Constitution by North Carolina, leaving only Rhode Island independent of the United States. In 1790, the federal government responded to the Rhode Island’s resistance by threatening to sever commercial relations with the independence-minded state. Only then did the Rhode Island legislature vote to ratify the Constitution, but only by two votes.
1787 "Virginia Plan" proposed
1765 On his twenty-ninth birthday, nine days a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses, Patrick Henry presents a series of resolutions opposing the British Stamp Act. He concluded his introduction of the Virginia Resolutions with the fiery words “Caesar had his Brutus, Charles the First his Cromwell, and George the Third — ” when, it is reported, voices cried out, "Treason! treason!" He continued, " — and George the Third may profit by their example! If this be treason make the most of it."
1736 Llega a Quito la Misión Geodésica francesa para medir el grado del arco del meridiano de la línea ecuatorial.
1522 Carlos I de España conquista Génova en su lucha por Italia contra Francisco I de Francia.
1453 Constantinople, the capital of Eastern Christianity from A.D. 324, falls to Muhammad II (Turks); ends Byzantine Empire. The city afterward became the capital of the Ottoman Empire and was renamed Istanbul. Its conquest marked the end of the Middle Ages.
0757 Saint Paul I is consecrated bishop of Rome. He is elected Pope to succeed his brother Stephen III (or II) at the latter's death 07570426.
click for weird pictureDeaths which occurred on this date:
2002 Laron A. Ball [photo >], 20, shot by a policeman in a Milwaukee courtroom, where the jury was declaring Ball guilty of the 27 December 2001 murder of Amon Rogers, 27, during a robbery. Ball lunged for the gun of a sheriff's deputy, who was wounded in the struggle. [Ball deserves a Darwin Award]. — MORE
2002 S. Sedkaoui, 35 ans, et M. Benhamouda, à bord d'une voiture prises dans une embuscade tendue par un groupe terroriste au lieudit Dar Ali, sur la route menant de Toualbia à la ville de Jijel, Algérie. Sedkaoui était , chef de la garde communale, et Benhamouda sans emploi. La 3ème personne dans la voiture, garde communal M. Bouchkara, a été blessé. Sedkaoui a pris les armes en 1993 pour combattre le terrorisme. La région a connu un acte similaire en septembre 2001 où deux gardes communaux furent tués dans un guet-apens tendu par des terroristes appartenant fort probablement au groupe de Abou Talha El Djanoubi qui écume les monts surplombant la ville de Jijel. C'est une région très boisée qui demeure aussi un lieu de prédilection d'un groupe présumé du GIA, mené par un certain Boudjaja.
2001 Sarah Blaustein, 53, shot in her car in a West Bank road. Her husband, Norman, 53, was lightly wounded, and a son, Sammy, 27, was seriously wounded with three bullets in his back. The Blausteins from Lawrence NY to the southern West Bank Jewish enclave settlement of Efrat in 2000.
2001 Gilad Zar, 41, Sarah Blaustein, 53, Esther Alon, 20, Israeli extremists murdered by Palestinians.
     Gilad Zar, security officer for northern Samaria settlements, is assassinated in the morning in his car outside Kedumim, the northern West Bank settlement. Two other settlers, Blaustein and Alon, both from Efrat, are murdered in a Palestinian ambush on the way to Zar's funeral convoy from the Prime Minister's Office to Itamar, via the Karnei Shomron road near Kedumim where Zar was killed.
     Zar is shot dead at the Jat junction east of the Kedumim as he drove by in his four-wheel drive vehicle. An ambush involving at least two gunmen shot at him from the distance, then approached the car and fired at least two full magazines of ammunition into the car and its driver. An organization calling itself The Regiment of Al-Aqsa Martyrs informed wire services in Beirut that it was responsible for the murder.
      The two women from Efrat, on their way to the Zar funeral procession, were killed not far from the Neve Daniel settlement in Gush Etzion, on the Jerusalem-Samaria road. A passing car fired at them. Blaustein and Alon were seriously wounded, with Blaustein dying where the car stopped, and Alon dying in the hospital. Three others in the car were also wounded.
      Gilad Zar, one of the founders of Itamar, was the son of Moshe Zar, convicted in the mid-1980s as a member of the Jewish Underground, a vigilante organization arrested by the Shin Bet for a series of terrorist attacks on Arabs, and convicted by the Jerusalem District Court for serving as the driver of the getaway car when members of the underground planted bombs that crippled then Nablus Mayor Bassam Shaka.
      He spent only a few months in prison, and was released for reasons of health. Moshe Zar is one of the leading Jewish land dealers in the West Bank, and is known as one of the key financiers behind Gush Emunim and the Jewish enclave in Hebron.
      Arabs who claimed Moshe Zar cheated them once attacked him with an ax, plunging it into his skull. He nonetheless managed to reach safety and hospital and later continued his work, which in one of his rare statements to the press he called "redeeming the land for Israel." Participants in the funeral were convinced that Gilad, who only two months ago was shot under similar circumstances, but like his father before him managed to reach safety and hospital, was targeted.
      The funeral procession for Zar begins with a demonstration outside the Prime Minister's Office, continues to Itamar, the settlement he founded, and then to not far from the scene of the murder, just below the three-story mansion his father built nearly 30 years ago at Karnei Shomron, and from which he runs his land dealing operation.
      At one point, near Itamar, an exchange of fire between Palestinians from a nearby village and Israeli troops in the area prevented the convoy from continuing.
      At each stop on the way, eulogists spoke of Gilad Zar's selfless work on behalf of the settlement community — and lashed out at the Israeli government.
      Three of the most hardline ministers in the government, Tzipi Livni, Avigdor Lieberman and Rehavam Ze'evi all spoke on behalf of the government. Livni was shouted down by settlers, with Gilad's sister Anat Cohen, a prominent Hebron Jewish community activist, grabbing the microphone from the minister and shouting "You have tanks and planes. Start fighting and stop talking."
      Both Ze'evi and Lieberman warned that "revenge is not a private affair," apparently conscious of the emotional turmoil in the angry crowd, which drew thousands of Gush Emunim supporters from throughout the territories. But they, too, were shouted at by the crowd.
      When Ze'evi warned that "revenge is not a private affair," calls of "traitor" and "resign" came from the crowd. National Religious Party MK Shaul Yahalom, one of Gush Emunim's first generation, explicitly called on the government "to avenge the murder, cease the cease-fire and kill the murderers."
      Rabbi Moshe Levinger, a friend of Moshe Zar's for more than three decades, and his in-law through the marriage of their children, called for the immediate establishment of 10 new settlements. Daniella Weiss, of the Yesha Council of Settlements, said "it's time to face it: We are at war and should rid the country of all of the enemy." Gilad's wife, Hagar, told television reporters that her husband "died for the nation."
      Kach activists at the funeral claimed that on their way to the three main staging points for the day-long ceremonies marking Zar's murder, they had vandalized Arab properties. Zar's murder yesterday prompted rioting in the Jewish sector in Hebron, with Jewish settlers attacking Arab pedestrians and fighting IDF troops who tried to prevent the settlers from taking the fight into Arab Hebron.
      Gilad Zar, like his father, rarely spoke to the press, but after he survived the last ambush against him, he told reporters that "we have to put (the Arabs) on their knees, send them back in time 15 years and make them grateful every day for us letting them work for us." He said that "us pleading with them for peace and a cease-fire is abnormal ... the right way is to create a different situation in which they beg us for a cease-fire." In addition to his wife, he left eight children, the oldest 15, and the youngest a few months old.
1998 Barry Goldwater, 89, in Paradise Valley, former Arizona senator, Republican presidential candidate..
1995 Margaret Chase Smith, 97, the first woman to serve in both the US House of Representatives and the Senate, in Skowhegan, Maine.
1994 Erich Honecker, líder de la desaparecida República Democrática Alemana (RDA).
1985:: 35 persons in rioting between British and Italian spectators at the European Cup soccer final in Brussels.
1970 John Gunther, 68, author/host (John Gunther's High Road)
1958 Juan Ramón Jiménez Mantecón, poeta español, P. Nobel 1956.
1934 Heihachiro Togo, almirante japonés, héroe de la guerra ruso-japonesa.
1921 Abbott Henderson Thayer, US painter born on 12 August 1849. With his son, Gerald, Thayer published Concealing-Coloration in the Animal Kingdom (1909), and he promoted the idea of camouflage for soldiers and ships in World War I. — MORE ON THAYER AT ART “4” MAY LINKSDavidAlma WollermanIrish GirlAngelRosesStevenson MemorialWinged FigureCaritasBoy and AngelA Virgin
1917 William Davidson Niven, British mathematician born in 1843.

1916 More casualties as Germans take Mort Homme at Verdun.       ^top^
      During the First World War Verdun was a fortified French garrison town on the River Meuse 200 km east of Paris. In December 1915, General Erich von Falkenhayn, Chief of Staff of the German Army, decided to attack Verdun. Although he admitted he would be unable to break through at these point on the Western Front, he argued that in defending Verdun, the Germans would "bleed the French army white".
      The German attack on Verdun started on 21 February 1916. A million troops, led by Crown Prince Wilhelm, faced only about 200'000 French defenders. The following day the French was forced to retreat to their second line of trenches. By 24 February the French had moved back to the third line and were only 8km from Verdun.
      On 24th February, General Henri-Philippe Pétain was appointed commander of the Verdun sector. He gave orders that no more withdrawals would take place. He arranged for every spare French soldier to this part of the Western Front. Of the 330 infantry regiments of the French Army, 259 eventually fought at Verdun.
      The German advance was brought to a halt at the end of February. On 6 March, the German Fifth Army launched a new attack at Verdun. The Germans advanced 3km before they were stopped in front of the area around Mort Homme Hill. The French held this strategic point until it was finally secured by the Germans on 29 May, and Fort Vaux fell on 7th June, after a long siege.
      Further attacks continued throughout the summer and early autumn. However, the scale of the German attacks were reduced by the need to transfer troops to defend their front-line at the Somme. The French now counter-attacked and General Charles Mangin became a national hero when the forts at Douaumont and Vaux were recaptured by 2 November 1916. Over the next six weeks the French infantry gained another 2 km at Verdun.
      Verdun, the longest battle of the First World War, ended on the 18th December. The French Army lost about 550'000 men at Verdun. It is estimated that the German Army suffered 434'000 casualties. About half of all casualties at Verdun were killed.

1914, 840 passengers and 172 crew members in the sinking of the Empress of Ireland       ^top^
      In one of the worst ship disasters in history, the British liner Empress of Ireland, bound for Liverpool, England, carrying 1057 passengers and 420 crew members, collided with the Norwegian freighter Storstad in the mouth of Canada’s St. Lawrence River. The Storstad penetrated five meters into the Empress of Ireland’s starboard side, and the vessel sunk within fourteen minutes, drowning, among the passengers, 134 of the 138 children (97%), 269 of the 310 women (87%), and 437 of the 609 men (72%), and 41% of the crew. The tragedy came two years after the Titanic was sunk by colliding with an iceberg in the North Atlantic, leaving more than 1500 people dead but galvanizing public demands for maritime safety standards.
      With structural precautions superior to those on the Titanic, crews trained extensively in emergency procedures, and more than enough lifejackets and lifeboats, the Empress was designed for optimum safety. However, in the dark of night at about 02:00 on May 29, 1914, a heavy fog came upon the Empress and the Storstad as they neared each other. Although the Empress and the Storstad spotted each other several minutes before the collision, altered courses and confused signals brought them into their fateful embrace. Only seven lifeboats escaped the rapidly sinking vessel. However, thanks to the efforts of the crew of the Storstad, scores of people were pulled out of the dangerously cold waters.
1905 Francisco Silvela y La Vielleuze, político y escritor español.
1892 Bah 'u'll h Death of prophet (Ascension of Baha'Ullah-'Azamat 7, 49)
1862 Evaristo Fernández San Miguel y Valledor duque de San Miguel, militar y político español.
1858 Johann Moritz Rugendas, German painter born on 29 March 1802. — MORE ON RUGENDAS AT ART “4” MAY LINKSVolcán de ColimaLlegada del Presidente Prieto a la Pampilla _ detail 1 _ detail 2
1857 Agustina Zaragoza y Doménech, "Agustina de Aragón", célebre heroína española.
1784 George Barret Sr., Irish English painter born in 1728, specialized in Landscapes. — MORE ON BARRET AT ART “4” MAYLINKSBroodmares and Colts in a LandscapeRiver Scene with Watermill, Figures and CowsLandscape
1695 il cavaliere Giuseppe Recco
, Neapolitan still-life painter born on 12 June 1634. — MORE ON RECCO AT ART “4” MAY LINKSStill-Life with Fruit and FlowersDead GameStill-life with the Five SensesFlowers and GameRaie sur un chaudron et poissons dans un panier
1660 Frans van Schooten II, Dutch mathematician born in 1615. He was one of the main promoters of Cartesian geometry.
1461 Unos 28'000 combatientes en la Batalla de Towton, la más sangrienta de la guerra civil (entre los York y los Lancaster, 1455-1485) de sucesión a la Corona de Inglaterra denominada "de las Dos Rosas".
1453 Constantino XIII Paleólogo, "Dragases", último emperador de Oriente.
Births which occurred on a 29 May:
2001 The Itanium computer chip is introduced by Intel, two years behind schedule and after 10 years and over $1 billion in development. It is aimed at the corporate and server markets, as its 64-bit architecture enables 16 terabytes of memory instead of the 4 gigabytes of the 32-bit Pentium and Celeron. But the Itanium first release is twice as slow as the Pentium, and therefore will be used mainly for testing.
1957 Jean-Christophe Yoccoz, French mathematician.
1930 Edward Philip George Seaga, político jamaicano.
1922 Francisco Rodriguez Adrados, filólogo español.
1922 Iannis Xenakis Braila Romania, composer/architect/mathematician.
1920 The Offshore Pirate is published.       ^top^
     It is 23 year-old F. Scott Fitzgerald's third Saturday Evening Post story during the month. It demonstrates his rapid development as a versatile fiction writer. It is the first story that develops Fitzgerald's recurrent plot idea of a heroine won by her lover's performance of an extraordinary deed. The story had originally ended with the weak explanation that it was all Ardita's dream. Fitzgerald rewrote the conclusion to emphasize the storyness of the story: "The last line takes Lorimer [the editor of the Post] at his word. Its one of the best lines I've ever written." The Offshore Pirate was collected in Flappers and Philosophers.
It was Fitzgerald's own favorite among his short stories, even more than A Diamond As Big as the Ritz
1919 Simone Ortega, escritora española especializada en materias culinarias.
1917 John Fitzgerald Kennedy (35th US President, 1961-1963: the youngest person and first Roman Catholic ever elected to that office, the first to win a Purple Heart and the 4th US President to be assassinated (22 November 1963); first Pulitzer Prize winner: Profiles in Courage) The second of the 9 children of Joseph Patrick Kennedy, 28, and Rose Elizabeth Fitzgerald Kennedy, 26.
1906 Terence Hanbury White, in Bombay, future author of The Once and Future King.       ^top^
     His English parents were employed by the British civil service. White attended Cambridge, where he published a book of poems. He taught school for six years until his autobiographical work England Have My Bones (1936) gained critical success. He quit teaching to write full time and became increasingly reclusive. He studied medieval history and wrote books about hunting, fishing, and animals. In 1939, he published the enormously successful The Sword in the Stone, a retelling of the legends of King Arthur, which became a US Book-of-the-Month Club selection. He published four more books in the Arthurian saga during the next several years. In 1958, the volumes were collected in The Once and Future King. White died aboard a ship in Athens in 1964. After his death, the final volume of the King Arthur series was found among his papers and published in 1977 as The Book of Merlyn.
1903 Leslie Townes (Bob) Hope Kent England, entertainer (famous profile)
1897 Edward Wolfe, British artist who died in 1981.
1893 Karel “Charles” Loewner, Jewish Czech US mathematician who died on 08 January 1968.
1885 Erwin Findlay Freundlich, German astronomer and mathematician who died on 24 July 1964. He worked with Einstein on measurements of the orbit of Mercury to confirm the general theory of relativity.
1882 Harry Bateman, English mathematician who died on 21 January 1946.
1880 Oswald Spengler Germany, philosopher, author of Die Untergang des Abendlandes (Decline of the West)
1875 Giovanni Gentile, filósofo fascista italiano.
1874 Gilbert Keith Chesterton England, journalist / novelist / poet / critic       ^top^
      Chesterton created the Father Brown crime- fiction series. He died in 1936.
  • Appreciations and Criticisms of the Works of Charles Dickens
  • The Ballad of the White Horse
  • Charles Dickens
  • Chesterton Day by Day: Selections from the Writings in Prose and Verse of G. K. Chesterton, with an Extract for every Day of the Year and for each of the Moveable Feasts
  • Greybeards at Play: Literature and Art for Old Gentlemen
  • The Innocence of Father Brown
  • The Innocence of Father Brown
  • The Innocence of Father Brown (PDF)
  • The Wisdom of Father Brown
  • The Man Who Knew Too Much
  • The Man Who Was Thursday
  • The Man Who Was Thursday
  • The Man Who Was Thursday
  • The Club of Queer Trades
  • The Club of Queer Trades
  • Trees of Pride
  • Manalive
  • Manalive
  • Manalive
  • A Miscellany of Men
  • Orthodoxy
  • Heretics
  • Heretics
  • Utopia of Usurers, and Other Essays
  • What's Wrong with the World Today
  • What's Wrong With the World
  • co-author of: Leo Tolstoy
  • 1863 Marcelino Peña Muñoz, Spanish painter.
    1860 Isaac Albéniz, compositor y pianista español.
    1845 Alberto Urdaneta Urdaneta, Colombian painter, engraver, and publicist.
    1840 Hans Makart, Austrian Academic painter who died on 03 October 1884. — MORE ON MAKART AT ART “4” MAYLINKSThe Dream after the BallPortrait of a Lady with Red Plumed HatAbundantia: The Gifts of the SeaAbundantia: The Gifts of the EarthPortrait of a Lady (without a red plume on her hat) — Bildnis seiner ersten Frau AmalieCharlotte Wolter as Messalina
    1838 Gérard-Marie-François Girard-Firmin, French artist who died on 08 January 1921
    1801 Pedro Santana, militar y político dominicano.
    Patrick Henry's Address, by Chappel1736 (17 May Julian) Patrick Henry       ^top^
          American revolutionary patriot: who on his twenty-ninth birthday, nine days a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses, would present a series of resolutions opposing the British Stamp Act, and conclude his introduction of the Virginia Resolutions with the fiery words “Caesar had his Brutus, Charles the First his Cromwell, and George the Third — ” when, it is reported, voices cried out, "Treason! treason!" He continued, " — and George the Third may profit by their example! If this be treason make the most of it."
         Then, on 23 March 1775, before the second Virginia Convention, Patrick Henry would voice American opposition to the increasingly oppressive British rule over the American colonies with his “...give me liberty, or give me death!” speech.
          [There seems to be more people who say: "Give me liberty or give me wealth!". What I would say is: "Give me liberty or give me freedom!” or “Give me liberty or I'll give you death!” or “Give me liberty or I'll take it by force!”]
          Following the signing of the American Declaration of Independence on 04 July 1776, Patrick Henry was appointed governor of Virginia by the Continental Congress. The first major American opposition to British policy came in 1765 after Parliament passed the Stamp Act, a taxation measure to raise revenues for a standing British army in America. Under the banner of "no taxation without representation," colonists convened the Stamp Act Congress in October 1765 to vocalize their opposition to the tax. With its enactment on01 November 1765, most colonists called for a boycott of British goods and some organized attacks on the customhouses and homes of tax collectors. After months of protest, Parliament voted to repeal the Stamp Act in March 1765, and most colonists quietly accepted British rule until Parliament’s enactment of the Tea Act in 1773, which granted the East India Company a monopoly on the American tea trade. Viewed as another example of taxation without representation, militant Patriots in Massachusetts organized the "Boston Tea Party," which saw British tea valued at some ten thousand pounds dumped into Boston harbor. Parliament, outraged by the Boston Tea Party and other blatant destruction of British property, enacted the Coercive Acts, also known as the Intolerable Acts, in the following year. The colonists subsequently called the first Continental Congress to consider a united American resistance against the British. With the other colonies watching intently, Massachusetts led the resistance to the British, forming a shadow revolutionary government and establishing militias to resist the increasing British military presence across the colony. In April 1775, Thomas Gage, the British governor of Massachusetts, ordered British troops to march to Concord, Massachusetts, where a Patriot arsenal was known to exist. On 19 April 1775, the British regulars encountered a group of American militiamen at Lexington and the first volleys of the American Revolutionary War were fired.
    Introductory Note: In March of 1770, the English, had, in fact, abolished all the duties it had imposed, except that on tea. Quite aside from the rumblings coming from the colonies, these duties were being felt at home. The Townsend duties had an impact on the British commercial classes, for, there was a decline in exports. Even the tax on tea was reduced so as to cure the smuggling problem. At these lower rates, this tea tax would likely have been tolerable in the colonies, except for this: in May of 1773 the East India Company had been given authority to sell its tea free of duty except that which was to be sold in North America. In December of 1773, there then occurred the Boston Tea Party. In response, England, in 1774, passed a number of acts including The Boston Port Act, The Quartering Act and The Massachusetts Government Act. The effect of these acts was to close Boston to foreign traffic, change the government and the courts of justice of Massachusetts and to legalized the quartering of British troops in colonial homes. The aim of these measures was to curb rebellion. In return the civilian leaders of the colonies met at Philadelphia, on 05 September 1774: The first Continental Congress. It passed five measures affecting the relations of the colonies with the mother-country. It forbade the import of English wares and ordered the cessation of all exports to Great Britain, unless they were to be given redress of the colonial grievances prior. Further, it approved of the opposition offered to the late acts of Parliament by the people of Massachusetts Bay. It then issued proclamations to the colonies, both north and south, which called for their support. Thus, it was, that on 23 March 1775, at Virginia, the largest colony in America, and with the greatest ties and more English-like then any of the other colonies, a meeting of its delegates took place in St. John's church in Richmond. A number of the delegates were abhorred by the notion that they should take steps which might lead to war with the mother-country. The resolution was presented by Patrick Henry. Before the vote was taken, he delivered a speech in support. He stood; silent at first, then spoke quietly and proceeded gradually to increase his speech in force and in loudness reaching at the end a crescendo that still echoes and will likely always echo in the hearts of men.

         No man thinks more highly than I do of the patriotism, as well as abilities, of the very worthy gentlemen who have just addressed the House. But different men often see the same subject in different lights; and, therefore, I hope that it will not be thought disrespectful to those gentlemen, if, entertaining as I do opinions of a character very opposite to theirs, I shall speak forth my sentiments freely and without reserve.
          This is no time for ceremony. The question before the House is one of awful moment to this country. For my own part I consider it as nothing less than a question of freedom or slavery; and in proportion to the magnitude of the subject ought to be the freedom of the debate. It is only in this way that we can hope to arrive at truth, and fulfill the great responsibility which we hold to God and our country. Should I keep back my opinions at such a time, through fear of giving offense, I should consider myself as guilty of treason towards my country, and of an act of disloyalty towards the majesty of heaven, which I revere above all earthly kings.
          Mr. President, it is natural to man to indulge in the illusions of hope. We are apt to shut our eyes against a painful truth, and listen to the song of that siren, till she transforms us into beasts. Is this the part of wise men, engaged in a great and arduous struggle for liberty? Are we disposed to be of the number of those who, having eyes, see not, and having ears, hear not, the things which so nearly concern their temporal salvation?
          For my part, whatever anguish of spirit it may cost, I am willing to know the whole truth — to know the worst and to provide for it. I have but one lamp by which my feet are guided; and that is the lamp of experience. I know of no way of judging of the future but by the past. And judging by the past, I wish to know what there has been in the conduct of the British ministry for the last ten years, to justify those hopes with which gentlemen have been pleased to solace themselves and the House?
          Is it that insidious smile with which our petition has been lately received? Trust it not, sir; it will prove a snare to your feet. Suffer not yourselves to be betrayed with a kiss. Ask yourselves how this gracious reception of our petition comports with these warlike preparations which cover our waters and darken our land. Are fleets and armies necessary to a work of love and reconciliation? Have we shown ourselves so unwilling to be reconciled that force must be called in to win back our love? Let us not deceive ourselves, sir. These are the implements of war and subjugation — the last arguments to which kings resort. I ask gentlemen, sir, what means this martial array, if its purpose be not to force us to submission? Can gentlemen assign any other possible motives for it? Has Great Britain any enemy, in this quarter of the world, to call for all this accumulation of navies and armies?
          No, sir, she has none. They are meant for us; they can be meant for no other. They are sent over to bind and rivet upon us those chains which the British ministry have been so long forging. And what have we to oppose to them? Shall we try argument? Sir, we have been trying that for the last ten years. Have we anything new to offer on the subject? Nothing.
          We have held the subject up in every light of which it is capable; but it has been all in vain. Shall we resort to entreaty and humble supplication? What terms shall we find which have not been already exhausted? Let us not, I beseech you, sir, deceive ourselves longer.
          Sir, we have done everything that could be done to avert the storm which is now coming on. We have petitioned; we have remonstrated; we have supplicated; we have prostrated ourselves before the throne, and have implored its interposition to arrest the tyrannical hands of the ministry and Parliament.
          Our petitions have been slighted; our remonstrances have produced additional violence and insult; our supplications have been disregarded; and we have been spurned, with contempt, from the foot of the throne. In vain, after these things, may we indulge the fond hope of peace and reconciliation. There is no longer any room for hope.
          If we wish to be free — if we mean to preserve inviolate those inestimable privileges for which we have been so long contending — if we mean not basely to abandon the noble struggle in which we have been so long engaged, and which we have pledged ourselves never to abandon until the glorious object of our contest shall be obtained, we must fight! I repeat it, sir, we must fight! An appeal to arms and to the God of Hosts is all that is left us!
          They tell us, sir, that we are weak — unable to cope with so formidable an adversary. But when shall we be stronger? Will it be the next week, or the next year? Will it be when we are totally disarmed, and when a British guard shall be stationed in every house? Shall we gather strength by irresolution and inaction? Shall we acquire the means of effectual resistance, by lying supinely on our backs, and hugging the delusive phantom of hope, until our enemies shall have bound us hand and foot?
          Sir, we are not weak, if we make a proper use of the means which the God of nature hath placed in our power. Three millions of people, armed in the holy cause of liberty, and in such a country as that which we possess, are invincible by any force which our enemy can send against us. Besides, sir, we shall not fight our battles alone. There is a just God who presides over the destinies of nations, and who will raise up friends to fight our battles for us.
          The battle, sir, is not to the strong alone; it is to the vigilant, the active, the brave. Besides, sir, we have no election. If we were base enough to desire it, it is now too late to retire from the contest. There is no retreat but in submission and slavery! Our chains are forged! Their clanking may be heard on the plains of Boston! The war is inevitable — and let it come! I repeat it, sir, let it come!
          It is in vain, sir, to extenuate the matter. Gentlemen may cry, "Peace! Peace!" — but there is no peace. The war is actually begun! The next gale that sweeps from the north will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms! Our brethren are already in the field! Why stand we here idle? What is it that gentlemen wish? What would they have? Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty, or give me death!
    The vote of the Virginia delegates barely passed, but it passed; and the movement we have come to know as the American Revolution was to receive the support which it needed. Fighting erupted on 19 April 1775, at Lexington and Concord, and was followed that year by the capture of Fort Ticonderoga from the British, the battle of Bunker Hill (June), and the unsuccessful colonial assault on Quebec. Patrick Henry died on 06 June 1799.
    Holidays England : Oak Apple Day/Nettle Day (1660) / Rhode Island : Ratification Day (1790) / Wisconsin : Admission Day (1848)

    Religious Observances Christian-Andorra : Our Lady of Canolic / old RC : St Mary Magdalen dei Pazzi, virgin / Luth : Jiri Tranovsky, hymn writer / Baha'i : Death (ascension) of prophet Bah 'u'll h ('Azamat 7, 49) / Santos Maximino, Eleuterio, Teodosia, Bona y Restituta.

    Thoughts for the day: "To laugh at people of sense is the privilege of fools."
    "People of sense laugh at themselves."
    "If you can't laugh at yourself, don't worry, others will."
    "To laugh at lions is the privilege of hyenas."
    "To laugh at privileged fools is a mark of good sense."
    "To laugh at privilege is the sense of the people."
    "To laugh at people is better than to scream at them."
    "Better to laugh on your knees than to die standing up."
    "Better to roll with laughter than to roll with the punches."
    "To laugh at tyrants drives them crazy." —
    [and is hazardous to the health of the laughers]
    "People of sense laugh off the laughter of fools."
    "Humans are the only animals who can laugh, or who need to."
    "Better to live and laugh than to die of boredom."
    "People of sense never laugh at a giraffe or smile at a crocodile."
    "To laugh at my jokes is the privilege of people of sense.”
    “History never repeats itself, but sometimes it rhymes.” —
    Mark Twain — [occasionally it stutters]

    updated Thursday 29-May-2003 20:46 UT
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