|On a November
2001 The US Federal Reserve Board reduces the target for the federal funds rate from 2.5% to 2%, the lowest since September 1961, and the discount rate, from 2$ to 1.5%. Bank reduce their prime lending rate from 5.5% to 5%, the lowest level since 25 June 1972.
2001 David Trimble, a Protestant moderate who leads the Ulster Unionist Party, is re-elected as leader of Northern Ireland's unity government, with the added support of three lawmakers from a neutral party, Alliance, which represents both Irish Catholics and British Protestants giving him a 31-29 victory in the enlarged Protestant bloc, while he once again receives unanimous support from the Catholic side of the house. To be elected "first minister" of the four-party coalition required majority support from both sides' lawmakers.
|2001 Brazil to have public Internet
Brazil is pledging to install Internet booths in 4000 post offices in 2002, giving free Web access to some 150 million persons in a massive effort to bridge the country's gaping digital divide, President Fernando Henrique Carodoso announces in his regular weekly radio address. The kiosks will be placed first in cities with 10'000 residents or more, which is expected to be done by the first quarter of 2002. The Internet is of great use to all people," says Cardoso. "Citizens who have business with organs of the federal government like pension requests, taxes, judicial questions or even a project in Congress, need the Internet. Poor students need the Net for their research." That's why the government will give residents free access for 10-minute long sessions, Cardoso says. He does not specify whether there would be any total limit on the free access time. According to the plan, each citizen will be able to register for a free e-mail account. Although Brazil is home to some of the world's most sophisticated Web sites and Internet designers, only a tiny portion of the country's 170 million citizens have full access to the World Wide Web. The country counts some 12 million residential users, the highest number of Internet users in Latin America.
| 2000 La Unión Europea demanda, ante los tribunales estadounidenses,
a las grandes tabacaleras por contrabando.
1999 Chechnya asks for talks as Russian bombs fall (CNN)
1999 Los australianos deciden en referéndum seguir siendo una monarquía y mantener a la reina Elizabeth II de Inglaterra como jefa del Estado.
1998 El escritor español Antonio Muñoz Molina es galardonado con el Premio Femina a la mejor novela extranjera por su libro Plenilunio.
1998 El escultor español Eduardo Chillida es galardonado en Palermo con el Premio Internacional Novecento, Rosa de Oro .
1997 Detenidos en Francia los presuntos miembros de ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna) , José Ramón Naveiro Gómez e Idoia Martínez García.
1997 El Comité de Ministros del Consejo de Europa firma en Estrasburgo un protocolo para prohibir la clonación humana.
1996 Bill Clinton wins a second term in the White House, Republican challenger Bob Dole, while the GOP maintained its hold on Congress. The results clearly pleased Wall Street, as traders sent the Dow-Jones Industrial Average surging to a 100-point gain, bumping the index past the record 6100 mark.
1996 the Republican and Democratic Party chairmen met at the National Press Club in Washington DC, to "bury the hatchet." [Better yet would have been if, by the hatchet, they had meant Newt Gingrich]
1995 Many world leaders gather in Jerusalem for the funeral of assassinated Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin.
1995 El escritor gallego Xavier Docampo obtiene el Premio Nacional español de Literatura Infantil y Juvenil 95.
1995 Los investigadores Mariano Barbacid Montalbán, Francisco González de Posada y Amable Liñan Martínez reciben el premio español Fomento de la Invención.
1993 The ruling New Zealand National Party wins a one-seat majority in general elections.
1993 Federico Mayor Zaragoza reelegido para un nuevo mandato como director de la UNESCO.
1991 Ukraine signs the Soviet economic-union treaty.
1991 In Kuwait, the last oil fires ignited by Iraq during the Persian Gulf War are put out.
1990 Hungría entra en el Consejo de Europa.
1990 A gunman shoots and misses at Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev presiding over the Revolution Day parade.
1990 In the US general election, the Democrats gain governorships from Republicans in Texas and Florida, but lose California's.
| 1988 Soviet scientist and well-known human rights activist
Andrei Sakharov begins a two-week visit to the United States. Had won the
Nobel Peace Prize in 1975. Sakharov was born on 21 May 1921 and died on
14 December 1989. MORE
1987 Noboru Takeshita es nombrado primer ministro de Japón por una amplia mayoría de la Dieta (Parlamento), tras dimitir Yasuhiro Nakasone.
1986 Reagan signs the first US immigration law establishing penalties for employers who hire undocumented aliens.
1985 General Jaruzelski elected Poland's head of state
1984 President Reagan (R) landslide (won 49 states) re-election over Mondale (D)
1984 El Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional gana las elecciones presidenciales en Nicaragua.
1984 El dictador chileno Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte restablece el estado de sitio, tras las repetidas manifestaciones contra su régimen.
| 1982 El líder histórico del comunismo español, Santiago
Carrillo, dimite como secretario general del PCE (Partido Comunista de España).
1978 Shah of Iran places Iran under military rule. Tras dos nuevas jornadas de revueltas en Irán, el jefe de estado mayor, el general Azahri, es nombrado primer ministro.
1976 Benjamin L. Hooks was chosen to be the new executive director of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, succeeding Roy Wilkins.
1968 Richard Nixon is elected 37th president of the United States, defeating Democrat Hubert Humphrey.
1964 La guardia presidencial de Colombia entra, por vez primera, en la universidad Nacional, para liberar a Carlos Lleras Restrepo, retenido por los estudiantes.
1957 Felix Gaillard becomes premier of France
1956 President Eisenhower (D) re-elected defeating Adlai E. Stevenson (R)
1955 Muhammad V ibn Yusuf vuelve al trono de Marruecos tras su exilio por los franceses.
1952 the United States exploded the world's first hydrogen bomb at Eniwetok Atoll in the Pacific.
| 1950 Se promulga una nueva Constitución en Nicaragua.
1947 Viacheslav Mijailovich Scriabin Molotov declara que Estados Unidos ya no es el único en fabricar la bomba atómica.
1944 Francisco Franco Bahamonde declara a la United Press Association la mentira descarada: España no es una imitación de los regímenes fascistas o nazis, o de cualquier otro sistema político extranjero, sino que en realidad es ya una democracia.
1943 The advancing Red Army enters Kiev, Ukraine.
1937 Italia se adhiere al Pacto Antikomintern, firmado por Alemania y Japón en 1936.
1936 Durante la Guerra Civil española el Gobierno de la Segunda República fija su sede en Valencia.
1934 El partido demócrata, encabezado por Franklin Delano Roosevelt, gana las elecciones al Congreso de Estados Unidos.
1928 Herbert Hoover (R) beats Alfred E Smith (D) for President
1928 Dimite el Gobierno francés de Raymond Poincaré.
1924 Stanley Baldwin becomes PM of England
1923 USSR adopts experimental calendar, with 5-day "weeks"
1923 As inflation soars, one loaf of bread in Berlin is reported to be worth about 140 billion German marks.
1921 En Hungría se promulga una ley de destitución de los Habsburgo, como respuesta a la tentativa de golpe de Estado por Carlos I.
1921 Lima sufre fuertes temblores de tierra.
1918 Republic of Poland is proclaimed.
|1917 October Revolution in Russia
Led by Bolshevik Party leader Vladimir Lenin, leftist revolutionaries launch a nearly bloodless coup d'état against Russia's ineffectual Provisional Government. The Bolsheviks and their allies occupied government buildings and other strategic locations in the Russian capital of Petrograd (now St. Petersburg) and within two days had formed a new government with Lenin as its head. Bolshevik Russia, later renamed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was the world's first Marxist state.
Born Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov in 1870, Lenin was drawn to the revolutionary cause after his brother was executed in 1887 for plotting to assassinate Czar Alexander III. He studied law and took up practice in Petrograd, where he associated with revolutionary Marxist circles. In 1895, he helped organize Marxist groups in the capital into the "Union for the Struggle for the Liberation of the Working Class," which attempted to enlist workers to the Marxist cause. In December 1895, Lenin and the other leaders of the Union were arrested. Lenin was jailed for a year and then exiled to Siberia for a term of three years.
After the end of his exile, in 1900, Lenin went to Western Europe, where he continued his revolutionary activity. It was during this time that he adopted the pseudonym Lenin. In 1902, he published a pamphlet titled What Is to Be Done? which argued that only a disciplined party of professional revolutionaries could bring socialism to Russia. In 1903, he met with other Russian Marxists in London and established the Russian Social-Democratic Workers' Party (RSDWP). However, from the start there was a split between Lenin's Bolsheviks (Majoritarians), who advocated militarism, and the Mensheviks (Minoritarians), who advocated a democratic movement toward socialism. These two groups increasingly opposed each other within the framework of the RSDWP, and Lenin made the split official at a 1912 conference of the Bolshevik Party.
After the outbreak of the Russian Revolution of 1905, Lenin returned to Russia. The revolution, which consisted mainly of strikes throughout the Russian empire, came to an end when Nicholas II promised reforms, including the adoption of a Russian constitution and the establishment of an elected legislature. However, once order was restored, the czar nullified most of these reforms, and in 1907 Lenin was again forced into exile.
Lenin opposed World War I, which began in 1914, as an imperialistic conflict and called on proletariat soldiers to turn their guns on the capitalist leaders who sent them down into the murderous trenches. For Russia, World War I was an unprecedented disaster: Russian casualties were greater than those sustained by any nation in any previous war. Meanwhile, the Russian economy was hopelessly disrupted by the costly war effort, and in March 1917 riots and strikes broke out in Petrograd over the scarcity of food. Demoralized army troops joined the strikers, and on March 15, Nicholas II was forced to abdicate, ending centuries of czarist rule. In the aftermath of the February Revolution (known as such because of Russia's use of the Julian calendar), power was shared between the weak Provisional Government and the soviets, or "councils," of soldiers' and workers' committees.
After the outbreak of the February Revolution, German authorities allowed Lenin and his lieutenants to cross Germany en route from Switzerland to Sweden in a sealed railway car. Berlin hoped (correctly) that the return of the anti-war Socialists to Russia would undermine the Russian war effort, which was continuing under the Provisional Government. Lenin called for the overthrow of the Provisional Government by the soviets, and he was condemned as a "German agent" by the government's leaders. In July, he was forced to flee to Finland, but his call for "peace, land, and bread" met with increasing popular support, and the Bolsheviks won a majority in the Petrograd soviet. In October, Lenin secretly returned to Petrograd, and on November 6-8 the Bolshevik-led Red Guards deposed the Provisional Government and proclaimed soviet rule.
Lenin became the dictator of the first Marxist state in the world. His government made peace with Germany, nationalized industry, and distributed land, but beginning in 1918 had to fight a devastating civil war against czarist forces. In 1920, the czarists were defeated, and in 1922 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was established. Upon Lenin's death, in early 1924, his body was embalmed and placed in a mausoleum near the Moscow Kremlin. Petrograd was renamed Leningrad in his honor. After a struggle for succession, fellow revolutionary Joseph Stalin succeeded Lenin as leader of the Soviet Union.
Dans la nuit du 06 au 07 novembre 1917, Lénine et sa petite troupe de révolutionnaires professionnels s’emparent des principaux centres de décision de la capitale russe, Petrograd (anciennement Saint-Pétersbourg). Les habitants de la capitale ne se rendent compte de rien. Sur la perspective Nevski, la grande avenue de Petrograd, les promeneurs et les noctambules vaquent comme à l'accoutumée. Les partisans de Lénine pénètrent arme au poing dans le Palais d'Hiver où résident les ministres du gouvernement. Le Palais est seulement gardé par une unité féminine incapable de s'opposer à l'intrusion. Pour donner à son coup d'Etat l'allure d'une révolution, Lénine fait tirer le croiseur Aurore, amarré à quelques centaines de mètres de là, sur un bras de la Néva.
Dans la terminologie bolchévique (on dira plus tard communiste), ce coup d'Etat sans véritable soutien populaire sera baptisé "Révolution d’Octobre" car il s'est déroulé du 25 au 26 octobre selon le calendrier julien (en vigueur dans l’ancienne Russie jusqu’au 14 Feb 1918). Cette Révolution d'Octobre est menée par le parti bolchévique de Lénine. Elle met fin au gouvernement issu de la [[!!bad link!!>>] %7Elarane/histoire03080.htm" target="_blank">Révolution de Février. Celle-ci avait mis fin au régime tsariste et instauré en Russie une démocratie très étendue... mais trop faible pour résister aux menées d’un agitateur aussi éprouvé que Lénine. Malgré son caractère ultra-violent et sa dénégation de toute forme d'expression libre, le régime que mettra en place Lénine suscitera une immense espérance dans le monde entier. Il s'écoulera 70 ans avant que la ruine de la Russie ne consacre l'échec de cette illusion.
| 1915 En París se produce el encuentro entre Lord Herbert
Kitchener y Aristide Briand.
1913 Mohandas K Gandhi arrested for leading Indian miners march in South Africa
1911 Francisco I. Madeiro inaugurated President of Mexico
1911 Maine becomes a "dry" state.
1906 Republican Charles Evans Hughes was elected governor of New York, defeating newspaper publisher William Randolph Hearst.
1903 Los Estados Unidos reconocen la república de Panamá.
1900 US President William McKinley (Republican) re-elected, beating Democrat William Jennings Bryan
1888 Benjamin Harrison (R-Sen-Indiana) beats President Grover Cleveland (D), 233 electoral votes to 168, Cleveland received slightly more popular votes
1884 British protectorate proclaimed over southeast New Guinea
1880 El médico francés Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran descubre el agente causante del paludismo.
1865 CSS Shenandoah strikes its flag at Liverpool, England; the final act of the Confederate States of America
1863 A Union force surrounds and scatters defending Confederates at the Battle of Droop Mountain, in West Virginia.
|1861 Davis is elected President of
Jefferson Davis is elected president of the Confederate States of America for a 6-year term. He ran without opposition, and the election simply confirmed the decision that had been made by the Confederate Congress earlier in the year.
Like his Union counterpart, Abraham Lincoln, Davis was a native of Kentucky, born in 1808. He attended West Point and graduated in 1828. After serving in the Black Hawk War of 1832, Davis married Sarah Knox Taylor, the daughter of General (and future President) Zachary Taylor, and the couple settled on the Brierfield plantation in Mississippi. Tragically, Sarah contracted malaria and died within two months of their marriage. Davis then married Varina Howells in 1845, but he maintained close ties to his former father-in-law. Davis was a close advisor to Taylor during the Mexican War, during which he was seriously wounded. After the war, he was appointed to fill a vacant US senate seat from Mississippi, and he served as Secretary of War under President Franklin Pierce. When the Southern states began seceding after the election of Abraham Lincoln in the winter of 1860 and 1861, Davis suspected that he might be the choice of his fellow Southerners to be their interim president. When the newly seceded states met in Montgomery, Alabama, on 04 February 1861, they decided just that. He expressed great fear about what lay ahead. "Upon my weary heart was showered smiles, plaudits, and flowers, but beyond them I saw troubles and thorns innumerable." On 06 November Davis is elected to a six-year term as established by the Confederate constitution. However the Confederate States of America would not exist for more than another four years.
|1860 Abraham Lincoln elected President
Abraham Lincoln is elected the sixteenth president of the United States over a heavily divided Democratic Party, becoming the first Republican to win the presidency. Lincoln received only 40% of the popular vote, but handily defeated the three other candidates: Southern Democrat John C. Breckinridge, Constitutional Union candidate John Bell, and Democrat Stephen A. Douglas, a senator for Illinois.
Lincoln, a Kentucky-born lawyer and former Whig representative to Congress, first gained national stature during his campaign against Stephen Douglas of Illinois for a US Senate seat in 1858. The senatorial campaign featured a remarkable series of public encounters on the slavery issue, known as the Lincoln-Douglas debates, in which Lincoln argued against the spread of slavery, while Douglas maintained that each territory should have the right to decide whether it would become free or slave. Lincoln lost the Senate race, but his campaign brought national attention to the young Republican Party. In 1860, Lincoln won the party's presidential nomination.
In the November 1860 election, Lincoln again faces Douglas, who represents the Northern faction of a heavily divided Democratic Party, as well as Breckinridge and Bell. The announcement of Lincoln's victory signaled the secession of the Southern states, which since the beginning of the year had been publicly threatening secession if the Republicans gained the White House. By the time of Lincoln's inauguration on 04 March 1861, seven states had seceded, and the Confederate States of America had been formally established, with Jefferson Davis as its elected president. One month later, the American Civil War began when Confederate forces under General P.G.T. Beauregard opened fire on Union-held Fort Sumter in South Carolina.
In 1863, as the tide turned against the Confederacy, Lincoln emancipated the slaves and in 1864 won reelection. In April 1865, he was assassinated by Confederate sympathizer John Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. The attack came only five days after the American Civil War effectively ended with the surrender of Confederate General Robert E. Lee at Appomattox. For preserving the Union and bringing an end to slavery, and for his unique character and powerful oratory, Lincoln is hailed as one of the greatest US presidents.
| 1844 Spain grants Dominican Rep independence
1813 Chilpancingo congress declares Mexico independent of Spain Se sanciona la independencia de México: En el congreso de Chilpancingo de los Bravos, el jefe del movimiento revolucionario, José María Morelos y Pavón declara la independencia mexicana.
1812 The first winter snow falls on the French Army as Napoleon Bonaparte retreats form Moscow.
1780 El anatomista y fisiólogo italiano Luigi Galvani realiza, con ancas de rana, la primera observación de los espasmos por influencia de la electricidad.
1572 Supernova is observed in the constellation known as Cassiopeia
1520 La expedición marítima de Fernando de Magallanes entra con sus naves en el estrecho que lleva su nombre.
1482 Francisco Febo, hijo de Gastón IV, conde de Foix, y de Magdalena de Francia, es coronado rey de Navarra en Pamplona.
which occurred on a November 06:
2002 Twenty of the 22 on board a twin-engine Fokker 50 which crashes when about to land at Luxembourg's international airport in thick fog.
2002 Michael J. Noll, born on 06 November 1980, is never seen alive after been told to leave the house of a neighbor into which he stumbled drunk, after celebrating his birthday at the Nasty Habit Saloon, a bar popular with students on weekends, in Eau Claire (near I-94), where he was a student at the University of Wisconsin. He may have drowned in the nearby Chippewa River.
2001 An Israeli soldier and three of the Palestinian gunmen who ambushed an Israeli jeep near Tell, south of Nablus, West Bank. Palestinians say that two of the Palestinians were merely wounded in the clash, and later shot in the head in cold blood, after a Red Crescent ambulance had been denied access to the wounded. This brings the al-Aqsa intifada body count to 744 Palestinians and 195 Israelis.
2001 Ikrima Stateh and Majdi al-Tayeb, in the explosion of a car which they had received the car from an Israeli Arab man in the northern Israeli town of Umm el-Fahm a fow hours earlier, and that Palestinians assume was booby-trapped by Israel. This happens in a Jenin refugee camp where Stateh and al-Tayeb were local leaders of the Al Aqsa Brigade. Palestinian militants often buy stolen cars from Israeli Arabs. The car in question, a new Toyota, had been stolen before it was acquired.
2000 Lyron Sprague de Camp, escritor estadounidense.
1996 Charles Blais, who has autism, is drowned by his mother, Danielle, in their Montreal home.
1996 Some 1000 by a cyclone in southeastern India.
1977: 39 persons as an earthen dam bursts sending a wall of water through Toccoa Falls Bible College in Georgia.
1970 Agustín Lara Aguirre, compositor mexicano.
1944 Hannah Senesh Jewish poetess, executed by Nazis in Budapest
1920 Arturo Soria y Mata, ingeniero y matemático español.
1893 (25 Oct Julian) Piotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, 53, in St. Petersburg, Russia, composer, probably by suicide by poison (but the first cover story was that he drank unboiled water during a cholera epidemic) to avoid exposure of his affair with a male member of the imperial family (the second cover story was that his suicide was motivated by the failure of his last symphony, the Pathétique). Tchaikowsky, born on 07 May (25 Apr Julian) 1840, was the leading Russian composer of the late 19th century, great for melodic inspiration and orchestration. (Marche Slave, 1812 Overture, Swan Lake, Nutcracker Suite, Romeo and Juliet)
1891 Comanche, the only 7th Cavalry horse to survive George Armstrong Custer's "Last Stand" at the Little Bighorn, dies at Fort Riley, Kansas
1884: William Wells Brown, author. WILLIAM BROWN ONLINE: The Black Man: His Antecedents, His Genius, and His Achievements (1863) Clotel, or The President's Daughter (1835) Clotelle, or The Colored Heroine Narrative of William W. Brown, an American Slave (1849) The Negro in the American Rebellion: His Heroism and his Fidelity
1842 William Hone, author. HONE ONLINE: The Political House that Jack Built
1839 Rabbi Hayim Rapoport of Ostrowiec author (Maxim Chayyim)
1837 Luis Candelas, famoso bandolero,es ajusticiado públicamente en Madrid.
1802 José Longinos Martínez, naturalista español.
1793 Dominic Serres, British painter born in 1722. MORE ON SERRES AT ART 4 NOVEMBER with links to images.
1671 (or 1686 date unknown?} Jan de Bisschop (Johannes Episcopius), Dutch artist born in 1628.
1632 King Gustavus Aldophus of Sweden, in battle.
1510 (on or before 06 November) Giorgio Zorzo da Castelfranco “Giorgione”, Italian painter born in 1477 or 1478. MORE ON “GIORGIONE” AT ART 4 NOVEMBER with links to images.
1406 Inocencio VII, Papa.
| Births which
occurred on a November 06:
1952 1st hydrogen bomb exploded (by US at Eniwetok Atoll)
1943 Michael Schwerner civil rights worker, murdered in 1964
1943 Matías Severo Moto Nsa, periodista y presidente del Partido del Progreso de Guinea Ecuatorial.
1939 AVIANCA, compañía aérea, se crea en Colombia, por la fusión de Scadta y Saco.
1930 Los andrajos de la púrpura, drama en cinco actos de Jacinto Benavente y Martínez, se estrena en el teatro Muñoz Seca.
1921 James Jones Robinson IL, novelist (From Here to Eternity)
1861 James A. Naismith, Canadian physical education instructor who, in 1891, invented the game of basketball.
1860 Ignace Jan Paderewski Kurylowka Poland, composer: musician: piano: Minuet in G; Polish patriot: 1st Premier of Poland ; brought white Zinfandel wine grapes to US for the first time.
1854 John Phillip Sousa Wash DC, march king (Stars & Stripes Forever, Semper Fidelis) Author. SOUSA ONLINE: The Fifth String, The Fifth String
1848 Richard Jefferies, author. JEFFERIES ONLINE: After London, The Pageant of Summer, The Story of My Heart
1839 Mary Ellen Freer Edwards (Mrs John C. Staples), British artist who died in 1908, 1909, or 1910.
1836 Francis Ellingwood Abbot Boston, theologian (Scientific Theism)
1835 Cesare Lombroso, antropólogo y criminalista italiano.
1828 Hiram Corson, author. CORSON ONLINE: An Introduction to the Study of Robert Browning's Poetry
1814 Antoine-Joseph Sax, Dinant, Belgium, instrument maker and inventor of the saxophone. He died on 7 February 1894 in Paris.
1796 George Back, author.BLACK ONLINE: Narrative of the Arctic Land Expedition to the Mouth of the Great Fish River, and Along the Shores of the Arctic Ocean, in the Years 1833, 1834, and 1835 (1836)
1781 Lucy Aikin, author. AIKIN ONLINE: Epistles on Women
1771 Alois Senefelder inventor (lithography)
1678 Coenraet Roepel, Dutch artist who died on 04 January 1748.
1671 Colley Cibber England, dramatist, poet laureate, author of Love's Last Shift. CIBBER ONLINE: An Apology for the Life of Mr. Colley Cibber volume 1, volume 2 co-author with Shakespeare of Richard III, Richard III
1661 Carlos II, last Habsburg king of Spain (1665-1700)