<< Aug 31|      HISTORY “4” “2”DAY       |Sep 02 >>
Events, deaths, births, of SEP 01

[For Sep 01 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Sep 111700s: Sep 121800s: Sep 131900~2099: Sep 14]
On a September 01:
1995 Microsoft offers new Windows 95 disks to customers experiencing problems installing the new operating system, which went on sale a few days earlier. Microsoft says that computer viruses on some PCs were interfering with the installation of the program
1993 Murdoch buys Delphi. Rupert Murdoch announces that News Corp. would buy Delphi Internet Service. Murdoch said the company would offer its many newspapers and magazines over the fledgling Internet through a proprietary online service akin to America Online. Delphi failed to catch on, however, as the increasing popularity of the World Wide Web eroded the demand for proprietary online services.
1991 Yugoslavia's presidency and the country's feuding republics accepted a European Community plan designed to stop months of fierce fighting among Croats, Serbs and the army.
1990 Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union sign the first agreement between Comecon countries to conduct their trade in convertible currencies and use world prices.
1989 Air bags required on US cars      ^top^
      The US federal government passes new car safety legislation, requiring all newly manufactured cars to install an air bag on the driver’s side. While air bags have proven to be life-saving devices in most cases, concern over the safety of the air bags themselves arose during the 1990s. Several instances in which small children were seriously injured or killed by an air bag caused a public clamor for further investigation of the devices, which can explode out of the dashboard at up to 300 km/h per hour. Air bags are still installed in all newly manufactured models.
1982 Palestinian Liberation Organization leaves Lebanon
1979 Pioneer 11 makes 1st fly-by of Saturn, discovers new moon, rings
1977 1st TRS-80 Model I computer sold
1975 NYC transit fare rises from 35 cents to 50 cents.
1972 Bobby Fischer (US) defeats Boris Spassky (USSR) for world chess title.
1971 Qatar declares independence from Britain
1970 Withdrawal from Vietnam defeated in the US Senate      ^top^
      The US Senate rejects the McGovern-Hatfield amendment by a vote of 55-39. This legislation, proposed by Senators George McGovern of South Dakota and Mark Hatfield of Oregon, would have set a deadline of 31 December 1971, for complete withdrawal of American troops from South Vietnam. The Senate also turned down 71-22, a proposal forbidding the Army from sending draftees to Vietnam. Despite the defeat of these two measures, the proposed legislation indicated the growing dissatisfaction with President Nixon’s handling of the war. On this same day, a bipartisan group of 14 senators, including both the majority and minority leaders, signed a letter to the president asking him to propose a comprehensive “standstill cease-fire” in South Vietnam at the ongoing Paris peace talks. Under this plan, the belligerents would stop fighting where they were on the battlefield while a negotiated settlement was hammered out at the talks.
      This approach had been discussed and rejected earlier in the Nixon White House, but the president, concerned that senators from his own party had signed the letter, had to do something to quell the mounting opposition to the seemingly endless war. Accordingly, on 07 October, in a major televised speech, he proposed what he called a “major new initiative for peace” — a new truce plan for stopping the fighting in Vietnam. Although Nixon did not offer any new concessions, his speech got high marks in both Congress and the US media. Unfortunately, the North Vietnamese rejected the overture, insisting that no truce was possible until the Thieu regime agreed to accept the authority of a coalition government in Saigon that “favors peace, independence, and democracy.” Thieu stubbornly refused to participate in any coalition government with the communists. Subsequent negotiations with the North Vietnamese in Paris remained deadlocked and the war continued.
1969 Libyan revolution, Col Moammar Gadhafi deposes King Idris
1969 Qaddafi leads coup in Libya      ^top^
      Muammar al-Qaddafi, 27, a Libyan army captain, leads a successful military coup against King Idris I of Libya. Idris was deposed and Qaddafi was named chairman of Libya's new governing body, the Revolutionary Command Council. Qaddafi was born in a tent in the Libyan desert in 1942, the son of a Bedouin farmer. A gifted student, he graduated from the University of Libya in 1963 and the Libyan military academy at Banghazi in 1965. An ardent Arab nationalist, he plotted with a group of fellow officers to overthrow King Idris, who was viewed as overly conservative and indifferent to the movement for greater political unity among Arab countries. By the time Qaddafi attained the rank of captain, in 1969, the revolutionaries were ready to strike. They waited until King Idris was out of the country, being treated for a leg ailment at a Turkish spa, and then toppled his government in a bloodless coup. The monarchy was abolished, and Idris traveled from Turkey to Greece before finding asylum in Egypt. He died there in Cairo in 1983.
      Blending Islamic orthodoxy, revolutionary socialism, and Arab nationalism, Qaddafi established a fervently anti-Western dictatorship in Libya. In 1970, he removed US and British military bases and expelled Italian and Jewish Libyans. In 1973, he took control of foreign-owned oil fields. He reinstated traditional Islamic laws, such as prohibition of alcoholic beverages and gambling, but liberated women and launched social programs that improved the standard of living in Libya. As part of his stated ambition to unite the Arab world, he sought closer relations with his Arab neighbors, especially Egypt. However, when Egypt and then other Arab nations began a peace process with Israel, Libya became increasingly isolated.
      Qaddafi's government financed a wide variety of terrorist groups worldwide, from Palestinian guerrillas and Philippine Muslim rebels to the Irish Republican Army. During the 1980s, the West blamed him for numerous terrorist attacks in Europe, and in April 1986 US war planes bombed Tripoli in retaliation for a bombing of a West German dance hall. Qaddafi was reportedly injured and his infant daughter killed in the US attack. In the late 1990s, Qaddafi sought to lead Libya out of its long international isolation by turning over to the West two suspects wanted for the 1988 explosion of an airliner over Lockerbie, Scotland. In response, the United Nations lifted sanctions against Libya. The United States still maintains its own embargo. After years of rejection in the Arab world, Qaddafi also sought to forge stronger relations with non-Islamic African nations such as South Africa, remodeling himself as an elder African statesman.
1966 De Gaulle urges US to get out of Vietnam      ^top^
      In a speech before 100'000 in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, President Charles de Gaulle of France denounces US policy in Vietnam and urges the US government to pull its troops out of Southeast Asia. De Gaulle said that negotiations toward a settlement of the war could begin as soon as the United States committed to withdrawing its troops by a certain date. He and Prince Norodom Sihanouk signed a declaration calling for noninterference in the Indochinese peninsula by foreign nations. Three days later, Assistant Secretary of State William Bundy on NBC-TV’s Meet The Press rejected de Gaulle’s proposal and said that the United States intended to withdraw its forces when “the North Vietnamese get out.” During the same speech, he also revealed that the United States now had 25'000 military people in Thailand, principally for air force operations.
1962 UN announces Earth population has reached 3 billion.
1961 The Soviet Union ends a moratorium on atomic testing with an above-ground nuclear explosion in central Asia.
1960 Disgruntled workers halt operations of the Pennsylvania Railroad for two days, first shutdown in the company's 114-year history.
1957 At a massive rally in Times Square, Billy Graham concludes his 16-week New York City evangelistic crusade in New York City, attended by nearly 2 million people.
1956 Indian state of Tripura becomes a territory
1954 Social Security Act is amended to benefit another seven million people, mostly self-employed farmers.
1951 The United States, Australia and New Zealand signed a mutual defense pact, the ANZUS treaty.
1951 Annular solar eclipse which I observe through thin clouds at the Dahlgren Naval Proving Ground, Virginia.
1950 West Berlin granted a constitution
1948 Communist form North China People's Republic
1945 Japan surrenders ending WW II (US date, 9/2 in Japan)
1942 A federal judge in Sacramento, Calif., upheld the outrageous wartime detention of Japanese-Americans as well as Japanese nationals.
1942 Future ENIAC creator views mechanical computers      ^top^
      Herman Goldstine, a mathematician working on ballistics calculation, visited the Moore School of Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. The school had one of several existing "differential analyzers," mechanical devices for performing the complex mathematical calculations required to compile firing tables for World War II artillery. Firing tables were originally calculated by hand-each different trajectory took five days to compute by hand but only an hour on the differential analyzer. Still, the machine wasn't fast enough to keep up with its enormous task; Goldstine therefore began to look for engineers to produce a faster way to calculate the tables. His quest led to the development of ENIAC, the first widely publicized electronic computer, by Moore School engineers John Mauchly and Presper Eckert.
1941 Yellow star becomes obligatory for Jews in the Reich to wear
1939 Germany starts blitzkrieg against Poland, WW II ensues.      ^top^
      Seeking to regain territory lost in WW I, and pretending to react to a "Polish aggression" which he had staged the previous day, Adolf Hitler sends his forces to bombard Poland on land and from the air, and fifty-six German divisions cross the border.
It starts at 04:45 with the German warship Schlezwig-Holchstein shelling Polish fortifications above the free town of Danzig. Norway, Finland and Switzerland declare their neutrality and Italy says it is "non-belligerent".
      Hitler's “blitzkrieg” strategy was characterized by extensive bombing early on to destroy the enemy's air capacity, railroads, communication lines, and munitions dumps, followed by a massive land invasion with overwhelming numbers of troops, tanks, and artillery. Once the German forces had plowed their way through, devastating a swath of territory, infantry moved in, picking off any remaining resistance. Once Hitler had a base of operations within the target country, he immediately began setting up "security" forces to annihilate all enemies of his Nazi ideology, whether racial, religious, or political. Concentration camps for slave laborers and the extermination of civilians went hand in hand with German rule of a conquered nation.
      Within one day of the German invasion of Poland, Hitler was already setting up SS "Death's Head" regiments to terrorize the populace. The Polish army made several severe strategic miscalculations early on. Although 1 million strong, the Polish forces were severely under-equipped and attempted to take the Germans head-on with horse cavalry in a forward concentration, rather than falling back to more natural defensive positions. The outmoded thinking of the Polish commanders coupled with the antiquated state of its military was simply no match for the overwhelming and modern mechanized German forces. And, of course, any hope the Poles might have had of a Soviet counter-response was dashed with the signing of the Ribbentrop-Molotov Nonaggression Pact.
     Two days after the invasion, England and France would declared war against Nazi Germany, initiating World War II in Europe. Great Britain would then bomb Germany the next day.
      At 04:45, some 1.5 million German troops invade Poland all along its 2800-km border with German-controlled territory. Simultaneously, the German Luftwaffe bombed Polish airfields, and German warships and U-boats attacked Polish naval forces in the Baltic Sea. Nazi leader Adolf Hitler claimed the massive invasion was a defensive action, but Britain and France were not convinced. On 03 September, they declared war on Germany, initiating World War II. To Hitler, the conquest of Poland would bring Lebensraum, or "living space," for the German people. According to his plan, the "racially superior" Germans would colonize the territory and the native Slavs would be enslaved. German expansion had begun in 1938 with the annexation of Austria and then continued with the occupation of the Sudetenland and then all of Czechoslovakia in 1939. Both had been accomplished without igniting hostilities with the major powers, and Hitler hoped that his invasion of Poland would likewise be tolerated. To neutralize the possibility that the USSR would come to Poland's aid, Germany signed a nonaggression pact with the Soviet Union on 23 August 1939.
      In a secret clause of the agreement, the ideological enemies agreed to divide Poland between them. Hitler gave orders for the Poland invasion to begin on 26 August, but on 25 August he delayed the attack when he learned that Britain had signed a new treaty with Poland, promising military support should it be attacked. To forestall a British intervention, Hitler turned to propaganda and misinformation, alleging persecution of German-speakers in eastern Poland. Fearing imminent attack, Poland began to call up its troops, but Britain and France persuaded Poland to postpone general mobilization until 31 August in a last ditch effort to dissuade Germany from war. Shortly after noon on 31 August, Hitler ordered hostilities against Poland to begin at 04:45 the next morning. At 20:00 on 31 August, Nazi S.S. troops wearing Polish uniforms staged a phony invasion of Germany, damaging several minor installations on the German side of the border. They also left behind a handful of dead concentration camp prisoners in Polish uniforms to serve as further evidence of the supposed Polish invasion, which Nazi propagandists publicized as an unforgivable act of aggression.
      At 04:45 on 01 September, the invasion begins. Nazi diplomats and propagandists scrambled to head off hostilities with the Western powers, but on 02 September Britain and France demanded that Germany withdraw by 03 September or face war. At 23:00 on 03 September, the British ultimatum expired, and 15 minutes later British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain went on national radio to solemnly announce that Britain was at war with Germany. Australia, New Zealand, and India followed suit shortly thereafter. At 17:00, France declared war on Germany.
      In Poland, German forces advanced at a dizzying rate. Employing a military strategy known as the blitzkrieg, or "lightning war," armored divisions smashed through enemy lines and isolated segments of the enemy, which were encircled and captured by motorized German infantry while the panzer tanks rushed forward to repeat the pattern. Meanwhile, the sophisticated German air force — the Luftwaffe — destroyed Polish air capability, provided air support for the blitzkrieg, and indiscriminately bombed Polish cities in an effort to further terrorize the enemy.
      The Polish army was able to mobilize one million men but was hopelessly outmatched in every respect. Rather than take a strong defensive position, troops were rushed to the front to confront the Germans and were systematically captured or annihilated. In a famously ill-fated strategy, Polish commanders even sent horsed cavalry into battle against the heavy German armor. By September 8, German forces had reached the outskirts of Warsaw, having advanced 140 miles in the first week of the invasion.
      The Polish armed forces hoped to hold out long enough so that an offensive could be mounted against Germany in the west, but on September 17 Soviet forces invaded from the east and all hope was lost. The next day, Poland's government and military leaders fled the country. On 28 September, the Warsaw garrison finally surrendered to a relentless German siege. That day, Germany and the USSR concluded an agreement outlining their zones of occupation. For the fourth time in its history, Poland was partitioned by its more powerful neighbors.
      Despite their declaration of war against Germany, Britain and France did little militarily to aid Poland. Britain bombed German warships on September 4, but Chamberlain resisted bombing Germany itself. Though Germans kept only 23 divisions in the west during their campaign in Poland, France did not launch a full-scale attack even though it had mobilized over four times that number. There were modest assaults by France on its border with Germany but these actions ceased with the defeat of Poland. During the subsequent seven months, some observers accused Britain and France of waging a "phony war," because, with the exception of a few dramatic British-German clashes at sea, no major military action was taken. However, hostilities escalated exponentially in 1940 with Germany's April invasion of Norway and May invasion of the Low Countries and France.
      In June 1941, Hitler attacked the USSR, breaking his nonaggression with the Soviet Union, and Germany seized all of Poland. During the German occupation, nearly three million Polish Jews were killed in the Nazi death camps. The Nazis also severely persecuted the Slavic majority, deporting and executing Poles in an attempt to destroy the intelligentsia and Polish culture. A large Polish resistance movement effectively fought against the occupation with the assistance of the Polish government-in-exile. Many exiled Poles also fought for the Allied cause. The Soviets completed the liberation of Poland in 1945 and established a communist government in the nation.
1939 Hitler declenche la seconde guerre mondiale Le second malheur du siècle qui s’annonçait par petites touches est maintenant bien réel : Adolf Hitler, après avoir annexé l’Autriche (Anchluss) et une partie de la Tchécoslovaquie, obtint des Alliés qu’ils reconnaissent le fait accompli grâce aux accords de Munich (Le Matin du jeudi 28-10-1999). Dans sa course et sa hargne de délivrer l’Allemagne des accords de Versailles de 1918, il envahit la Pologne le 1er septembre 1939. C’en est trop pour la France et l’Angleterre qui avaient déjà « avalé la couleuvre » en 1939 et qui lui déclarent la guerre le 03 septembre.
      Jusqu’en mai 1940, il ne se produit rien de notable sur le front armé ; les armées de Hitler comme celles de la France et de l’Angleterre sont immobilisées. C’est la « drôle de guerre » qui va durer vingt mois. Le 10 May, Hitler surprend son monde et déclenche l’offensive générale contre la France, les Pays-Bas, la Belgique et le Luxembourg. Victoire totale des troupes du führer : les armées de Belgique et des Pays-Bas capitulent au bout de dix jours de combats. Hitler encercle Dunkerque. L’Italie de Mussolini s’en mêle et déclare la guerre à la France et à la Grande-Bretagne le 10 Jun. Le 14 Jun, les troupes allemandes entrent dans Paris . La Grande-Bretagne résiste aux assauts allemands et reste seule en guerre contre l’Allemagne. La bataille d’Angleterre reste un grand moment de la résistance anglaise. Le 27 septembre 1940, le Japon donne une autre dimension à la guerre et signe un pacte avec Hitler et Mussolini : l’Axe Allemagne-Italie-Japon est né. Son but : annexer le monde entier. La guerre est repartie et le fascisme est tout près, en cette fin d’année 1940, à s’emparer de la planète. Et Hitler de prendre sa revanche sur la défaite allemande de 1918.
1939 Physical Review publishes 1st paper to deal with "black holes"
1932 NYC Mayor James J "Gentleman Jimmy" Walker resigns (graft charges)
1928 Albania becomes a kingdom, with Zogu I as king
1918 US troops land in Vladivostok, Siberia, stay until 1920
1916 Keating-Owen Act (child labor banned from US interstate commerce)
1916 Bulgaria declares war on Rumania as the First World War expands. In 1878, Bulgaria had no army. By 1913, it had one of the most formidable land forces in Europe.
1914 St Petersburg, Russia changes name to Petrograd
1911 M Fourny sets world aircraft distance record of 720 km
1906 Alberta adopts Mountain Standard Time
1906 Papua placed under Australian administration
1905 Alberta and Saskatchewan become 8th and 9th Canadian provinces
1904 Helen Keller graduates with honors from Radcliffe College.
1902 The Austro-Hungarian army is called into the city of Agram to restore the peace as Serbs and Croats clash.
1894 By an act of Congress, Labor Day is declared a national holiday.
1882 The first Labor Day is observed in New York City by the Carpenters and Joiners Union
1876 Battle of Aleksinac: the Ottomans inflict a decisive defeat on the Serbs.
1875 Violent activist miners convicted      ^top^
      The "Molly Maguires" were radical Irish-American miners, Their 01 September 1875 murder conviction effectively forces them to disband. Miners were forced to work long hours in hazardous conditions for paltry pay. Mine operators skirted around regulations with well-placed bribes. Feeling powerless to effect change through "proper channels", a group of anthracite miners in Pennsylvania decided to take action. Using an Irish gang of terrorists as their model, the miners donned women's clothes — hence the name — and set about taming mine bosses and strike breakers. Mine officials responded by hiring an operative of the anti-union Pinkerton Detective Agency to infiltrate the Mollies; though this move ultimately led to the murder trial, some still claim that the charges were trumped-up to guarantee a conviction.
1865 Joseph Lister performs 1st antiseptic surgery
1864 Atlanta evacuated by Confederates under General John Bell Hood.      ^top^
     They leave the city, a crucial supply center for the Confederacy, in Union hands. Union General William T. Sherman's victory helped ensure Lincoln's reelection two months later. With 110'000 men under his command, Sherman began moving toward Atlanta on 05 May, 1864. By 06 July, Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston, who was defending the city with half as many men, had retreated south of the Chattahoochee River onto Peachtree Creek. General Hood relieved Johnston and attacked Sherman on 20 July, but was forced to retreat with a large number of casualties. By August 31, Sherman had crossed Hood's supply line, forcing him to evacuate the city the following day. In response, Hood moved toward Nashville where, on 16 December' he met defeat at the hands of General George H. Thomas
1864 Battle of Jonesborough, Georgia concludes
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
1859 RC Carrington & R Hodgson make 1st observation of solar flare
1859 1st pullman sleeping car in service
1858 1st transatlantic cable fails after less than 1 month
1849 California Constitutional Convention held in Monterey
1836 First Paleface settlement in US Northwest.      ^top^
     A wagon train of Presbyterian missionaries, led by Dr. Marcus Whitman and H. H. Spalding, having traveled the Oregon Trail, reach the site of modern Walla Walla, WA. Whitman's wife Narcissa became the first white woman to cross the North American continent. They establish the first pale-face settlement in what would be northern Oregon Territory.
      The settlement thrived until 1947 when an unusual drought and the spread of measles led suspicious shamans of the local Cayuse tribe to order the massacre of all thirteen members of the settlement, prompting Congress to organize the Oregon Territory.
     Narcissa Whitman arrives in Walla Walla, Washington, becoming one of the first Anglo women to settle west of the Rocky Mountains. Narcissa and Marcus Whitman, along with their close friends Eliza and Henry Spalding, had departed from New York earlier that year on the long overland journey to the far western edge of the continent. The two couples were missionaries, and Narcissa wrote that they were determined to convert the "benighted ones" living in "the thick darkness of heathenism" to Christianity. That summer when they crossed the continental divide at South Pass, Narcissa and Eliza became the first Anglo-American women in history to travel west of the Rocky Mountains. Toward the end of their difficult 2900-km overland journey, the two couples split up, with the Spaldings heading for Idaho while Narcissa and her husband traveled to a settlement near present-day Walla Walla, Washington, where they established a mission for the Cayuse Indians.
      For 11 years the couples' missionary work went well, and they succeeded in converting many of the Cayuse to Christianity. But in 1847, a devastating measles epidemic swept through the area, killing many of the Cayuse, who had no immunity to the disease, while leaving most of the white people at the mission suspiciously unharmed. Convinced that the missionaries or their god had cursed them with an evil plague, in November of 1847, a band of Cayuse attacked the mission and killed 14 people, including Narcissa and her husband. Narcissa Whitman thus became not only one of the first white women to live in the Far West, but also one of the first white women to die there.
1821 William Becknell leads a group of traders from Independence, Mo., toward Santa Fe on what would become the Santa Fe Trail.
1807 Aaron Burr acquitted      ^top^
      Former US Vice President Aaron Burr, 51, is acquitted on charges of plotting to annex Spanish territory in Louisiana and Mexico to be used toward the establishment of an independent republic. In 1801, in an election conducted before presidential and vice presidential candidates shared a single ticket, Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr defeated Federalist incumbent John Adams with seventy-three electoral votes each. The tie vote then went to the House to be decided, and Federal leader Alexander Hamilton was instrumental in breaking the deadlock in Jefferson's favor. Burr, because he finished second, became vice president, but Jefferson grew apart from Burr, and did not support his nomination to a second term in 1804.
      A faction of the Federalists, who had found their fortunes drastically diminished after the ascendance of Jefferson, sought to enlist the disgruntled Burr into their party. However, Hamilton opposed such a move, and was quoted by a New York newspaper saying that he "looked upon Mr. Burr to be a dangerous man, and one who ought not to be trusted with the reins of government." The article also referred to occasions when Hamilton had expressed an even "more despicable opinion of Burr." Burr demanded an apology, Hamilton refused, so Burr challenged his old political enemy to a duel. On 11 July 1804, the pair met at a remote spot in Weehawken Heights, New Jersey. Hamilton, whose son was killed in a duel three years earlier, deliberately fired into the air, but Burr fired with intent to kill. Hamilton, fatally wounded, died in New York City the next day.
      The questionable circumstances of Hamilton's death effectively brought Burr's political career to an end. Fleeing to Virginia, he traveled to New Orleans after finishing his term as vice president, and met with US General James Wilkinson, who was an agent for the Spanish. The exact nature of what the two plotted is unknown, but speculation ranges from the establishment of an independent republic in the American Southwest to the seizure of territory in Spanish America for the same purpose.
      In the fall of 1806, Burr led a group of well-armed colonists toward New Orleans, prompting an immediate investigation by US authorities. General Wilkinson, in an effort to save himself, turned against Burr and sent dispatches to Washington accusing Burr of treason. On February 19, 1807, Burr was arrested in Alabama for treason and sent to Richmond, Virginia, to be tried in a US circuit court.
      On 01 September 1807, he is acquitted on the grounds that, although he had conspired against the United States, he was not guilty of treason because he had not engaged in an "overt act," a requirement of treason as specified by the US Constitution. Nevertheless, public opinion condemned him as a traitor. He soon left for Europe, where he tried in vain to enlist the aid of Napoléon in a plan to conquer Florida. Burr remained abroad for four years, living in penury. Bereft and lonely, he returned to New York in 1812 and practiced law until his death on 14 September 1836.
1730 Lanzarote volcano erupts, in the Canary Islands.
1676 Nathaniel Bacon leads an uprising against English Governor William Berkeley at Jamestown, Virginia, resulting in the settlement being burned to the ground. Bacon's Rebellion came in response to the governor's repeated refusal to defend the colonists against the Indians.
1666 Great London Fire begins in Pudding Lane. 80% of London is destroyed
1614 Vincent Fettmich expels Jews from Frankfurt-on-Main, Germany
1381 Émeutes de Bittéroises. Malgré le majorité du roi Charles VI le Fol, ses oncles les ducs d'Anjou, de Bourgogne, de Bourbon et d'Aragon continuent d'assumer la régence. Ce qui leur permet de vider les caisses royales. Ils ont créé de nouvelles taxes, dont les fouages. Cet impôt (à payer par foyer) provoque des troubles et des émeutes dans tout le royaume. Les bourgeois de Béziers se révoltent eux aussi. Ils sont réprimés par les "tuchins" ( les " tue-chiens " ), qui pillent, violent et volent. En dépit de cette répression, l'agitation gagne tout le Languedoc.
1217 Traité de Kingston. Blanche de Castille a demandé à son beau-père Philippe II Auguste les sommes nécessaires au Dauphin Louis, son mari, auquel des barons anglais en révolte contre Jean sans Terre ont proposé le trône d'Angleterre. Elle en est presque arrivée au chantage en lui lançant cette menace : "J'ai de beaux enfants, par la Sainte Mère de Dieu ! Je les mettrai en gage, car je trouverai bien quelqu'un qui me prêtera dessus." Ce à quoi Philippe II Auguste a répondu : "Gardez vos enfants et puisez à votre gré dans mon trésor." Par ce traité, Louis, dauphin de France, fils de Philippe II (l'Auguste), renonce au trône d'Angleterre contre la somme de 10'000 marcs.
0891 Northmen defeated near Louvaine, France
0069 Traditional date of the destruction of Jerusalem
— 312 -BC- Origin of Greek Era — Start of Indiction of Constantinople
— 5492 -BC- Origin of Ecclesiastical Era of Antioch
— 5508 -BC- Origin of Civil Era of Constantinople
— 5598 -BC- Origin of Grecian Mundane Era
^ Deaths which occurred on a September 01:
2003 Khader al-Husari, 36, and Munsar Knita, by missiles from Israeli helicopters fired at the car in which they were on a crowded Gaza City street. Some 30 other Palestinians are wounded. Al-Husari was a high-ranking member of the Izz el-Deen al-Qassam Brigades, the militia of Hamas, of which Knita was a member, as well as the third man in the car, Mundar Damita, who is seriously wounded.
2002 Giovanni Greco, 63, in Lascari, Sicily, falls from a ladder he had climbed to examine the top of the mausoleum he is having built for himself at the cemetery, hits his head on a marble step, and ends up dead in his own tomb. [saves on funeral expenses].
2002 Abdel Kareem Sadi, 16, shot in the back by Israeli troops in Jenin, West Bank. The boy was the son of Bassam Sadi, Islamic Jihad's Jenin district leader.
2001 Abeer Al-Samra, 22, by explosion in a taxi in Tulkarem, West Bank. She was the wife of gunman Ahmed Tabok, currently held in a Palestinian jail. Four others are injured.
2001 Tayser Khattab, 52, as his car explodes while he was driving toward his office at Palestinian intelligence headquarters north of Gaza City, where he was a top aide to the Palestinian intelligence chief, Amin al-Hindi. It follows the pattern of Israel's proclaimed policy of targeted assassinations, but in this case Israel denies any involvement.
2001 32 men and 12 women in fire from explosion an 01:00 in mah-jongg parlor in Kabukicho nightlife area in northwest Tokyo, with no fire exit. Three survive by jumping several stories to the ground.
1983 Henry "Scoop" Jackson , 71, (Sen-D-Wash)
1983 Larry McDonald and the other 268 aboard KAL Flight 007, shot down by Soviets.      ^top^
     Korean Airlines Flight 007 was flying from New York to Seoul when it strayed into restricted Soviet airspace over Sakhalin Island in the Sea of Japan. Soviet authorities attempted to first contact and then intercept the aircraft, and failing in this, a Soviet fighter was ordered to shoot it down. All 269 people aboard the South Korean jumbo jet were killed, including sixty-one US nationals, among them Georgia Representative Larry McDonald.
      A request for an official explanation from the Soviets was initially denied, and on 05 September, US President Ronald Reagan appeared before his nation, calling the Soviet action "barbarous," and asking for sanctions against the USSR. The next day, Soviet authorities held an uncharacteristic press conference to discuss the incident, and they put forth the claim that the airliner was on a US spy mission. On 15 September, the US Senate unanimously backed the House in condemning the incident. Despite the outrage publicly expressed by American officials, the measures taken against the USSR were largely token, such as the suspension of negotiations for a US consulate in Kiev, the Ukrainian capital.
     Soviet jet fighters intercept a Korean Airlines passenger flight in Russian airspace and shoot the plane down, killing 269 passengers and crewmembers. The incident dramatically increased tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States. On 01 September 1983, Korean Airlines (KAL) flight 007 was on the last leg of a flight from New York City to Seoul, with a stopover in Anchorage, Alaska. As it approached its final destination, the plane began to veer far off its normal course. In just a short time, the plane flew into Russian airspace and crossed over the Kamchatka Peninsula, where some top-secret Soviet military installations were known to be located. The Soviets sent two fighters to intercept the plane. According to tapes of the conversations between the fighter pilots and Soviet ground control, the fighters quickly located the KAL flight and tried to make contact with the passenger jet. Failing to receive a response, one of the fighters fired a heat-seeking missile. KAL 007 was hit and plummeted into the Sea of Japan. All 269 people on board were killed.
      This was not the first time a South Korean flight had run into trouble over Russia. In 1978, the Soviets forced a passenger jet down over Murmansk; two passengers were killed during the emergency landing. In its first public statement concerning the September 1983 incident, the Soviet government merely noted that an unidentified aircraft had been shot down flying over Russian territory. The United States government reacted with horror to the disaster. The Department of State suggested that the Soviets knew the plane was an unarmed civilian passenger aircraft. President Ronald Reagan called the incident a "massacre" and issued a statement in which he declared that the Soviets had turned "against the world and the moral precepts which guide human relations among people everywhere." Five days after the incident, the Soviets admitted that the plane had indeed been a passenger jet, but that Russian pilots had no way of knowing this. A high ranking Soviet military official stated that the KAL flight had been involved in espionage activities. The Reagan administration responded by suspending all Soviet passenger air service to the United States, and dropped several agreements being negotiated with the Soviets.
      Despite the heated public rhetoric, many Soviets and US officials and analysts privately agreed that the incident was simply a tragic misunderstanding. The KAL flight had veered into a course that was close to one being simultaneously flown by a US spy plane; perhaps Soviet radar operators mistook the two. In the Soviet Union, several of the military officials responsible for air defense in the Far East were fired or demoted. It has never been determined how the KAL flight ended up some 300 km off course.
1982 Ludwig Georg Elias Moses Bieberbach, German Nazi, persecutor of Jews, mathematician born on 01 September 1982. In 1914 he studied Bieberbach polynomials, which approximate a function that conformally maps a given simply-connected domain onto a disc. In 1916 he made the Bieberbach Conjecture.
1982 Haskell Brooks Curry, US mathematician born on 12 September 1900. Curry's main work was in mathematical logic with particular interest in the theory of formal systems and processes. He formulated a logical calculus using inferential rules. His works include Foundations of Mathematical Logic (1963).
1981 Albert Speer, 76, at a London hospital, close associate of Adolf Hitler who ran the Nazi war industries.
1970 François Mauriac (Nobel 1952)
1967 Siegfried Sassoon, author. SASSOON ONLINE: Counter-Attack, and Other Poems, The Old Huntsman, and Other Poems, Picture-Show
1951 Otto Alfred Wolfgang Schultze-Battmann Wols, German artist born on 27 May 1913.
1923 The great Kanto earthquake and fire      ^top^
     The greatest Japanese earthquake of all time devastates the Kanto region of southeastern Japan, in particular Tokyo (population about 3 million) and Yokohama (population 423'000. The city and harbor of Yokohama, and 70% of Tokyo collapse or burn. Over 100'000 people die. Property damage would be estimated to exceed one billion US dollars at the time.
      The morning of Saturday 01 September 1923 was very hot with strong gusts of wind that followed rain. The earthquake struck at 11:58:44, just as people were about to eat lunch. A survivor describes the event:
      There came the first rumbling jar of an earthquake, a sickening sway, the vicious grinding of timbers and, in a few seconds, a crescendo of turmoil as the floor began to heave and the building to lurch drunkenly.... The ground could scarcely be said to shake; it heaved, tossed and leapt under one. The walls bulged as if made of cardboard and the din became awful...For perhaps half a minute the fabric of our surroundings held; then came disintegration. Slabs of plaster left the ceilings and fell about our ears, filling the air with a blinding, smothering fog of dust. Walls bulged, spread and sagged, pictures danced on their wires, flew out and crashed to splinters. ... How long it lasted, I don't know. It seemed an eternity; but the official record says four minutes...

Perhaps one official record said four. Others said 10 minutes of felt vibration, and up to two and a half hours of constant motion.More than 200 aftershocks followed the 7.9 main event on Sept. 1st. On Sept. 2nd, an excess of 300 shocks were recorded, including a major event at 11:47 a.m. More than 300 additional shocks would follow from September 3-5.
      The general area of upheaval was the Boso Peninsula (Awa-Kazusa provinces) and the Shonan district (Sagami Peninsula). The epicenters of the numerous shocks that followed the main event originated in a scattered pattern between the southern section of the Boso Peninsula and the coast of Sagami Bay. The epicenter of the main shock on Sept. 1st was in the neighborhood of the Miura peninsula, while that of Sept. 2nd was offshore, in the vicinity of Katsuura. Ground upheavals was approximately 3 m near Mera, at the southern end of the Boso Peninsula and 2.5 m in the neighborhood of Oiso.
      A survey the sea floor in the area of the quake at a depth of 600 to 800 fathoms showed that two distinct earthquakes occurred in Sagami Bay. One was centered east of Hatshshima Island and to the north of Oshima Island. The other originated to the south-east of Manazuru point. The explorations also revealed new ridges 50 to 100 m in height on the ocean floor. These ridges are in line with a volcanic chain which extends for hundreds of kilometers in a south-southeasterly direction. It appears that a collapse into a rift occurred along the line of this volcanic chain.
Fig. 3. Map of area of destruction.     In all, seven prefectures were affected by the quake. These were Tokyo, Kanagawa, Shizuoka, Chiba, Saitama, Yamanashi and Ibaraki. The greatest destruction occurred at Yokohama, which at the time was the premier commercial port of Japan.
      The degree of shaking felt in the affected regions varied greatly based on soil structure. The epicenter of the quake was close to Oshima Island, but the island, consisting mostly of lava and scoria, experienced comparatively little shaking or ground level changes. This is attributed to its volcanic origin consisting mostly of lava and scoria. Both the cities of Tokyo and Yokohama, however, are located on alluvium or river deposits. The cities were thus on the worst ground, and suffered heavier shaking than the Izu peninsula, although farther away from the seismic centers.
      An unusual characteristic of the Great Kanto earthquake was the dramatic upheaval and depression of the ground. The earth was lifted as high as 7 m at Misaki, substantially changing the shape of the shoreline. This uplift lasted only about 72 hours, however, before the ground began to sink, at first by as much as 60 cm per day. When the settling had ceased, an offset of some 1.5 m remained.
      Even worse than the earthquake itself was the resulting fire. At the moment the earthquake struck, coal or charcoal cooking stoves were in use throughout Tokyo and Yokohama in preparation for lunch so that fires sprang up everywhere. Improper storage of chemicals and fuel further contributed to the holocaust. In Yokohama alone, 88 separate fires began to burn simultaneously and the city was quickly engulfed in flames that raged for two days. Although the recorded wind speed was lower in Yokohama than in Tokyo, there was a fire storm. In Tokyo, the wind reached speeds of 29 km/h. Temperatures soared to 30ºC late into the night.
      The casualties from the fires are a horrifying combination of people who were trapped in collapsed buildings and those who took refuge in areas that were later surrounded and consumed by fire. The greatest loss of life occurred at the Military Clothing Depot in Honjo Ward, where many of the refugees had gathered. Most of them carried clothing, bedrolls, and furniture rescued from their homes. These materials served as a ready fuel source, and the engulfing flames suffocated an estimated 40'000 people.
      By nightfall Yokohama harbor was full of refugees on board ships both foreign and local. Unfortunately, oil, which had been seeping into the water, caught fire the following morning, and there was a mad scramble to get the ships out to open sea before they were engulfed. Many people were injured when they were caught at the end of a burning pier.
      Days passed as the smoldering embers slowly cooled and the aftershocks diminished and finally stopped. In the desolate ruins left behind, it was difficult to distinguish earthquake from fire damage. In Yokohama, it is estimated that 80% of the total destruction was due to fire.
      A tsunami did follow the earthquake, but did relatively little damage. There was no large wave inside Tokyo Bay. A substantial wave — up to 12 m — did strike along the north shore of Oshima Island. Waves 1 to 6 m in height were recorded along Izu peninsula and the Bosshu coastline.
      The dramatic heaving of the ground resulted in thousands of landslides, the worst of which occurred in Idu province. Here the entire village of Nebukawa was buried by a massive mudflow, killing hundreds. Landslides were also observed on the Miura Peninsula, the southern part of Bo-so Peninsula, and the mountainous district of southwestern Sagami.
      The total number of houses partially or completely destroyed exceeded 694'000. Of these, some 381'000 were burnt, 83'000 collapsed, and 91'000 partially collapsed. These numbers clearly show the devastating effects of the fire. In housing damage, much blame came to be placed on tile roofs, which were very popular in Japanese construction. Not only did these prove to be an extreme hazard when they fell during the shaking, but they left the wooden structures exposed to fire.
      The initial earthquake severed water mains. Water shortages became tremendous problem to the survivors, and there was no possibility of fighting the fire.
      Also destroyed in the quake were telephone and telegraph systems, leaving the people of Yokohama and Tokyo completely cut off from the outside world. There was no way for them to know if the entire country was in ruins or if their own circumstances were among the best or the worst. Travel was made impossible due to the destruction of railroad track, loss of power to electric tramways, and streets choked with rubble making them impassible by automobile.
      All major newspapers had their offices destroyed by fire and so organized dissemination of information became impossible. Signs were posted informing people of everything from relief efforts and where to contact relatives, to the dire consequences of looting. On the evening of September 2nd, the Army Aviation Headquarters ordered aviators to Osaka, Yamada, and Shibata to convey news of the disaster. In the first week, more than 500 messages were also dispatched to various cities by carrier pigeon.
      As staggering as were the initial losses of life and property, there were more hard times to come. With a huge number of industries destroyed, some forever, unemployment was an immediate and lasting problem. 45.04% lost their jobs, throwing the region into an economic tailspin. In general, the early 20s were good times for Japan. While most of Europe was staggering under the effects of WWI, Japan, having remained neutral, was enjoying relative economic prosperity. Prior to the earthquake, Yokohama was a booming international port. Afterwards, recovery was painfully slow, as foreign investors were hesitant to rebuild there.
      On Sept. 2, the government proclaimed an emergency requisition ordinance, which allowed the issue of orders for any type of goods considered necessary to the relief effort. On Sept. 4, the Emperor of Japan allocated 10 million yen to be spent to aid in the relief effort.
      The news vacuum gave rise to rumors, the most sinister of which was that the Koreans were planning some form of takeover in the aftermath of the disaster. On Sept. 5th the Prime Minister issued a warning to the public that these rumors were without basis and were contradictory to the spirit of assimilation that Japan wished to achieve with Korea. Nonetheless, the rumors led to groups of vigilantes who patrolled the streets, and there were accounts of attacks on Korean citizens. This prompted the government to open a shelter where as many as 3075 Koreans were lodged for their own safety. By Sept. 8, the city of Tokyo was placed under martial law, and the army distributed food and began the long reconstruction process. Martial law allowed the government to disperse people, prohibit or suppress newspapers or advertisements, seize property, enter buildings, or take any action it deemed necessary to maintain order. Citizens caught in the act of looting were hung or shot.
      Electric lighting was first provided to Tokyo in the form of a search light and 40 other lamps which belonged to the 1st Telegraph Regiment. Yokohama remained in darkness for several nights. After electricity was restored in Tokyo, the Army lights were transferred to Yokohama. Engineering corps were dispatched to begin repairs on railways, telegraphs, roads, and bridges, while medical corps worked among the thousands of injured refugees.
      The steamer Korea, which was anchored in Yokohama harbor at the time of the quake, was the first to send out messages seeking help. The first distress signal via the ship's wireless was sent to the Governor of Tokyo. This received no reply, as Tokyo was in the same predicament. A second message was sent to Osaka, where it was converted to a high-power general broadcast. This was picked up by the American Asiatic Squadron located off the coast of South China. Immediate relief in the form of 2'500'000 yen worth of goods was sent to Yokohama. Similar help came from a number of other ships who happened to pick up the message, including an American steamer loaded with cargo intended for Hankow, which changed course and joined in the relief effort.
      News of the earthquake reached the United States on the evening of 01 September, and a relief effort was immediately launched. A sum exceeding ten million dollars was raised in just a few days. Similar efforts were mounted by a number of foreign countries.
      Records of earthquake activity have been kept in Japan for centuries. Prior to 1923, the most serious in terms of loss of life was the 10 February 1792 Hizen earthquake, which coincided with the eruption of Unzendake. 15'000 people were killed. Other major events include the Shinano, Echigo quake of 08 May 1844, in which 12'000 people perished, and the 31 December 1703 quake which struck Mushashi, Sagami, Awa, and Kazusa and generated a tsunami. 5233 died.
      The Great Kanto earthquake ushered in the modern age of earthquake engineering. Immediate changes in building codes followed the 1923 earthquake and were in effect in the rebuilding of Tokyo and Yokohama.
      Despite the wealth of knowledge gained in the aftermath of the Great Kanto earthquake, there was still much to learn. Japanese building codes would undergo several major overhauls in the coming decades as new theories were explored. The learning continues today worldwide.
      There is little that remains of the old Tokyo and Yokohama that existed before the Great Kanto earthquake. But to gaze at the modern skylines of these two rebuilt cities is to look upon the embodiment of engineering progress. The ruins of the world that was lost on September 1st, 1923, proved to be fertile ground indeed for the growth of knowledge and understanding that followed.
1922 Edmund Blair Leighton, British Pre-Raphaelite historical genre painter, born on 21 September 1853. MORE ON BLAIR~LEIGHTON AT ART “4” 2~DAYLINKSThe AccoladeCall to ArmsAlain ChartierStitching the StandardThe King and the Beggar-maidTill Death Us Do Part :: Pounds, Shillings and penceOffGod SpeedTristan and IsoldeOliviaEnd of the SongKnighted
passenfer pigeon

1914 Martha
, last known passenger pigeon, dies at Cincinnati Zoo.

      In the early 1800 there were billions of these birds (Ectopistes migratorius) in the Eastern US, but they were hunted to extinction. . A monument to the passenger pigeon, in Wisconsin's Wyalusing State Park, declares:

"This species became extinct through the avarice and thoughtlessness of man."
1870 French general Margueritte and the other victims of the Battle of Sedan.      ^top^
     It is the last battle of the Franco-Prussian War, as the Prussian army crushes the French and captures Napoléon III.
     Le 30 août le général Mac-Mahon a gagné Sedan, où il s'est laissé encercler par les troupes prussiennes. Malgré les charges des chasseurs d'Afrique vêtus de pantalons rouge bien voyants, que commandent les généraux Margueritte et Galliffet, l'étau se resserre. Un violent tir d'artillerie repousse les charges françaises en faisant de nombreux mort. Cinq cents canons pilonnent Sedan. Mac-Mahon est blessé, Margueritte est tué. Pour mettre fin au massacre, à 17 heures, le dernier empereur français Napoléon III donne l'ordre de hisser le drapeau blanc de la reddition. C'est le début de l'ère de la IIIème république.
     The wounding of Mac-Mahon early on September 1 caused extreme confusion in the French command, allowing the Germans to carry on their encirclement without serious opposition. Thereafter, the desperate French efforts to break out, including massive cavalry charges, led to nothing but high casualties. After the German artillery had pounded the French position in an all-day bombardment, the Germans launched their main attack in the afternoon. Emperor Napoleon III realized that the position was hopeless. He surrendered, and the next morning he and 83'000 French soldiers became prisoners of war. The French had lost 3000 men killed, 14'000 wounded, and 21'000 missing or captured. German losses totaled 9000 men killed and wounded. As the victorious Germans marched toward Paris, a popular uprising there on September 4 toppled the government of the Second Empire and set up a provisional republican government.
1862 Hundreds of Yanks and Rebs at Battle of Chantilly (Ox Hill).      ^top^
      1862 Battle of Chantilly Following his brilliant victory at the Second Battle of Bull Run two days earlier, Confederate General Robert E. Lee strikes retreating Union forces at Chantilly, Virginia, and drives them away in the middle of an intense thunderstorm. Although his army routed the Yankee forces of General John Pope at Bull Run, Lee was not satisfied. By attacking the retreating Federals, Lee hoped to push them back into Washington DC, and achieve a decisive victory by destroying the Union army. The Bull Run battlefield lay 40 km east of the capital, allowing Lee room to send General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's corps on a quick march to cut off part of the Union retreat before reaching the defenses of the capital. Jackson departed with his corps on 31 August. Using General J.E.B. Stuart's Rebel cavalry as a screen, he swung north and then east toward Washington. Under orders of Union General-in-Chief Henry Halleck, Pope tried to hold the town of Centerville from the advancing Confederates. Jackson moved north around Centerville, placing the bulk of Pope's force in grave danger as the Southerners moved towards Fairfax. By the afternoon of 01 September Pope evacuated Centerville and Jackson pressed to the north of the main Yankee army. Late in the afternoon, a Union division commanded by General Isaac Stevens attacked Jackson near Chantilly. In a driving rainstorm punctuated by thunder and lightning, Stevens's men drove into the Confederates and scattered a Louisiana brigade. But after Stevens was struck in the head by a Rebel bullet and killed, Jackson's men drove the Union troops back. Another Yankee general, Philip Kearney, was killed when he accidentally rode behind the Confederate line in the storm. The battle was over within 90 minutes, although the storm persisted. Confederate casualties numbered about 500, while the Union lost 700. Lee could not flank Pope's army, so he turned his army northward for an invasion of Maryland. The result was the Battle of Antietam on 17 September.
1838 William Clark, 68, 1729 Richard Steele, author. STEELE ONLINE: Isaac Bickerstaff, Physician and Astrologer
1804 Semion Fedorovitch Shchedrin, Russian landscape painter born in 1745. — MORE ON SHCHEDRIN AT ART “4” 2~DAYView of the Large Pond Island in the Tsarskoselsky Gardens — a different View of the Large Pond in the Tsarskoselsky GardensView of the Farmyard in the Tsarskoye SeloThe Mill and the Bell Tower at PavlovskView of the Gatchina Palace from the Silver LakeView of the Gatchina Palace from Long IslandThe Stone Bridge at GatchinaView of the Kamennoostrov Palace through Bolshaya Nevka from the Stroganov SeashoreThe Eagle Column at GatchinaA Cascade in the Gatchina ParkThe Stone Bridge by Connetable Square at Gatchina. — Landscape with Ruins
1729 Bonaventure de Bar, French artist born in 1700.
Louis XIV 1701 par Rigaud1715 Louis XIV, 76 ans, le Roi-Soleil (1643-1715)      ^top^
[portrait de 1701 par Rigaud >]

      La gangrène sénile qui a atteint sa jambe gauche tachée n'a cessé de progresser. Louis le XIVème, qui, le 25, a reçu Mme de Maintenon, son épouse morganatique, lui a dit: "Quoi madame, vous vous affligez de me voir en l'état de bientôt mourir ? N'ai-je pas assez vécu ? M'avez-vous cru immortel?". Le lendemain, c'est son arrière-petit-fils le Dauphin qu'il a reçu : "Mon cher enfant, vous allez être le plus grand roi du monde... Tachez de soulager vos peuples, ce que je suis assez malheureux de n'avoir pu faire." A des courtisans il a dit encore, ce même jour: "Je m'en vais messieurs, mais l'Etat demeurera toujours " Le 28 août, il confia à Mme de Maintenon: "J'ai toujours ouï dire qu'il est difficile de mourir ; pour moi qui suis sur le point de ce moment si redoutable aux hommes, je ne trouve pas que cela soit difficile." Le 31 août, le roi a récité le Pater d'une voix si forte qu'on l'a entendu de la pièce voisine. Puis il a perdu connaissance. En ce matin, à 08h15, le Roi-Soleil vient de s'éteindre, 4 jours avant son 77ème anniversaire.
Benjamin Franklin's Poor Richard's Almanack ON LOUIS THE XIV OF FRANCE.
Louis ('tis true, I own to you) / Paid learned men for writing, / And valiant men for fighting; / Himself could neither write nor fight, / Nor make his people happy; / Yet fools will prate, and call him great, / Shame on their noddles sappy.
1678 Jan Brueghel Jr., Flemish painter born on 13 September 1601.MORE ON BRUEGHEL AT ART “4” 2~DAYLINKSParadise Christ in the House of Martha and MaryNoli me tangereLandscape with Allegories of the Four ElementsLandscape with Ceres (Allegory of Earth)Allegory of Air
1666 Frans I. Hals, Dutch portraitist born between 1581 and 1585. MORE ON HALS AT ART “4” 2~DAYLINKSPortrait of a Gentleman in WhiteCompany of Captain Reinier Reael (The Meagre Company) — Marriage Portrait of Isaac Massa and Beatrix van der LaenPortrait of a man, possibly Nicolaes HasselaerPortrait of a woman, possibly Sara Wolphaerts van DiemenThe Merry DrinkerGypsy GirlThe Laughing CavalierPieter van den BroeckeWillem CoymansSinging Boy with a FluteA Family Group in a Landscape
1648 Marin Mersenne, French Minim friar, mathematician, musician, Cartesian philosopher, born on 08 September 1588. He is best known for his role as a clearinghouse for correspondence between eminent philosophers and scientists and for his work in number theory. Mersenne numbers are of the form 2p – 1, where p is prime. He made a few mistakes in identifying which of them are prime for p < 248, which are now known to be exactly those for which p = 2, 3, 5, 7, 13, 17, 19, 31, 61, 89, 107, 127. This last one is 170'141'183'460'469'231'731'687'303'715'884'105'727. More of those Mersenne primes have been discovered using computers, including those for which p = 521, 607, 1279, 2203, 2281, 3217, 4253, 4423, 9689, 9941, 11'213, 19'937, 21'701, 23'209, 44'497, 86'243, 110'503, 132'049, 216'091, 756'839, 859'433, 1'257'787, 1'398'269, 2'976'221, 3'021'377, 6'972'593, 13'466'917.
1557 Jacques Cartier French explorer
1159 Adrian IV only English pope (1154-59) 1159 Death of Pope Adrian IV, the only English pope, a firm but kindly man who suffered many things from Arnold of Brescia and Frederick of Barbarossa.
0256 Carthage synod (wrongly) declares heretics' baptism invalid..     ^top^
      What happens if a Christian is baptized by an unworthy or improperly ordained minister? Is that baptism valid? Under the prodding of the dynamic bishop and martyr Cyprian, the issue was faced in the North African city of Carthage in the third century. During the Decian Persecutions, which broke out in 250, many Christians poured libations to the emperor rather than suffer torture. Others bribed the authorities to obtain certificates saying they had sacrificed even when they had not. Later some of these, who were sometimes called lapsi, felt remorse for their betrayal of Christ who had suffered torture for them. They asked to be readmitted to the church.
      Schism developed over the issue. Led by Novatian, many Christians broke off from Rome, saying no lapsed person should be readmitted. The Novatians ordained their own priests who baptized new Christians. Later some Novatian Christians wanted to unite with the Catholic church. Cyprian said this was only possible if they were rebaptized within the Catholic church by "legitimate" priests. Another group wanted to let the lapsed return on easier terms than Cyprian. They also broke away and elected their own bishop, Cecilianus, who baptized converts.
      Believing that church unity was at stake, Cyprian took a tough stand against accepting baptism by schismatics, arguing that no sacrament administered outside the church had validity. Since there can be only one church, he considered the breakaway groups to be without the Holy Spirit. He wrote letters and summoned councils. These councils met in Carthage in 251, 252, 253, 255 and 256 to address the issues raised by the lapsi and Novatians.
     On 01 September 256, the North African synod votes unanimously with Cyprian. Baptized "heretics" who entered the Catholic fold must be baptized again. This vote did not stand. Stephen, bishop of Rome, ordered Cyprian to accept the lapsed into the church without a second baptism. Cyprian refused. "[H]ow can he who lacks the spirit confer the spirit?" he asked. For a long time he resisted, but eventually yielded — under threat of excommunication. Rome uses this concession by Cyprian to prove that at that early time the bishop's of Roman word had authority.
      Cyprian died a martyr on 14 September 258 at age 58. He had been accused of cowardice for hiding during the Decian Persecutions. In 258 he vindicated himself, boldly testifying to his faith as he went to his beheading. Stephen, too was martyred — a year before Cyprian.
      The Council of Arles in 314 upheld Stephen's decision. As long as a person was baptized in the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit, he or she was truly baptized, regardless of who conferred the rite.
^ Births which occurred on a September 01:
1989 The first Lexus is sold on this day, launching Toyota’s new luxury division. However, Lexus’ story had begun six years earlier in a top secret meeting of Toyota’s elite. Surrounded by the company’s top-level management, Chairman Eiji Toyoda proposed the company’s next challenge – a luxury car that could compete with the world’s best. The project was given the code name “F1,” with F for “flagship,” and the numeral 1 recalling the high performance of Formula 1 racecars. Designed by chief engineers Shoiji Jimbo and Ichiro Suzuki, the F1 prototype was completed just two years later. The top secret project was finally unveiled after extensive testing in 1987, and officially launched in 1989.
1950 First complete Porsche
      The company returned to Zuffenhausen, Germany, and produces the first complete Porsche. The first car to bear the Porsche name had actually been built two years earlier by Ferry Porsche and his design team, but this Porsche was the first car to boast a Porsche-made engine. Porsche became an independent automobile manufacturer during this year and soon sealed its success with a stunning victory at Le Mans in 1951.
1948 UN's World Health Organization forms .
1933 Ann Richards (Gov-D-Tx)
1928 Robert Pirsig, author of Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance (1974), in Minneapolis, son of a law professor.
     Robert Pirsig would rise rapidly to fame with his novel, based partly on his own experiences. It chronicled the motorcycle journey of the narrator, a former philosophy professor who underwent involuntary electric shock treatment for alleged insanity, across the country with his 11-year-old son. Along the way, the narrator ruminates on philosophical approaches to life, arguing that motorcycle maintenance is a metaphor for life. He also succeeds in healing a deep emotional rift with his son.
      The book was rejected by more than 120 publishing houses before it was published by William Morrow and Company in 1974. Pirsig received only a $3000 advance and was warned that the book would probably bomb. It became a cult classic, selling more than 4 million copies in the next 25 years. Tragically, Pirsig’s son was stabbed to death in a mugging 10 years after the book came out. After the book’s publication, Pirsig spent several years living on a boat and traveling the world. In 1991, he published Lila, another deeply philosophical novel.
1922 Melvin R Laird (Rep-R-Mich), US Secretary of Defense (1969-73)
1907 Walter Reuther, labor leader who merged the American Federation of Labor with the Congress of International Organizations and became president of the AFL-CIO.
1896 Max Peiffer-Watenphul, German artist who died in 1976.
1895 Heinrich Hörle, German artist who died on 03 July 1936.
1882 Ramón de Zubiaurre, Spanish artist who died in 1969.
1877 Rex Ellingwood Beach, author. BEACH ONLINE: The Spoilers , The Spoilers (another site)
1875 Edgar Rice Burroughs novelist (Tarzan, Mars Saga)
  • At the Earth's Core
  • At the Earth's Core
  • The Beasts of Tarzan
  • The Chessmen of Mars
  • The Efficiency Expert
  • The Eternal Savage
  • The Girl From Farris's
  • The Girl From Farris's (PDF)
  • The Gods of Mars
  • The Gods of Mars (magazine version)
  • Jungle Tales of Tarzan
  • Jungle Tales of Tarzan
  • The Land That Time Forgot
  • The Land That Time Forgot (magazine version)
  • Beyond Thirty
  • The Lost Continent
  • The Mad King
  • The Monster Men
  • The Monster Men
  • The Mucker
  • The Oakdale Affair
  • Out of Time's Abyss
  • The Outlaw of Torn
  • Pellucidar
  • The People That Time Forgot
  • A Princess of Mars
  • The Return of Tarzan
  • The Son of Tarzan
  • Tarzan and the Jewels of Opar
  • Tarzan of the Apes
  • Tarzan the Terrible
  • Tarzan the Untamed
  • Thuvia, Maid of Mars
  • The Warlord of Mars
  • Warlord of Mars (magazine version)
  • 1864 Roger David Casement, martyr of Irish independence.
          He would grow up to become Sir Roger David Casement, Irish-born diplomat who in 1911 would be knighted by King George V, and later executed for his role in Ireland's Easter Rebellion. Casement, an Irish Protestant who served as a British diplomat during the early part of the twentieth century, won international acclaim after exposing the illegal practice of slavery in the Congo and parts of South America.
          Despite his Ulster Protestant roots, he became an ardent supporter of the Irish independence movement, and after the outbreak of World War I, traveled to the United States and then to Germany to secure aid for an Irish uprising against the British. Germany, which was at war with Great Britain, promised limited aid, and Casement was transported back to Ireland in a German submarine.
          On April 21, 1916, just a few days before the outbreak of the Easter Rebellion in Dublin, he landed in Kerry, and was picked up by British authorities almost immediately. By the end of the month, the Easter Rebellion had been suppressed, and the majority of its leaders were executed. Casement was tried separately because of his illustrious past, but nevertheless was found guilty of treason on June 29. On August 3, he was hanged in London.
    1791 Lydia Huntley US, who would become religious author Mrs. Lydia Sigourney (How to Be Happy) 1791:
  • Gleanings
  • Illustrated Poems
  • The Man of Uz, and Other Poem
  • Pocahontas, and Other Poems
  • Poems
  • The Weeping Willow
  • 1835 William Stanley Jevons, English flawed economist, statistician, logician, philosopher, who died on 13 August 1882. Author of Pure Logic (1864), The Theory of Political Economy (1871).
    1795 James Gordon Bennet, editor of the New York Sun, the first tabloid-sized daily newspaper.
    1789 Lady Marguerite Blessington, English socialite and author who wrote a biography of Lord Byron.
    1896 Max Peiffer-Watenphul, German artist who died in 1976.
    1895 Heinrich Hörle, German artist who died on 3 July 1936.
    1882 Ramón de Zubiaurre, Spanish artist who died in 1969.
    1778 John Thomson, of Duddington, British painter who died on 20 October 1840. — moreLINKSCastle Campbell
    Phillis Wheatley1773, Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral, by Phillis Wheatley, 21, is published in London It is the first book of poetry by a US Black.
          Born in Senegal, the future poet was sold into slavery and transported to Boston at age 7 or 8. Purchased off the slave ship by prosperous merchant John Wheatley and his wife Suzanna in 1761, the young girl was soon trying to write English letters with charcoal on fences and walls. The Wheatleys' daughter Mary tutored Phillis in reading and writing. She also studied English literature, Latin, and the Bible. Phillis Wheatley's first published poem was On the Death of the Reverend George Whitefield (1770)
          Manumitted by the Wheatley family, the poet sailed to London in 1773. She met many influential people, including the Lord Mayor of London who presented her with a copy of Milton's Paradise Lost.
          Learning of Mrs. Wheatley's ill-health, Phillis Wheatley returned to Boston prior to the appearance of Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral. Arriving in Boston in September 1773, she nursed her mistress until Suzanna Wheatley died the following March. Wheatley continued to write. In 1776, she sent her poem To his Excellency General Washington. Phillis Wheatley continued to live with various members of the Wheatley family until 1778.
          After the death of John Wheatley and his daughter, Phillis moved to her own home. She soon married John Peters who squandered her inheritance from the Wheatley family. She bore the frequently-absent Peters three children. Beset with financial problems, she sold her volume of Milton to help pay his debts. To support herself and her only surviving child, Phillis Wheatley worked in a Boston boarding house. Both the poet and her child died there on 05 December 1784.
  • Memoir and Poems of Phillis Wheatley, a Native African and Slave,
  • Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral,
  • Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral,
  • Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral
  • An Elegy, Sacred to the Memory of the Great Divine, the Reverend and Learned Dr. Samuel Cooper, Who Departed This Life December 29, 1783
  • 1659 Joseph Saurin, French Calvinist minister who switched to being a mathematician after he converted to Catholicism in 1690. He died on 29 December 1737.
    1529 Taddeo Zuccaro, Italian Mannerist painter who died on 02 September 1566. — MORE ON ZUCCARO AT ART “4” 2~DAY LINKSAdoration by the MagiJustice (drawing) — Funeral of Saint Bernardino (drawing) — Madonna with Angels _ detailConversion of Saint Paul _ detailThe Beheading of Saint John the Baptist
    Holidays / Brunei : Revelation of the Koran / Lybia, Egypt : Revolution Day (1969) / Malaysia : National Day / Mexico : Presidental Message Day/Opening of congress / Michigan : Mackinac Bridge Walk Day / Pakistan : Quaid-i-Azam's Death / Puerto Rico : Labor Day (1894) / Syria : United Republic's Unity Day / Tanzania : Heroes' Day

    Religious Observances Ang : David Pendleton Oakerhater / Christian : Adjutor Day / Orthodox church : Beginning of year (9/14 NS) / Christian : St Drithelm of Northumbria / RC : St Giles, abbot

    Thoughts four the day: 1. “Mistakes are often the stepping stones to failure.”
    2. “Mistakes are often the stepping stones to suxess... of sorneone else.”
    3. “Mistakes ar often away of getting out of having to do that job.”
    4. “Mistakes are often the stepping stones to recrimuneration.”
    5. “Mistakes are often the stepping stones in the oinkment.”
    6. “Mistakes are often them stepping stones in you soup.
    7. “Mistaeks are often the the stepping stones to the stars.”
    8. “Mistakes are often the stepping stones that trip you,”
    9. “Missteaks are often the stepping stones acrosss the ocian.”
    10. ”Mistakes are often the stepping stones too serendipity.”
    11. “Mistakes are offen the stepping stones to self-pity.
    12. “Mistakes are oftn the kidney stones ov destinny.”
    13. “Mistakes are often the cornerstones of houses bilt on sand.”
    14. “M1stakes are 0ften the milestones of your life .””
    14. “Mistakes are often the. millstones of your life .”
    14 . ”Mistakes are often the stepping stones to a toombstone.” —
    [an example, above]
    15. “Mistakes are often  precious stones in teh rough.”
    11 “Mistakes are ofen the stepin stons out of wich yu mayk mountins, for lac of molehils.”
    15. “Mistakes are ofthen the stepping stones out of the friying pan into the fire.”
    16. “Mistakes are often the steppping stones to x s.”
    15.  Mistakes are often the stepping stones in your eye., when you're watching a grain of sand in someone else's.”
    17. “Mistakes are often the stepping stones in the I of the beholeder.”
    18. “Mistakes are often the steppin stones that give whey.”
    19. “Mistates are often the stepping stones out of which you should not make amount in.”
    20. “Mistakes are often the stepping stones on which two change horses in midstreem.”
    21. “Mistakes are often the steping stones in the mouthe of a gift horse.”
    22. “mistakes are often the step-on stings on which you cant lead a horse to water.”
    23. “Mistakes are often the stepping stones to a cloud's silving lining.”
    24. “Mistakes are often the stepping stones between a rok and a hard place.”
    25. “Mistakes are oftem the stepping stones that fall on you out off a clear blew sky.”
    26. “Mistakes are often the stepping stones in yor shoe.“
    27. “MIstakes are often the stepping stones tHat Christ didn't change into loafs of bred.”
    37. “Mistakes are oftten the stepping stones that kill the goose what laze the golden eggs.”
    28. “Mistakes are often the stepping stones witch paves the rode to Helll.”
    29, “Mistakes are oftun the stepping stones outta which blood can't be squeezd.”
    30. “Mlstakes are of ten the steppings tones which people swallow, hook, lock, and stinker.”
    31. “Mistakes are often the stepping stones to mor mistakes more misstaix moore mstakes”
    32. “Mistakes are often the stepping stones to a void to avoid.”
    33. “Mistakes are often the stepping stones to readin the directions.”
    36 “Mistakes are often the steeping stones that are gon with the wind.”
    334 Mistakes are often the light at the end of the tunnel that is an oncoming train."
    35. “Mistakes are often the stepping stones that ain't their”.
    updated Sunday 31-Aug-2003 21:36 UT
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