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Events, deaths, births, of SEP 19

[For Sep 19 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Sep 291700s: Sep 301800s: Oct 011900~2099: Oct 02]
On a 19 September:
EDS price chart2003 Foul fowl sellers sentenced to between 15 months and 4 years and 3 months in prison: David Lawton, 55; Robert Mattock, 59; George Allen, 47; and Gary Drewett, 33; who, in Nottingham, England had pleaded guilty to fraud charges for recycling 450 tons of chicken and turkey, which in most cases had been deemed unfit even for pet food, into the human food chain. Some of it ended up in products such as spreads and pates sold by major supermarket chains. The four worked at the rat-infested Denby Poultry, whose owner, Peter "Maggot Pete" Roberts, seems to have fled the country and was convicted in absencia at an earlier trial.
2002 The stock of Electronic Data Systems (EDS) is downgraded from Buy to Hold by AG Edwards and by Janney Montgomery Scott, to Market Perform by Banc of America Securities and by JP Morgan, to Sell by Deutsche Securities; from Outperform to Market Perform by USB Piper Jaffray and by SG Cowen, to Neutral by Soundview Technology, to In-Line by Salomon Smith Barney, to Underperform by Robert W. Baird; from Overweight to Equal-weight by Lehman Brothers . On the New York Stock Exchange EDS drops from its previous close of $36.46 to an intraday low of $17.00 and closes at $17.70. It had traded as high as $72.45 on 27 November 2001. [5~year price chart >]
2000 The US Senate approves permanent normal trade status for China.
1997 Turner gives $1 billion to the UN.         ^top^
      Ted Turner speaks at a United Nations Association dinner and announces a plan to hand over $1 billion to the U.N. The donation, one of the largest single charitable gifts in history, was intended to fuel programs benefiting children and refugees. Secretary General Kofi Annan noted that Turner's gift, which nearly equaled the U.N.'s annual budget, was "noble and extraordinary." Turner noted that the donation matched his earnings since the beginning of 1997. Turner also criticized the United States Government for $1.5 billion in unpaid dues, in addition to criticizing Bill Gates. "There's a lot of people who are awash in money they don't know what to do with," Turner noted while taking Gates to task by name. "It doesn't do you any good if you don't know what to do with it."
FBI sketch of Unabomber1995 The Washington Post publishes the "Unabomber's Manifesto"         ^top^
      The Washington Post published the so-called "Unabomber's Manifesto," a sixty-five-page thesis on what the "Unabomber" — the elusive mail-bomb terrorist accused of killing three people severely injured eleven others — perceived to be the problems with America's industrial and technological society. The newspaper, which split the cost with The New York Times, was assured that by publishing the essay future bombings would be avoided.
      On April 3, 1996, at his small wilderness cabin near Lincoln, Montana, Theodore Kaczynski, Jr., was arrested by FBI agents and charged with being the "Unabomber." Kaczynski, born in Chicago in 1942, won a scholarship to study mathematics at Harvard University at age sixteen. After receiving his Ph.D. from the University of Michigan, he became a professor at the University of California at Berkeley before abruptly resigning in 1969.
      Apparently disillusioned with the world around him, he retreated to a family property in Montana, where he developed a philosophy of radical environmentalism and militant opposition to modern technology. In 1978, he manufactured and sent his first mail bomb to a professor at Northwestern University, and a public safety officer was wounded while opening the suspicious package. In 1979, his third known terrorist bomb exploded on an American Airlines flight, causing minor injuries from smoke inhalation.
      As Kaczynski usually targeted universities and airlines, federal investigators began calling their suspect the Unabomber, an acronym of sorts for university, airline, and bomber. In 1987, a woman saw a man wearing dark glasses and a hooded sweatshirt placing what turned out to be the bomb next to a businessman's car in Salt Lake City. The sketch [picture >] of the man that emerged became the only representation of the alleged Unabomber. In 1993, various federal departments established the UNABOM Task Force, which intensified the search for a Unabomber suspect.
      On 19 September 1995, The Washington Post publishes the "Unabomber's Manifesto." Kaczynski's brother, David, reads the essay and recognizes his brother's ideas and language, leading him to inform the FBI in February of 1996 that he suspects that his brother is the Unabomber. On 03 April 1996, Ted Kaczynski was arrested at his cabin in Montana, and extensive evidence, including a live bomb, was uncovered at the site.
      Indicted on over a dozen counts of terrorism, he appeared briefly in court in June of 1998 to plead not guilty to all charges. Over the next year and a half, Kaczynski wrangled with his defense attorneys, who, against his wishes, wanted to issue an insanity plea that he believed compromised his political motives and beliefs. In January of 1998, at the scheduled start of the Unabomber trial, he expressed his desire to acquire a new defense team.
      Two days later, Judge Garland Burrell rejected Kaczynski's request and also approved his attorney's plan to portray him as a paranoid schizophrenic. Kaczynski next asked the judge to allow him to represent himself, but the request was likewise denied, even after an official psychiatrist and both the prosecution and defense deemed him fit to do so. On 22 January 1998, Ted Kaczynski pleaded guilty and was spared the death penalty. On May 4, 1998, the Unabomber was sentenced to four consecutive life sentences without the possibility of parole.
1994 US forces land in Haiti         ^top^
      20'000 US soldiers land unopposed in Haiti to oversee the country's transition to democracy. In 1991, Roman Catholic priest Jean-Bertrand Aristide, the first freely elected leader in Haitian history, was deposed in a bloody military coup. He escaped to exile, and a three-man junta took power. In 1994, reacting to evidence of atrocities committed by Haiti's military dictators, the United Nations authorized the use of force to restore Aristide. On 18 September, the eve of the American invasion, a diplomatic delegation led by former US President Jimmy Carter brokered a last-minute agreement with Haiti's military to give up power. Bloodshed was prevented, and on 15 October Aristide returned. Aristide served as president until the expiration of his term in 1996. In 2000, he was again elected Haitian president in an election marked by violence and corruption.
1993 Short story published on Internet. Stephen King's latest short story is published on the Internet. The story, part of a collection called Nightmares and Dreamscapes due for publication by Viking the following month, was the first work Viking published on the Internet. Users could e-mail an online bookstore and download the 25-page story for $5.
1991 The body of the "Iceman" is found on the Similaun Glacier in the Tirolean Ötztal Alps, on the Italian-Austrian border.
1988 Israel pone en órbita un satélite artificial y se convierte en el décimo país del mundo que ha podido hacerlo.
1986 US federal health officials announced that the experimental drug AZT would be made available to thousands of AIDS patients.
1983 St Christopher-Nevis gains independence from Britain (Nat'l Day)
1982 Computer pioneer resigns from Xerox         ^top^
      Robert Taylor, head of the computer science lab at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), announced his resignation. Taylor had headed the ARPA Information Processing Techniques Office, which founded ARPAnet, the underpinnings of the Internet. He joined PARC to oversee computer science research in 1969. Under Taylor, Xerox PARC researchers had developed the revolutionary Alto computer, which featured a graphical user interface and a mouse. Although Xerox never marketed the Alto, the computer inspired Steve Jobs and other Apple employees to develop the Apple Lisa and Macintosh.
1980 In Naples Saint Gennaro's blood fails to liquefy in its vial, as it usually does every year on this his feast day (as also on the first Saturday in May). This presages disaster, and, indeed, in November 1980 some 3000 people would die in an earthquake in southern Italy.
1973 Travel writer leaves for a great railway trip         ^top^
      Travel writer Paul Theroux leaves Victoria Station in London on a four-month railroad journey across Europe and Asia. He will write about his adventures in his bestseller The Great Railway Bazaar (1975).
      Theroux was the third of seven children growing up in the quiet town of Medson, Massachusetts, outside Boston. He was smart and ambitious but had no thoughts of becoming a writer. After studying at the University of Massachusetts, he joined the Peace Corps and taught English in Uganda, where he met writer V.S. Naipaul. Naipaul encouraged Theroux to write and became his close friend and mentor for many years. Theroux later taught English in Singapore and continued to travel widely.
      Theroux began publishing novels in his mid-20s, often using exotic locales as a backdrop for exploring the clash of Western culture and post-colonial life. His early novels include Waldo (1967), Girls at Play (1969), and Saint Jack (1973). His first nonfiction book was The Great Railway Bazaar, followed by The Old Patagonia Express (1979).
      He married, had two children, and settled in London while continuing to churn out novels, articles, stories, and nonfiction books. Later novels include The Mosquito Coast (1981), which was made into a movie starring Harrison Ford, and My Other Life (1996), which features a character named Paul Theroux who writes novels and travel books. His 1998 memoir, Sir Vidia’s Shadow, revealed the unraveling of his friendship with Naipaul. Theroux spends his summers on Cape Cod and has published more than 40 books.
1969 Vietnam: November and December draft canceled         ^top^
      US President Nixon announces the cancellation of the draft calls for November and December. He reduced the draft call by 50'000 (32'000 in November and 18'000 in December). This move accompanied his twin program of turning the war over to the South Vietnamese concurrent with US troop withdrawals and was calculated to quell antiwar protests by students returning to college campuses after the summer.
1966 Vietnam: US bombing despite opposition to war         ^top^
      1966 Pressure mounts against continued US involvement in Vietnam The Johnson administration and its handling of the war in Vietnam comes under attack from several quarters.
      A group of 22 eminent US scientists, including seven Nobel laureates, urged the President to halt the use of antipersonnel and anti-crop chemical weapons in Vietnam. In Congress,
      House Republicans issued a “White Paper” that warned that the United States was becoming “a full-fledged combatant” in a war that was becoming “bigger than the Korean War.” The paper urged the President to end the war “more speedily and at a smaller cost, while safeguarding the independence and freedom of South Vietnam.”
      Johnson’s handling of the war was also questioned in the United Nations, where Secretary General U Thant proposed a three-point plan for peace in Vietnam, which included cessation of US bombing of the North; de-escalation of the ground war in South Vietnam; and inclusion of the National Liberation Front in the Paris peace talks.
      In Rome, Pope Paul VI appealed to world leaders in a papal encyclical to end the Vietnam War.
      Despite such calls, the United States launched extensive bombing raids by B-52s that lasted for four days against a mixture of targets in the DMZ, including infiltration trails, troop concentrations, supply areas, and base camps.
1959 During his US visit (started on 15 September) Soviet leader Nikita Krushchev throws a tantrum when his request to visit Disneyland is turned down by US authorities for security reasons.
1958 El Frente de Liberación Nacional constituye en el exilio un Gobierno provisional de la República de Argelia, presidido por Ferhat Abbas.
1957 1st underground nuclear explosion (near Las Vegas, Nevada)
1955 Coup overthrows Perón in Argentina         ^top^
      Juan Domingo Perón, president of Argentina since 1946, was deposed and exiled in a military coup, having antagonized the church, the armed forces, and many of his former Labor supporters.
      In 1946, Perón, who had led a military coup in 1943, was elected president of Argentina by a huge majority. The year before, Perón was imprisoned after declaring himself a presidential candidate, but mass demonstrations by Argentine workers and public appeals from his charismatic wife, Eva Duarte de Perón, forced his release.
      After becoming president, Perón constructed an impressive populist political alliance that included workers, the military, clerics, nationalists, and industrialists. Perón's vision of self-sufficiency for his country won wide support from the Argentine people, but over the next decade, he became increasingly authoritarian, jailing political opponents, restricting freedom of the press, and organizing trade unions into militant groups along Fascist lines.
      In 1952, the president's greatest political resource, "Evita" Perón, died, and his unusual social coalition collapsed, leading to this 19 September 1955 military coup that forces him to flee the country. However, his economic reforms remained popular with the majority of Argentineans long after his departure, and in 1973 he returned triumphantly to Argentina, called back by the military to end factional violence. Perón subsequently won another overwhelming electoral victory, and his second wife, Isabel de Martinez Perón, was elected as vice president. After his sudden death in the following year, "Isabelita" succeeded him, becoming the Western Hemisphere's first female head of government.
      After a decade of rule, Argentine President Juan Domingo Perón is deposed in a military coup. Perón, a demagogue who came to power in 1946 with the backing of the working classes, became increasingly authoritarian as Argentina's economy declined in the early 1950s. His greatest political resource was his charismatic wife, Eva "Evita" Perón, but she died in 1952, signaling the collapse of the national coalition that had backed him. Having antagonized the church, students, and others, he was forced into exile by the military in September 1955. He settled in Spain, where he served as leader-in-exile to the "Peronists" — a powerful faction of Argentines who remained loyal to him and his system.
      Born into a lower middle class family in 1895, Juan Domingo Perón built a career in the army, eventually rising to the rank of colonel. In 1943, he was a leader of a group of military conspirators that overthrew Argentina's ineffectual civilian government. Requesting for himself the seemingly minor cabinet post of secretary of labor and social welfare, he began building a political empire based in the labor unions. By 1945, he was also vice president and minister of war in the military regime.
      In 1945, Perón oversaw the return of political freedoms in the country, but this led to unrest and mass demonstrations by opposition groups. Perón's enemies in the navy seized the opportunity and had him arrested on October 9. Labor unions organized strikes and rallies in protest of his imprisonment, and Perón's beautiful paramour, the radio actress Eva Duarte, was highly effective in enlisting the public to the cause. On October 17, Perón was released, and that night he addressed a crowd of some 300'000 persons from the balcony of the presidential palace. He vowed to lead the people to victory in the coming presidential election. Four days later, Perón, a widower, married Eva Duarte, or Evita, as she became affectionately known.
      In the subsequent presidential campaign, Perón suppressed the liberal opposition, and his Labor Party won a narrow, but complete, election victory. President Perón removed political opponents from their positions in the government, courts, and schools, nationalized public services, and improved wages and working conditions. Although he restricted constitutional liberties, he won overwhelming support from the masses of poor workers, whom Evita Perón called los descamisados, or the "shirtless ones." Evita served an important role in the government, unofficially leading the Department of Social Welfare and taking over her husband's role as caretaker of the working classes. She was called the "First Worker of Argentina" and "Lady of Hope," and was instrumental in securing passage of a woman suffrage law.
      In 1950, Argentina's postwar export boom tapered off, and inflation and corruption grew. After being reelected in 1951, Perón became more conservative and repressive and seized control of the press to control criticism of his regime. In July 1952, Evita died of cancer, and support for President Perón among the working classes became decidedly less pronounced. His attempt to force the separation of church and state was met with considerable controversy. In June 1955, church leaders excommunicated him, encouraging a clique of military officers to plot his overthrow. On 19 September 1955, the army and navy revolted, and Perón was forced to flee to Paraguay. In 1960, he settled in Spain.
      Meanwhile, a string of civilian and military governments failed to resolve Argentina's economic troubles. The memory of Perón's regime improved with time, and Peronismo became the most powerful political force in the country. In 1971, the military regime of General Alejandro Lanusse announced his intention to restore constitutional democracy in 1973, and Perón was allowed to visit Argentina in 1972. In March 1973, Peronists won control of the government in national elections, and Perón returned in June amid great public excitement and fighting among Peronist factions.
      In October 1973, Perón was elected president in a special election. His wife, Isabel Perón, an Argentine dancer he married in 1961, was elected vice president. She was much resented by millions still devoted to the memory of Evita Perón. Economic troubles continued in Perón's second presidency and were made worse by the Arab oil embargo of 1973 and an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease that devastated Argentina's beef industry. When Perón died on July 1, 1974, his wife became president of a nation suffering from inflation, political violence, and labor unrest. In March 1976, she was deposed in an air-force-led coup, and a right-wing military junta took power that brutally ruled Argentina until 1982.
Linus1952 Linus appears for the first time in Peanuts [shown below]         ^top^
      Linus Van Pelt inspired the term "security blanket" with his classic pose. He is the intellectual of the gang, and flabbergasts his friends with his philosophical revelations and solutions to problems. He suffers abuse from his big sister, Lucy, and the unwanted attentions of Charlie Brown's little sister, Sally. He is a paradox: despite his age, he can put life into perspective while sucking his thumb. He knows the true meaning of Christmas while continuing to believe in the Great Pumpkin.
1949 Après des grèves très dures, le gouvernement Queuille doit procéder à une dévaluation brutale du franc : 22, 27 %.
1948 Moscow announces it will withdrawal soldiers from Korea by the end of the year.
1945 Lord Haw Haw sentenced to death         ^top^
      William Joyce, broadcaster of Nazi propaganda to Great Britain during the Second World War, is sentenced to death by a British court for treason. Joyce, born in Brooklyn, New York, immigrated to England with his family as a child. As a young man, Joyce became involved in the English fascist movement, and later founded the British National Socialist Party in imitation of Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party. At the outbreak of war, he fled to Germany, where he broadcast Nazi propaganda to Britain from Radio Hamburg. He was soon nicknamed "Lord Haw Haw" by skeptical British citizens and troops because of his upper-class drawl. British soldiers captured him in Germany in 1945, and despite his US birth, he was judged subject to British jurisdiction because he held a British passport. In September, he was convicted of treason and, on 03 January 1946, he was executed by hanging.
1944 Finlandia firma un armisticio con la URSS.
1940 Nazi decree forbids Gentile women to work in Jewish homes
1939 Jonction des armées allemandes et russes à Brest-Litovsk
1939 Adolf Hitler ofrece la paz a Francia e Inglaterra, a condición de que reconocieran sus conquistas territoriales, propuesta que es rechazada.
1934 Bruno Hauptmann arrested in New York for kidnapping the Lindbergh baby
1921 El líder rebelde marroquí Abd el Krim proclama la independencia de la República del Rif.
1919 Buick from "German-sounding" Beuck         ^top^
      Wary of the unpopularity of "German-sounding" names after World War I, August Beuck begins using the name Buick rather than Beuck as he christens the new post office in his Colorado hometown. The new name of the GM marquee seemed assuredly all-American in a time when anti-German feelings dominated the nation. The wave of intolerance had begun with the United States entrance into World War I, resulting in many a Schmidt becoming a Smith. Throughout the country, hundreds of German newspapers and publications were forced to shut down, and German language instruction came to an end in most states.
1918 American troops of the Allied North Russia Expeditionary Force receive their baptism of fire near the town of Seltso against Soviet forces.
1914 The Cathedral of Reims is bombarded by Germans in World War I and badly damaged.
1902 Las fuerzas portuguesas de la colonia de Mozambique derrotan y cogen prisionero al jefe nativo Kubi, con lo que finaliza la rebelión iniciada en 1895 contra el dominio portugués.
1899 French President Émile Loubet [31 Dec 1838 – 20 December 1929] cancels the deportation sentence imposed, on 09 September 1899, on French Jew, Captain Alfred Dreyfus [19 October 1859 – 12 July 1935], by a second court martial, which again had falsely found him guilty (“with extenuating circumstances” this time) of passing secrets to the Germans, repeating the travesty of justice of the first court-martial (22 December 1894) which sent Dreyfus to notorious Devil's Island. In July 1906 the civilian Cour d'Appel would exonerate Dreyfus, on 22 July 1906 he would be reinstated in the army and awarded the Légion d'Honneur. Major Hubert Joseph Henry, forger of the military cover-up, had alread confessed and, at the end of August 1898, committed suicide, which provoked Major Marie-Charles-Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy [1847 – 21 May 1923], the real spy (who had forged evidence against Dreyfus) whom a court-martial had falsely exonerated, to flee the country. — MORE and a Harper's cartoon.
1893 New Zealand grants women the vote         ^top^
      With the signing of the Electoral Bill by Governor Lord Glasgow, New Zealand became the first self-governing nation in the world to grant all of its adult female citizens the right to vote. The bill was the outcome of years of suffragette meetings in towns and cities across the country, with women often traveling considerable distances to hear lectures and speeches, pass resolutions, and sign petitions.
1873 Black Friday: Jay Cooke & Co fails, causing a securities panic
1870 Guerra franco-prusiana. Comienza el sitio de París por el Ejército alemán.
1864 3rd Battle of Winchester (Opequon Creek), Virginia: Union General Philip Sheridan routs a Confederate force under General Jubal Early in Virginia's Shenandoah Valley. This battle was part of Sheridan's pacification of the valley.
1863 Battle of Chickamauga, Tenn (near Chattanooga) begins; Union retreat. In Georgia, the two-day Battle of Chickamauga begins as Union troops under George Thomas clash with Confederates under Nathan Bedford Forrest. Union General William Rosecrans and Confederate General Braxton Bragg begin a major battle at Chickamauga, Georgia. The following day, the Confederates routed the Yankees and sent them in retreat to Chattanooga, Tennessee.
1862 Battle of Iuka, Mississippi
1861 Siege of Lexington, Missouri continues
1848 Bond (US) & Lassell (England) independently discover Hyperion, moon of Saturn
1846 Elizabeth Barrett & Robert Browning elope
1841 The first railway to span a frontier is completed between Strasbourg and Basle.
1811 El primer presidente electo de las Provincias Unidas de la Nueva Granada, Jorge Tadeo Lozano de Peralta, es depuesto por el movimiento encabezado por Antonio Nariño.
1810 Carlos de Pueblas Lubres promulga una Constitución por la que se instituye el Estado independiente del Reino de Quito con un gobierno popular y representativo, aunque este régimen independiente será reprimido por los españoles.
1796 George Washington's farewell address as US president is published.
1792 Le palais du Louvre est désigné pour abriter le premier grand musée national, le Muséum central des arts, conformément au décret du 6 mai 1791.
1788 Charles de Barentin becomes lord chancellor of France.
1783 The first hot-air balloon is sent aloft in Versailles, France with animal passengers including a sheep, rooster and a duck.
1778 The Committee on Finance of the Continental Congress presents the US's first budget.
1777 Battle of Freeman's Farm (Bemis Heights) or 1st Battle of Saratoga: American forces under Gen. Horatio Gates defeat British troops led by Gen. John Burgoyne at Saratoga Springs, NY.
1777 Continental Congress flees Philadelphia         ^top^
      With the approach of British forces led by Sir William Howe, the Continental Congress fled their capital in Philadelphia for the more secure site of York, Pennsylvania. Howe's victories at the Battle of Brandywine and the Battle of the Clouds cleared his invasion route to Philadelphia, which he captured one week after the evacuation of the Continental Congress. Howe had made Philadelphia, the seat of the Continental Congress, the focus of his campaign, but the Patriot government had deprived him of the decisive victory he hoped for by escaping to York.
      On 18 June of the next year, the fifteen thousand British troops occupying Philadelphia departed. Their position had become untenable after France's entrance into the war on the side of the Americans. In order to avoid the French fleet, General Clinton was forced to lead his British-Hessian force to New York City by land. Other loyalists in the city sailed down the Delaware River to escape the Patriots, who returned to Philadelphia the day after the British departure. US General Benedict Arnold, who led the force that reclaimed the city without bloodshed, was appointed military governor. On 24 June the Continental Congress returned from York.
1676 Nathaniel Bacon Jr. and his followers, in rebellion against governor William Berkeley of colonial Virginia, burn Jamestown to the ground..
1630 The poet George Herbert is ordained a priest of the Anglican Church. He wrote mystical poetry which is still found in anthologies of English literature.
1580 Liberación de Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra de su cautiverio de Argel.
1544 Francis, the king of France, and Charles V of Austria sign a peace treaty in Crespy, France, ending a 20-year war
1468 Enrique IV, rey de Castilla, llega a un acuerdo con su hermanastra Isabel, futura Isabel la Católica, en los Toros de Guisando por el que ella se convierte en la heredera del trono a la muerte del rey.
1356 Battle of Poitiers of the Hundred Years' War.         ^top^
      English Prince Edward defeats the French.
— Bataille de Poitiers (Nouaillé-Maupertuis)
      La veille, dimanche, près de l'abbaye de Nouaillé, à quelques lieues de Poitiers, on s'est observé. Les troupes anglo-gasconnes du prince de Galles, dit le Prince Noir, font face à celles du roi de France Jean II le Bon. Au petit matin de ce 19 septembre, au cri de "Montjoie! Montjoie! Saint Denis!" répond celui de "Saint George! Saint George et Guienne!"
      Selon le chroniqueur Jean Froissart, la bataille commence "en bonne ordonnance pour tous". Les trois groupes de chevaliers français s'avancent derrière Geoffroy de Charny, le Dauphin et le roi, qu'accompagne son plus jeune fils, Philippe. Les chevaux ne peuvent bientôt plus avancer comme il le faut entre les plans de vignes. Les chevaliers mettent pied à terre pour continuer le combat. "Les Français sont si entouillés d'ennemis qu'il y avait cinq hommes d'armes sur un gentilhomme."
      Bientôt un gentilhomme crie au roi qu'il a reconnu : "Sire, rendez-vous! — A qui? — A mon cousin, le prince de Galles! — Mais vous, qui êtes-vous?" Morbecque se fait connaître. "Je me rends donc à vous!". Froissart dans ses Chroniques, rapporte : "Là périt toute la fleur de la chevalerie de France ; et le noble royaume de France s'en trouva cruellement affaibli, et tomba en grande misère et tribulation."
     Au nord de Poitiers, l'armée française est défaite par les archers anglais. Le roi de France Jean II le Bon est lui-même fait prisonnier. Ce désastre relance la guerre que l'on appellera plus tard guerre de Cent Ans. Il trouve son origine dans les dissensions qui opposent les seigneurs français entre eux. Le roi Edouard III d'Angleterre et son fils, le Prince Noir, profitent de ces dissensions pour organiser des «chevauchées» meurtrières à partir de Bordeaux et de leurs possessions de Guyenne. Tandis que le Prince Noir remonte vers la Loire avec 7000 hommes, le roi de France lève une armée de 15'000 hommes pour se porter à sa rencontre. Solidement retranchée sur le plateau de Maupertuis, l'armée anglaise l'emporte cependant grâce à ses archers. La charge folle des chevaliers français tourne à la déroute. Beaucoup de chevaliers sont faits prisonniers. D'autres se replient lâchement et abandonnent leur roi à son sort. Le roi Jean II le Bon, surnommé ainsi en raison de sa bravoure, n'a conservé auprès de lui que son plus jeune fils, Philippe (14 ans), qui bravement le soutient par la parole: «Père, gardez-vous à droite, père, gardez-vous à gauche!» Le désastre de Poitiers, qui survient peu après celui de Crécy, plonge le royaume capétien dans l'une des plus graves crises de son histoire. Les paysans eux-mêmes, oppressés de taxes, se retournent contre les seigneurs qui se sont montrés indignes à la bataille.
0672 Wamba es ungido rey de la España visigoda.
Deaths which occurred on a 19 September:
2003 At least 13 Maoist rebels in fighting with government troops near Karki village, Nepal. This is the second day of a three-day general strike enforced by the rebels.
2002 General Robert Guei, Ivory Coast deposed military junta leader, when his car refuses to stop at a military checkpoint in dowtown Abidjan and is shot at by paramilitary police. This come after attack on government sites in Abidjan and other cities. The attempted coup fails, but some 800 former soldiers who want reinstatement in the army, form the nucleus of a rebellion that takes over Bouake and the surrounding region. The rebels get support from mostly Muslim northerners who complain of discrimination by the largely Christian southern-based government. Young ethnic Dioulas armed by the rebels hunted down fleeing members of the government-supported Baoule tribe. They chase them through the streets, stealing their belongings and burning their homes. On 09 October 2002, Dioula youths would raid a Baoule neighborhood and burn residents there alive. By then some 150'000 Bouake residents would have fled the city, mostly on foot carrying young children and what belongings they can. Many of those displaced are from the 3 million-strong immigrant population from neighboring Burkina Faso. Many Ivorians in the largely Christian south suspect — in part because the government insists that rebels are getting outside help — that Muslim Burkina Faso has a hand in the rebellion. Thousands of Burkinabes would be chased from their farms in a major cocoa- and coffee-growing region around the southwestern town of Duekoue. Traders in cocoa around the world brace for a steep increase in prices.
Abdel Samren2002 Abdel Salam Samreen, 10 [< photo], Palestinian, by six shots to the chest from Israeli troops, near his home in Ramallah, West Bank. The boy's father had sent him to a nearby grocery to buy cigarettes. The boy was crossing a street when he saw an Israeli tank nearby. He ran away and tried to hide behind a wall. Then the soldiers started shooting at him.
2002 Bus driver Yossi Mamistalov, 39 [photo >], of Or Yehuda; Solomon Honig, 80, of Tel Aviv; Rosana Siso, 63, from Gan Yavneh; Ofer Zinger, from Pezael in Jordan Valley; Yaffa Shemtov Hanoon, 49, from Tel Aviv; and a suicide bomber, as he boards a Dan coooperative No. 4 bus on Alllenby Street near Rothschild Boulevard, between Yehuda Halevy and Montefiore Streets, in downtown Tel Aviv, just after 13:00. 71 are injured. One of them, Jonathan “Yoni” Jesner, 19, Jewish student from Glasgow, Scotland, dies the next day.
2002 The first victims of an antigovernment uprising which start in Bouake, Ivory Coast.
1989 171 persons as UTA Flight772 from Brazzaville to Paris explodes in the desert in Niger.
1985: At least 9500 in earthquake of magnitude 8.0 — The Mexico City area is struck by the first of two devastating quakes. Some 30'000 persons are injured, 100'000 are made homeless.
1982 Decenas de refugiados palestinos masacrados en Beirut durante la ocupación israelí de la ciudad.
1980 Ventura Gassol, poeta y político español.
1971 William F. Albright, US biblical archaeologist.
1968 Chester Carlson, inventor of xerography         ^top^
      Chester Carlson invented the xerography process in 1938. Carlson worked in the patent department of an electronics firm and was frustrated at the difficulty of making copies of patent drawings. He investigated various processes and developed xerography after four years of experiments. He patented the process in 1940 but failed to interest companies in producing copy machines until 1947, when the Haloid Company of Rochester, New York, licensed the process. The company, which later changed its name to Xerox, introduced its first copy machine in 1958.
1941 More than 1000 Russians as Germans bomb Leningrad         ^top^
      As part of their offensive campaign in the Soviet Union, German bombers blast through Leningrad's antiaircraft defenses, and kill more than 1000 Russians Hitler's armies had been in Soviet territory since June. An attempt by the Germans to take Leningrad (formerly St. Petersburg) in August by a massive panzer invasion had failed. Hitler had wanted to decimate the city and hand it over to an ally, Finland, who was attacking Russia from the north. But Leningrad had created an antitank defense sufficient to keep the Germans at bay—and so a siege was mounted. German forces surrounded the city in an attempt to cut it off from the rest of Russia. (Finland eventually stopped short of an invasion of Leningrad, happy just to recapture territory it had lost to the Soviet invasion in 1939.)
      The halt of the German land attack and the withdrawal of the panzer divisions to be used elsewhere did not stop the Luftwaffe from continuing to raid the city. ("The Fuhrer has decided to have St. Petersburg wiped off the face of the Earth," declared Hitler to his generals.) The air attack of the 19th was particularly brutal; many of those killed were already recuperating from battle wounds in hospitals, which were hit by German bombs.
      The siege of Leningrad would last a total of 872 days and would prove devastating to the population. More than 650'000 Leningrad citizens died in 1942 alone, from starvation, exposure, diseases, and artillery shelling from German positions outside the city. The only route by which supplies could enter the city was via Lake Ladoga, which entailed sleds negotiating ice during the winter. But the resources that got through were only enough to prolong the suffering of the Leningraders. Even tales of cannibalism began leaking out of the city. Soviet forces were finally successful in breaking the siege in January 1944, pushing the Germans 80 km from the city. Among those trapped in the city was an air-raid warden born in St. Petersburg named Dimitri Shostakovich, who wrote his Seventh Symphony during the siege. He was eventually evacuated and able to perform his masterwork in Moscow. The US premiere of the piece raised relief funds for the desperate Russians.
1908 José Manuel Marroquín Ricaurte, político, escritor y filólogo colombiano.
1895 Gerardina Jacoba van Bakhuyzen Sande, Dutch artist born on 27 July 1826.
1891 José Manuel Balmaceda, político chileno.
1890 540 victims of fire on Turkish frigate Ertogrul off of Japan
1881 James A. Garfield, 20th president of the US, of complications from bullet wounds         ^top^
      Eighty days after a failed office seeker shot him in Washington DC, James A. Garfield, the twentieth president of the United States, died of complications from his bullet wounds.
     Born in a log cabin in Ohio, Garfield was elected to the US House of Representatives while serving as a Union colonel in the Civil War. He later became a US senator and in 1880 was unexpectedly nominated as the presidential candidate of the Republican Party. Successfully appealing to his humble roots, he was elected the 20th US president over his Democratic opponent, General Winfield Scott Hancock.
      On 02 July 1881, only four months into his administration, President Garfield was shot as he walked through a railroad waiting room in Washington. His assailant, Charles J. Guiteau, was a disgruntled and perhaps insane office seeker who had unsuccessfully sought an appointment to the US consul in Paris. The president was shot in the back and the arm and Guiteau was immediately arrested.
      Garfield, mortally ill, was treated treated at the White House in Washington and then taken to the seashore at Elberon, New Jersey, where he attempted to recuperate with his family. The president never left his sickbed and, during the 80 days before he died,: performed only one official act: the signing of an extradition paper. During this time, Vice President Chester A. Arthur served as acting president, but there was confusion over whether he had the authority to do so, as the Constitution was ambiguous on the matter of presidential succession.
      On 19 September, after holding on for eighty days, President Garfield died of blood poisoning. The following day, Arthur was inaugurated as the twenty-first president of the United States. Garfield had three funerals: one in Elberon, another in Washington, where his body rested in state in the Capitol for three days, and a third in Cleveland, Ohio, where he was buried. Charles Guiteau's murder trial began in November, and on 25 January 1882, he was found guilty and sentenced to death. On 30 June 1882, he was hanged in his jail at Washington, DC.
      El presidente de los EE.UU. James Abram Garfield muere asesinado. Es el tercer mandatario americano que muere de forma violenta.(siempre elegidos en años divisibles por 20, desde 1840, y seguirá así hasta John F. Kennedy, elegido en el 1960).
1873 Giovanni Battista Donati, astrónomo italiano.
1863 Joseph Nigg, Austrian artist born on 13 October 1782.
1862 Hundreds of Rebs and Yanks at the Battle of Iuka.         ^top^
      Union troops under General William Rosecrans defeat a Confederate force commanded by General Sterling Price at Iuka in northern Mississippi. The Battle of Iuka was part of a Confederate attempt to prevent General Ulysses S. Grant from reinforcing General Don Carlos Buell in central Tennessee. In the fall of 1862, Confederate General Braxton Bragg had invaded Kentucky to prevent the Rebels from losing any more territory in the West. The Confederates hoped to keep Union forces in western Tennessee and northern Mississippi occupied to prevent any transfer of troops to Buell, who had moved north to stop the invasion of Kentucky. Sterling Price and Earl Van Dorn commanded the two small Confederate armies operating in northern Mississippi, while Ulysses S. Grant led the Union forces in the area. In addition to preventing Yankee reinforcements in Kentucky, the Confederates also hoped to invade western Tennessee.
      Grant effectively thwarted both of these objectives by sending troops under General William Rosecrans to move on Price's army at Iuka from the south. He also dispatched another force under General Edward Ord to approach Iuka from the west. But poor communication and delays prevented a combined attack, and Price launched a preemptive assault on Rosecrans on 19 September. Despite the intense fighting, Rosecrans was able to hold Price's force at bay. Repeated Confederate attacks resulted in heavy losses for the Rebels: 1500 of 14'000 soldiers engaged. Yankee losses amounted to 790 out of 17'000 present. With Ord's force nearby, Price realized he was in danger of being trapped, and so he abandoned Iuka that evening. Ord may have joined in the battle, but a strange quirk of nature known as an "acoustic shadow" prevented him from hearing the sounds of battle just a few miles away. Acoustic shadows form when sound is unable to reach certain locations due to atmospheric conditions or terrain features. Although he saw smoke, Ord assumed Rosecrans was burning captured supplies
1849 (1848?) Dominique-Louis-Féréal Papéty, French painter born on 12 August 1815. — MORE ON PAPÉTY AT ART “4” SEPTEMBERLINKSDaphnis et ChloéThe Temptation of St. Hilarion, detail. — An Italian Peasant GirlA French Peasant GirlThe Temptation of Saint HilarionA Neapolitan FishermanAn Italian Peasant Woman and ChildA Chinese Girl Télémaque chez Calypso
1843 Gaspard Gustave de Coriolis, French physicist, engineer, mathematician.
1827 Louisiana banker stabbed with Bowie's knife         ^top^
      After a duel turns into an all-out brawl on this day in 1827, Jim Bowie disembowels a banker in Alexandria, Louisiana, with an early version of his famous Bowie knife. The actual inventor of the Bowie knife, however, was probably not Jim Bowie, but rather his equally belligerent brother, Rezin Bowie, who reportedly came up with the design after nearly being killed in a vicious knife fight. The Bowie brothers engaged in more fights than the typical frontiersman of the day, but such violent duels were not uncommon events on the untamed margins of American civilization. In the early nineteenth century, most frontiersmen preferred knives to guns for fighting, and the Bowie knife quickly became one of the favorites.
      Rezin Bowie had invented such a nasty looking weapon that the mere sight of it probably discouraged many would-be robbers and attackers. Designs varied somewhat, but the typical Bowie knife sported a 23- to 38-cm blade sharpened only on one side for much of its length, though the curved tip was sharpened to a point on both sides. The double-edged tip made the knife an effective stabbing weapon, while the dull-edge combined with a brass hand guard allowed the user to slide a hand down over the blade as needed. The perfect knife for close-quarter fighting, the Bowie knife became the weapon of choice for many westerners before the reliable rapid-fire revolver took its place in the post-Civil War period.
1745 Jean-Baptiste van Loo, Flemish painter active in France, born on 11 January 1684. — LINKSThe Triumph of Galatea
1692 Giles Corey is pressed to death for standing mute and refusing to answer charges of witchcraft brought against him. He is the only person in what is now the US to have suffered this punishment.
1581 Frans Pourbus (or Poerbus) Sr., Dutch painter born in 1545. — MORE ON POURBUS AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER LINKSAbraham Grapheus (full size; or half-size) — Portrait of a Young WomanPortrait of a Woman
1290 Santa María de Cervellón, religiosa mercedaria española.
1180 Louis VII. Au retour d'un pèlerinage, il prend froid et est terrassé par une hémiplégie. Il meurt paralysé à l'abbaye de Saint-Port. Son successeur est Philippe II Auguste.
0821 Burial of Theodulf, poet, scholar, secretary of education, and bishop of Orleans during Charlemagne's reign. After Charlemagne's death he was accused of treason and imprisoned, but eventually pardoned in time to die.
Births which occurred on a 19 September:
1928 Mickey Mouse's screen debut (Steamboat Willie at Colony Theater NYC).         ^top^
     His voice and creator Walt Disney owed a debt to his wife, who advised him that Mickey Mouse was a better name than "Mortimer Mouse." Mickey became a star in Steamboat Willie, his first sound film, and appeared in over one hundred other movies, and later, in Disney's two popular theme parks.
1927 Harold Brown, US Secretary of Defense.
1926 Lurleen Wallace (Gov-D-Ala)
1920 Roger Angell, author.
1919 Juan Barjola, pintor español.
1911 William Golding  author (Nobel 1983)         ^top^
     Golding's first novel, Lord of the Flies (1954; film, 1963), introduced one of the recurrent themes of his fiction — the conflict between humanity's innate barbarism and the civilizing influence of reason.
      The Inheritors (1955), set in the last days of Neanderthal man, suggests that humankind's evolutionary ancestors, "the fire-builders," triumphed over a gentler race as much by violence and deceit as by natural superiority.
      In Pincher Martin (1956; guilt-filled reflections of a naval officer, his ship torpedoed, who faces an agonizing death ) and Free Fall (1959), Golding explores fundamental problems of existence, such as survival and human freedom, using dreamlike narratives and flashbacks.
      The Spire (1964) is an allegory concerning the hero's obsessive determination to build a great cathedral spire regardless of the consequences.
      Golding's later novels have not won the praise his earlier works achieved. They include Darkness Visible (1979; story of a boy horribly burned in the London blitz during World War II) and the historical trilogy To The Ends of the Earth, consisting of Rites of Passage (1981), Close Quarters (1987), and Fire Down Below (1989).
      In addition to his novels, he has published a play, The Brass Butterfly (1958); a book of verse, Poems (1934); and the essay collections The Hot Gates (1965) and A Moving Target (1982). Golding died on 19 June 1993.
RalphSummary of The Lord of the Flies
     A group of British school boys crash on a tropical island while being flown to a safer location during war time. Ironically, the only adult on the Island, the pilot, is dead. A boy named Ralph finds a conch and blows it. The boys group into an assembly, and discuss who should be leader. Ralph is chosen as the leader, in strong disagreement with a boy named Jack.
      At first, the boys strive for order and organization, but this soon starts to diminish. Ralph and his friends, Piggy and Simon, try to accomplish the task of building shelters. They are alone doing this, for many of the boys are too young to help. Jack and his choir group go off hunting small pigs which populate the island. Disagreement about hunting causes great tension between Ralph and Jack. As time goes by, the boys forget their civilized ways, and there soon prevails a lack of order.
      Ralph and Piggy had the idea that a fire should be kept going at all times on the mountain on the island, as a signal to potential rescuers. They seem to be unable to accomplish this task, for many of the boys do not care about keeping the fire going and would rather go and play. They use Piggy's glasses to accomplish the task to lighting the fire, and the glasses become a very important symbol of power later in the book.
Ralph faces Jack      Jack and his choir group, who are now known as "the hunters" become increasingly obsessed with hunting and killing pigs. To them, it is the most important task on the island. All the young children are preoccupied with the Beast, which they believe in as some kind of animal living on the island. Jack says that he's been everywhere, and there is no beast, and Piggy says that a beast can't exist in a world with science.
      During an assembly, Jack tries brings up the fact that Ralph isn't a good chief, because he can't hunt or sing. Piggy and others are against the idea, but Jack is starting to become more and more savage and overpowering. Jack, Ralph and Simon attempt to kill the beast, in hopes of curing the little boys' worries.
      There is a violent storm on the island, in which Simon wanders down into a group of boys who are chanting and pretending to hunt. In all of the confusion and chaos, Simon is "accidentally" killed. Most of the boys deny doing it on the grounds that it was an accident and they couldn't see.
     At this point, Jack decides that he is fed up with Ralph's leadership, and decides to start his own tribe. He invites any boys who wish to join him to come along. Jack's tribe becomes increasingly aggressive, and makes raid on the remaining boys' camp. By this time most of the boys have joined Jack's tribe, except for Sam, Eric, Ralph and Piggy.
      Latter, when they go and try to talk to Jack's tribe, Sam and Eric are kidnapped by them, and Piggy is killed by Roger.
      Ralph leaves Castle Rock, which is Jack's fortress, and hides in the forest nearby. Jack attempts to hunt down Ralph, and eventually sets the whole island on fire.
      A naval cruiser sees the smoke from the raging island, and comes to the boys' rescue. Ironically, the fire that many of the boys neglected, is the thing that saves them. Once the naval cruiser comes, and an officer comes out, the boys are ashamed of what they have become.
They were both red in the face and found looking at each other difficult.
Ralph rolled on his stomach and began to play with the grass.
"If it rains like when we dropped in we'll need shelters all right. And then another thing. We need shelters because of the — "
He paused for a moment and they pushed their anger away. Then he went on with the safe, changed subject.
"You've noticed, haven't you?"
Jack put down his spear and squatted.
"Noticed what?"
"Well. They're frightened."
He rolled over and peered into Jack's fierce, dirty face.
"I mean the way things are. They dream. You can hear 'em. Have you been awake at night?"
Jack shook his head.
"They talk and scream. The littluns. Even some of the others. As if — "
"As if it wasn't a good island."
Astonished at the interruption, they looked up at Simon's serious face.
"As if," said Simon, "the beastie, the beastie or the snake-thing was real. Remember?"
1908 Mika Waltari novelist (Egyptian)
1907 Lewis F. Powell Jr., in Virginia, Supreme Court associate justice (1972-1987). He died on 09 December 1982.
1905 Leon Jaworski (attorney: Watergate special prosecutor). He died on 04 February 1978.
1904 Bergen Evans, educator and author who wrote Dictionary of Contemporary American Usage.
1898 Giuseppe Saragat president of Italy (1964-71)
1894 Rachel Field, novelist and playwright who wrote All This and Heaven Too and And Now Tomorrow.
1888 Alexander, mathematician
1867 Arthur Rakham, British artist who died on 06 September 1939. — The Rhinemaidens teasing Alberich
1851 William Hesketh Lever, English entrepreneur who built the Lever Brothers firm. He died on 07 May 1925.
1840 Auckland, New Zealand. — Le gouverneur britanique Hobson fonde la ville d'Auckland, au nord de la Nouvelle Zélande. Huit ans plus tard, la ville s'est considérablement développée et est proclamée capitale de la colonie. A cheval sur un isthme, Auckland possède deux ports et mérite son surnom de "cité reine du Nord". Pourtant en 1865, Wellington, située plus au sud, la détrône en raison de sa meilleure position géographique.
1840 McClintock, mathematician.
1839 George Cadbury, English social reformer and chocolate manufacturer, who died on 24 October 1922.
1802 Louis Kossuth Hungary, President of Hungary (1849)
1749 Jean-Baptiste Delambre, mathematician.
1737 Charles Carroll, American patriot leader; signer of the US Declaration of Independence. He died on 14 November 1832,
1730 Augustin Pajou, French sculptor and decorator who died on 08 May 1809.
0086 Antoninus Pius 15th Roman emperor (138-161) — Issu d'une famille originaire de Nemausus (Nîmes), l'empereur romain Antonin le Pieux est né.
Holidays Bhutan : Blessed Rainy Day / Chile : Army Day (1810)

Religious Observances RC : St Januarius, bishop, & companions, martyrs (opt) / Ang : Theodore of Tarsus, archbishop of Canterbury / Santos Jenaro, Elías, Desiderio, María de Cervellón y Emilia María Guillermina Rodat. / Sainte Emilie de Rodat a fondé à Villefranche-de-Rouergue l'institut des Soeurs de la Sainte-Famille, pour l'instruction des filles pauvres et le soin des malades à domicile. Elle est morte le 19 septembre 1852.

Why isn't there an Ignobel Prize for the worst in every field?
Thoughts for the day: “Man and wife make one fool.”
“Man and wife make one fool around.”
“Man and wife make one fool after another.”
“Man or wife who goes after another is a fool.”
“Man and wife make a fool envious.”
“If you are losing your leisure, look out; you may be losing your soul.” —
Logan Pearsall Smith, English US author (1865-1946).
“If you are losing your composure, look out; you may be losing your mind.”
updated Saturday 20-Sep-2003 3:04 UT
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