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Events, deaths, births, of SEP 21

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On a September 21:
Feast Day of Saint Matthew (in the Catholic Church)         ^top^
     Little enough is known of any of the apostles. Of Paul, Peter, and John we have the most detail. Regarding those apostles who bring up at the tail of the apostolic lists, we have the least. Matthew is somewhere between.
      His name was originally Levi. We know that Matthew and Levi are the same because the gospels of Matthew and Luke record a feast at which Jesus was criticized for association with publicans: Luke attributes this banquet to Levi; Matthew attributes it to Matthew.
      In his gospel, Matthew tells that Christ approached him as he collected taxes and said, "Follow me." Immediately he arose and followed. Perhaps he had had one too many arguments that day. Perhaps he had been called one name too many. Since he worked a booth near Capurnaum, he had, no doubt, heard of Christ. For all we know, Matthew may have been one of the tax collectors converted by John. Although tax collectors were generally hated by the Jews as rapacious instruments of the oppressive Romans, nothing says Matthew was dishonest. Tax collectors came to John the Baptist and asked what they should do. "Collect no more than is owed you," replied John.
      At any rate he did what each of us must if we are to be saved: he rose immediately and followed Jesus, leaving his past behind. His humility is everywhere shown by his allusion to himself. "Matthew, the publican," he calls himself, branding himself with the profession the Jews most hated.
      His original name, Levi, suggests that he was a man of the priestly tribe. When he wrote his gospel, after years of exposure to the teachings of Christ and days of fierce persecution, his was the only one of the four which directly addressed the Jews. Matthew showed deep interest in the priestly and scribal functions of his class. His gospel more than any other focuses on law and the fulfillment of scriptures and on genealogy and detail which reflects his Jewish background. Christ's fierce denunciations of the Pharisees and his prophecies of the end of the temple are most fully recorded in the writing of this apostle.
      Matthew's interest in money finds expression, too. The parable of the talents is found only in his account along with many other beautiful passages of great richness. Herbert Lockyer notes that Matthew uses more words for money than any other gospel writer.
      Matthew was well-to-do. As soon as he came to Christ he threw a party and invited others of his unsavory profession. He wanted to share Christ with them. No doubt similar concerns motivated him when he wrote his gospel in an attempt to share Christ with the whole Jewish race. We have nothing but legend about Matthews death.
Rusko and Dzurinda2002 Parliamentary election in Slovakia.
      The party of hard-line nationalist former prime minister, Vladimir Meciar gets about 18% of the vote, well below the 27% it polled in 1998 when he was kept from power by a broad rightist coalition.
      Meciar again had no allies with which he could form a majority government despite polling the largest single block of votes. He was roundly criticized for human rights violations and flouting democracy during his term as prime minister in 1994-1998.
      A new rightist coalition is expected to expand ties with the West and prepare Slovakia for membership of the NATO military alliance later in 2002 and the European Union by 2004. Prime Minister Mikulas Dzurinda's party won just over 17% of the votes, while his coalition partners, the Christian Democrats, got 8%.The ethnic Hungarian party took about 10%. Those three are expected to form a new pro-European Union government along with the New Citizens' Alliance, founded in 2001 by television magnate Pavol Rusko. His party won 8% of the vote.
[photo: Rusko, left, awaits election results with Dzurinda >]
    A populist leftist party led by Robert Fico, 38, a former Communist, won 13% of the vote, but it is unlikely to join the government. Dzurinda, 47 and a marathon runner, has managed to put some growth back into the economy in the last four years, but serious problems persist.
2000 An Iranian appeals court reduced the prison terms for 10 Jews convicted of "cooperating" with Israel, in a case that had drawn international criticism.
1994 News media report that Bill Gates has confirmed that Microsoft is developing an online service akin to America Online. He told reporters that the company was negotiating with content publishers and would also offer its own CD-ROM information on line, including encyclopedias, sports information, and more. The project, code named Marvel, became the Microsoft Network, which launched in August 1995.
1994 Newsweek said it would go online as part of Prodigy's service on this day in 1994. Newsweek, the last newsweekly to go online, said it would provide weekly news stories and commentary, including images and sound, to Prodigy subscribers in November. US News and World Report already offered its information through CompuServe, and Time provided Internet content to America Online.
1993 Primer encuentro de un Papa, Juan Pablo II, con el gran rabino de Israel, en Castelgandolfo.
1993 Parliamentarians defy Yeltsin         ^top^
      In Moscow, Russian President Boris Yeltsin dissolves the Duma and calls for general elections. Following Yeltsin's dismissal of the assembly, rebel parliamentarians, led by Vice President Alexander Rutskoi and Chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov, barricade themselves inside the Russian Duma's White House building, sustaining a tense siege. Twelve days later, Yeltsin would ordered the White House shelled by the tanks surrounding the building, forcing the parliamentarians' surrender and ending the crisis.
      Earlier in the year, Yeltsin had survived an impeachment bid by defiant factions in the assembly, who hoped to replace him with Rutskoi.
     — El presidente ruso, Boris Yeltsin, disuelve el Legislativo y convoca elecciones, medidas que el Tribunal Constitucional declara ilegales. El Parlamento destituye a Yeltsin y nombra a Rutskoi. Boris Yeltsin disuelve por decreto el Soviet Supremo.
1993 America Online said it would provide Internet access to subscribers for no extra charge. At the time, the Internet was text-based and difficult to navigate, and most non-technical users preferred the colorful, graphically driven proprietary online services. AOL would be one of the first proprietary services to offer Internet access.
1992 El Vaticano y México establecen relaciones diplomáticas, interrumpidas un siglo antes.
1991 Armenia votes NO on whether to remain in the Soviet Union
1991 An 18-hour hostage drama ended in Sandy, Utah, as Richard L. Worthington, who had killed a nurse and seized control of a hospital maternity ward, finally freed his nine captives, including a baby who was born during the siege. (Worthington committed suicide in prison in 1994.)
1989 Poland's Sejm (National Assembly) approves prime minister Mazowiecki
1989 First Black US Joint Chiefs of Staff chairman         ^top^
      The Senate Armed Forces Committee unanimously confirms President George Bush's nomination of Army General Colin Powell as chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. With the confirmation, Powell became the first US Black to achieve the United States' highest military post.
      Powell was born in 1937 in Harlem, New York, to hard working Jamaican immigrant parents. Joining the US Army after college, he served two tours in Vietnam before holding several high-level military posts during the 1970s and 1980s. From 1987 to 1989, he was national security advisor to President Ronald Reagan, and in 1989, reaches the pinnacle of his profession when he is appointed chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff by President George Bush.
      As chairman, General Powell's greatest achievement was planning and executing the swift US victory over Iraq in 1991's Persian Gulf War. In 1993, he retired as chairman. Two years later, he embarked on a national tour to promote his autobiography, My American Journey, fueling speculation that he was testing the waters for a possible presidential campaign. By the fall of 1995, public enthusiasm over the possibility of his running for president had reached a feverish pitch. Regarded as a moderate Republican, opinion polls showed Powell trailing close behind Republican favorite Bob Dole and favored over Democratic incumbent Bill Clinton. However, on 08 November 1995, he announced that he would not run for president in the next election, citing concerns for his family's well being and a lack of passion for the rigors of political life.
     From 1997, Powell served as chairman of "America's Promise — The Alliance for Youth," a national nonprofit organization dedicated to building the character and competence of young people. In December 2000, he was nominated as the first Black US Secretary of State by President-elect George W. Bush (Jr.). Unanimously confirmed by the US Senate, Powell was sworn in on 20 January 2001.
1988 Sothern Baptists refuse to distribute US Surgeon General C. Everett Koops report on AIDS because it does not condemn extra-marital sex.
1983 In a speech to the US Chamber of Commerce, Interior Secretary James G. Watt (notorious anti-environmentalist) jokingly described a special advisory panel as consisting of ''a Black ... a woman, two Jews and a cripple.'' Although Watt later apologized, he ended up resigning.
1982 Amín Gemayel es elegido presidente de Líbano, tras la muerte en atentado de su hermano Bechir Gemayel.
1981 Belize gains independence from Britain (National Day)
1981 The US Senate unanimously confirms the nomination of Sandra Day O'Connor to become the first female justice on the Supreme Court.
1979 Es derrocado el presidente de la República Centroafricana Jean-Bedel Bokassa, quien se había proclamado emperador como Bokassa I.
1977 US President Carter's embattled budget director, Bert Lance, resigns after weeks of controversy over past business and banking practices.
1973 The US Senate confirms Henry Kissinger to be Secretary of State. He is the first naturalized citizen to hold the office.
1972 Marcos declares martial law in the Philippines
1970 Signs of recession: the prime rate is reduced and the New York Stock Exchange's short positions reach their highest level in four years.
1967 Vietnam: Thai troops arrive in Saigon         ^top^
      General William Westmoreland, commander of US Military Assistance Command Vietnam, welcomes 1200 Thai soldiers as they arrive in Saigon. By 1969, Thai forces in Vietnam would number more than 12'000. The effort to get additional “Free World Military Forces” to participate in the war in support of South Vietnam was part of President Lyndon Johnson’s “Many Flags” program. Under this program, 40 nations would send aid and assistance to the Saigon government. However, only five nations — Thailand, Australia, New Zealand, Korea, and the Philippines — sent troops. A total of 351 Thai soldiers were killed in action in Vietnam.
1966 5" of rain falls on NYC
1965 An American swims the Channel both ways         ^top^
      Ted Erikson of Chicago, Illinois, became the first American swimmer to complete a round-trip crossing of the English Channel. Erikson, thirty-seven years of age, swam from St. Margaret's Bay, England, to a beach near Calais, France, in fourteen hours and fifteen minutes. Upon reaching France, Erikson paused for three minutes to receive a fresh coating of grease, and then swam back to England in fifteen hours and forty-eight minutes, completing the entire round-trip swim in a total of thirty hours and six minutes.
1964 Malta gains independence from Great Britain.
1961 Antonio Abertondo swims the English Channel round trip (70 km)
1958 1st airplane flight exceeding 1200 hours, lands, Dallas Tx
1957 Olav V es nombrado rey de Noruega.
1954 Nuclear submarine "Nautilus" is commissioned
1953 Allied forces form West Germany
1951 Emil Zatopek runs 15'000 m. in record 44 min, 54.6 sec
1949 Mao Zedong outlines the new Chinese government
      At the opening of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference in Peking, Mao Zedong announces that the new Chinese government will be "under the leadership of the Communist Party of China." The September 1949 conference in Peking was both a celebration of the communist victory in the long civil war against Nationalist Chinese forces and the unveiling of the communist regime that would henceforth rule over China. Mao and his communist supporters had been fighting against what they claimed was a corrupt and decadent Nationalist government in China since the 1920s. Despite massive US support for the Nationalist regime, Mao's forces were victorious in 1949 and drove the Nationalist government onto the island of Taiwan.
      In September, with cannons firing salutes and ceremonial flags waving, Mao announced the victory of communism in China and vowed to establish the constitutional and governmental framework to protect the "people's revolution." In outlining the various committees and agencies to be established under the new regime, Mao announced that "Our state system of the People's Democratic Dictatorship is a powerful weapon for safeguarding the fruits of victory of the people's revolution and for opposing plots of foreign and domestic enemies to stage a comeback. We must firmly grasp this weapon." He denounced those who opposed the communist government as "imperialistic and domestic reactionaries." In the future, China would seek the friendship of "the Soviet Union and the new democratic countries." Mao also claimed that communism would help end reputation as a lesser-developed country. "The era in which the Chinese were regarded as uncivilized is now over. We will emerge in the world as a highly civilized nation." On 01 October 1949, the People's Republic of China was formally announced, with Mao Zedong as its leader. He would remain in charge of the nation until his death in 1976.
     — Se proclama la República Popular de China y comienza la llamada "era de Mao". Chu En Lai es designado presidente del Consejo de ministros.
1949 Federal Republic of [West] Germany created under 3-power occupation
1947 El Gobierno del general Higinio Moriñigo, de Paraguay, derrota a los militares sublevados el 07 marzo del mismo año, tras una guerra civil de medio año.
1945 Henry Ford II heads the company         ^top^
      Henry Ford II, grandson and namesake of Henry Ford, succeeds his father as president of the Ford Motor Company on this day, inheriting a company that was losing money at the rate of several million dollars a month. After recovering from the shock of his father's unexpected death, Henry Ford II was effectively given a crash course in management, but fortunately for the company, he turned out to have the magic touch. He quickly set about reorganizing and modernizing the Ford Motor Company, firing the powerful personnel chief Harry Bennett, whose strong-arm tactics and anti-union stance had made Ford notorious for its bad labor relations. He also brought in new talent, including a group of former US Air Force intelligence officers, among them Robert McNamara, who became known as the "Whiz Kids." During his tenure as president, Henry Ford II nursed the Ford Motor Company back to health, greatly expanding its international operations and introducing two classic models, the Mustang and the Thunderbird.
1941 Congress passes the Revenue Act of 1941, increasing taxes to help pay for the probable participation of the US in World War II.
1939 Ordre de repli donné aux troupes françaises en Sarre
1933 In Germany during Hitler's rise to power, Martin Niemoeller began organizing the Pastors' Emergency League. Over 7000 churches joined, although some 2500 later withdrew under Nazi pressure. (The League itself gave birth to the more famous Barmen Synod, formed in May 1934.)
1931 Great Britain abandons the gold standard. In the US people rush to withdraw their bank savings and stockpile any available gold. By the end of October 1931, 827 banks had been forced to shut down. However the US did not give up the gold standard until 1933.
1930 Johann Ostermeyer patents the flashbulb
1922 Pres Warren G Harding signs a joint resolution of approval to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine
1913 1st aerobatic maneuver, sustained inverted flight, performed in France
1897 The New York Sun publishes the editorial “Yes, Virginia, there is a Santa Claus.”
1895 1st auto manufacturer opens-Duryea Motor Wagon Company
1893 Frank Duryea drives 1st US made gas propelled vehicle (car)
1863 Union forces retreat to Chattanooga after defeat at Chickamauga
1863 Tratado por el que España reconoce la independencia de Argentina.
1862 Citizens of San Francisco, California contribute $100'000 for relief of Federal wounded
1843 La goleta Ancud iza en el puerto del Hambre la bandera chilena y toma posesión en nombre de su país del estrecho de Magallanes.
1823 Moroni 1st appears to Joseph Smith, according to Smith
1814 Francis Scott Key's patriotic verses, entitled "The Star Spangled Banner," were first published in The Baltimore American. (The song became the US National Anthem in 1931.)
1780 Benedict Arnold gives plans to West Point to British Major André.
1776 Great fire in NY
1717 Felipe V suprime las aduanas interiores establecidas en España en los límites de Castilla, Galicia, Asturias, Aragón y Valencia.
1697 Holanda, Inglaterra y España firman la paz de Ryswick con Francia, por la que se pone fin a la guerra entre Francia y la Liga de Augsburgo.
1596 Cruel conquistador named governor of New Mexico         ^top^
     Spain names Juan de Oñate governor of the colony of New Mexico. Commissioned to explore and settle the region, Oñate requested the assignment after hearing rumors about golden cities in the vicinity. These mythical stories had originated with earlier explorers and they led Coronado, famous for investigating the Grand Canyon, into that area in 1540.
      In January 1598, Oñate's expedition of 400 men crossed the Rio Grande at El Paso, celebrated there the first Thanksgiving in what is now the US, and split up into smaller groups to search for treasure. Many of his men wanted to return to Spain, but Oñate, desperate with greed, squashed potential deserters by executing several who attempted to leave. He enslaved the women and children of the Acoma Pueblo Indians, and brutally abused the Acoma men. In 1601, Oñate set out alone to find the legendary golden city of Quivera. After years of failure, he returned to find much of his colony deserted. Six years later, Oñate resigned as governor and was tried for his cruel actions. The trial resulted in his exile — a decision reversed on appeal in 1624.
1522 Martin Luther, 36, first published his German translation of the New Testament. (Luther's translation of the entire Bible was completed in 1534 — perhaps the greatest literary achievement of the great Reformer.)
1451 Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa orders Jews of Holland to wear a badge
1378 Roberto de Ginebra es proclamado Papa con el nombre de Clemente VII, aunque posteriormente se le conocerá como Antipapa, ya que no fue reconocido por todos los monarcas europeos.
1348 Jews in Zurich Switzerland are accused of poisoning wells.
1177 Alfonso VIII de Castilla, con la ayuda efectiva del rey aragonés Alfonso II, toma la ciudad de Cuenca y expulsa a los árabes.
Elizabeth ValentinDeaths which occurred on a September 21:         ^top^
2002 Ismael Gómez, 52, his mate of 8 years Carmen Valentín, 42, her children Elizabeth Valentin, 22 [photo >], Juan Carlos Valentin, 17, Damasus Valentín, 19, and Damasus's baby due to be born within a month, brutally murdered at their Lake Worth, Florida, home. Ismael and Carmen were born in Puerto Rico.
2002 Angelo Buono Jr., 67, in Calipatria State Prison, California. Born on 05 October 1934, quite the opposite of a “good angel”, he was the “Hillside Strangler” who, in November 1983, was sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole after being convicted of binding the following Los Angeles women wrists and ankles, raping them, strangling them with a cord, and dumping their nude bodies on hillsides: Lauren Wagner (18, 28 November 1977), Judy Miller (16, 30 October 1977, destitute prostitute), Dolores Cepeda (12, mid-November 1977), Sonja Johnson (14, mid-November 1977), Kimberly Diane Martin (mid-December 1977, call-girl), Kristina Weckler (19 November 1977), Lissa Kastin (21, 05 November 1977, waitress), Jane King (28, 22 November 1977), Cindy Hudspeth (20, 16 February 1978, clerk). A jury found Buono not guilty of the similar 17 October 1977 murder of Yolanda Washington, Black prostitute, presumably killed by Buono's adoptive cousin, Kenneth Alessio Bianchi, (born 22 May 1951) who pleaded guilty to five of the murders and testified against Buono. Bianchi is serving his prison sentence in Washington state, where, on 12 January 1979, he killed in similar fashion Karen Mandic and Diane Wilder. Buono and Bianchi would pose as police officers while driving at night, pull over unsuspecting woman drivers, then abduct them and take them to Buono's suburban home.
click to ZOOM IN2002 Krishen Singh, bodyguard, and Naja Bano, when guerillas, after detonating a remote-controlled bomb in Bano's home town, Kulgam, shoot at the car of Sakina Yatoo, state tourism minister and a candidate in the 24 September elections in one sector of Jammu-Kashmir, as she was on her way to a campaign rally. Her car is armored and she is unhurt.
2002 Javed Iqbal Shah, school teacher, shot in Palpora, Jammu-Kashmir.
2002 Nils Bohlin [< photo], Swedish inventor of the three-point safety belt for cars (US Patent Number 3043625), born on 17 July 1920. Coincidentally he is inducted into the US National Inventors Hall of Fame on the same day of his death. — MORE
2002 Robert Lull Forward, of cancer.
     Forward was a science fiction writer, physicist, and inventor, born on 15 August 1932, whose 11 novels were inspired by his research into gravitational physics and advanced space propulsion. With his first book, Dragon's Egg (1980), Forward established a reputation as a creator of fantastic worlds that were solidly based on scientific principles. He set Dragon's Egg and its sequel, Starquake (1985), on a neutron star, where gravity is 67 billion times stronger than Earth's. Cheelas, the star's inhabitants, lived about 45 minutes. In his final book, Saturn Rukh (1997), his attention to accuracy led him to include an appendix of mathematical tables and astronomical diagrams for readers interested in verifying the maneuvers of the book's spacecraft. He also wrote The Flight of the Dragonfly (1984), which he renamed Rocheworld and followed with four sequels. In Camelot 30K (1993) Forward wasted no time on frills like plot and character development, yet he fashioned an intellectual puzzle with a wonderfully clever solution.
      For Forward's Ph.D. in physics from the University of Maryland, he built and operated the world's first bar antenna for the detection of gravitational radiation. He began his literary career while working as a senior scientist at the Hughes Aircraft Company's laboratory in Malibu, California. He had advised so many science fiction writers on the technical details of space flight and other scientific issues that he decided to take up writing himself. At Hughes and later at companies he founded, Forward Unlimited (in 1987) and Tethers Unlimited (in 1994), Forward devoted his research efforts to propulsion systems for space travel. He studied the potential for antimatter propulsion for the Air Force and NASA. For interstellar journeys, he envisioned a rocketless vehicle that would be manufactured in space and equipped with an ultrathin sail as big as Texas. The ship would be propelled by a laser beam or high-energy particles shot from Earth; traveling at 90'000 km/sec, it would reach the nearest star system, Alpha Centauri, in less than 50 years. Forward designed a satellite, called a statite, that could hover 300'000 km above one of the poles, held in place by sails filled by solar winds. In 1993 his design won a patent, one of the 20 that he received.
2001 Some 30 persons in an explosion in Toulouse, France, at the AZF chemical plant in an industrial zone about 3 km south of the city center. AZF is the brand-name under which Grande Paroisse, France's largest fertilizer manufacturer, sells its products. Grande Paroisse is owned by Atofina, the chemicals unit of TotalFinaElf — the world's fourth-biggest oil group. Seismograph show magnitude 3.2. Some 200 persons are injured.
2001 Unidentified African boy, age 5 or 6, whose body, minus head, arms, and legs, is found in the Thames River near London Bridge. Police name him “Adam”. One theory is that he was bought as a slave in sub-Saharan Africa and brought to Great Britain to be sacrificed in voodoo or black magic rites.
1999 At least 2400 persons in Taiwan earthquake.
1992 Greg Hapalla, CMA radio broadcaster, shot and killed while taping.
1976 Orlando Letelier, ex embajador chileno, miembro activo e importante de la oposición a Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte, muere en Washington al estallar una bomba en el interior de su automóvil. — Orlando Letelier, onetime foreign minister to Chilean President Salvador Allende, is killed when a bomb exploded in his car in Washington D.C.
1974 Jacqueline Susann, 53, author (Valley of the Dolls), of cancer.
1961 Earle Dickson, 68, inventor (band-aid)
1957 Haakon VII king of Norway, dies, Olaf succeeds him.
1956 Anastasio Somoza Nicaraguan dictator, assassinated by Roliberto Lopez — Muere en Panamá el político y militar Anastasio Somoza García, presidente de la República de Nicaragua, iniciador de la "dinastía" de los Somoza, tras ser herido en atentado en la ciudad nicaraguense de León.
1950 Edward Arthur Milne, English mathematical astronomer born on 14 February 1896. He conducted researches on the atmosphere of the Earth and the sun, on the internal constitution of the stars, and on the theory of relativity. His books include Thermodynamics of the Stars (1930), Relativity, Gravitation and World-Structure (1935), Kinematic Relativity (1948).
1938 Some 700 killed by hurricane (winds to 295 km/h) in New England         ^top^
      Without warning, a powerful Category 3 hurricane slams into Long Island and southern New England, causing 600 deaths and devastating coastal cities and towns. Also called the Long Island Express, the Great New England Hurricane of 1938 was the most destructive storm to strike the region in the 20th century.
     The officially unnamed hurricane was born out a tropical cyclone that developed in the eastern Atlantic on 10 September1938, near the Cape Verde Islands. Six days later, the captain of a Brazilian freighter sighted the storm northeast of Puerto Rico and radioed a warning to the US Weather Bureau (now the National Weather Service). It was expected that the storm would make landfall in south Florida, and hurricane-experienced coastal citizens stocked up on supplies and boarded up their homes. On 19 September, however, the storm suddenly changed direction and began moving north, parallel to the eastern seaboard.
     Charlie Pierce, a junior forecaster in the US Weather Bureau, was sure that the hurricane was heading for the Northeast, but the chief forecaster overruled him. It had been well over a century since New England had been hit by a substantial hurricane, and few believed it could happen again. Hurricanes rarely persist after encountering the cold waters of the North Atlantic. However, this hurricane was moving north at an unusually rapid pace — more than 100 km/h — and was following a track over the warm waters of the Gulf Stream.
     With Europe on the brink of war over the worsening Sudetenland crisis, little media attention was given to the powerful hurricane at sea. There was no advanced meteorological technology, such as radar, radio buoys, or satellite imagery, to warn of the hurricane's approach. By the time the US Weather Bureau learned that the Category 3 storm was on a collision course with Long Island on the afternoon of 21 September, it was too late for a warning.
     Along the south shore of Long Island, the sky began to darken and the wind picked up. Fishermen and boaters were at sea, and summer residents enjoying the end of the season were in their beachfront homes. At about 14:30, the full force of the hurricane made landfall, unfortunately around high tide. Surges of ocean water and waves 12 meters tall swallowed up coastal homes. At Westhampton, which lay directly in the path of the storm, 150 beach homes were destroyed, about a third of which were pulled into the swelling ocean. Winds exceeded 100 mph. Inland, people were drowned in flooding, killed by uprooted trees and falling debris, and electrocuted by downed electrical lines.
     At 16:00, the center of the hurricane crossed the Long Island Sound and reached Connecticut. Rivers swollen by a week of steady rain spilled over and washed away roadways. In New London, a short circuit in a flooded building started a fire that was fanned by the 160 km/h winds into an inferno. Much of the business district was consumed.
     The hurricane gained intensity as it passed into Rhode Island. Winds of some 200 km/h caused a storm surge of 4 to 5 meters in Narragansett Bay, destroying coastal homes and entire fleets of boats at yacht clubs and marinas. The waters of the bay surged into Providence harbor at about 17:00, rapidly submerging the downtown area of Rhode Island's capital under more than four meters of water. Many people were swept away.
     The hurricane then raced northward across Massachusetts, gaining speed again and causing great flooding. In Milton, south of Boston, the Blue Hill Observatory recorded one of the highest wind gusts in history, an astounding 299 km/h. Boston was hit hard, and "Old Ironsides" — the historic ship USS Constitution — was torn from its moorings in Boston Navy Yard and suffered slight damage. Hundreds of other ships were not so lucky.
     The hurricane lost intensity as it passed over northern New England, but by the time the storm reached Canada at about 23:00 it was still powerful enough to cause widespread damage. The Great New England Hurricane finally dissipated over Canada that night.
     All told, 700 people were killed by the hurricane, 600 of them in Long Island and southern New England. Some 700 people were injured. Nearly 9000 homes and buildings were destroyed, and 15'000 damaged. Nearly 3000 ships were sunk or wrecked. Power lines were downed across the region, causing widespread blackouts. Innumerable trees were felled, and twelve new inlets were created on Long Island. Railroads were destroyed and farms were obliterated. Total damages were $306 million, which equals $18 billion in today's dollars, making the Great New England Hurricane the sixth costliest hurricane in US history.
1934 Some 4000 killed by typhoon, Honshu Island, Japan
Chief Joseph1904 Chief Joseph Thunder-Rolling-Down-From-The-Mountains, 64, the great Nez Percé leader, in Washington state.         ^top^
      The remarkable Nez Percé leader Chief Joseph dies on the Colville reservation in northern Washington. The whites had described him as superhuman, a military genius, an Indian Napoléon. But in truth, the Nez Percé Chief Him-mah-too-yah-lat-kekt was more of a diplomat than a warrior. Chief Joseph—as non-Indians knew him—had been elected chief of the Wallowa band of Nez Perce Indians when he was only 31. For six difficult years the young leader struggled peacefully against the whites who coveted the Wallowa's fertile land in northeastern Oregon.
      In 1877, General Howard of the US Army warned that if the Wallowa and other bands of the Nez Percé did not abandon their land and move to the Lapwai Reservation within 30 days, his troops would attack. While some of the other Nez Percé chiefs argued they should resist, Chief Joseph convinced them to comply with the order rather than face war, and he led his people on a perilous voyage across the flood-filled Snake and Salmon River canyons to a campsite near the Lapwai Reservation. But acting without Chief Joseph's knowledge, a band of 20 young hotheaded braves decided to take revenge on some of the more offensive white settlers in the region, sparking the Nez Percé War of 1877.
      Chief Joseph was no warrior, and he opposed many of the subsequent actions of the Nez Percé war councils. Joseph's younger brother, Olikut, was far more active in leading the Nez Percé into battle, and Olikut helped them successfully outsmart the US Army on several occasions as the war ranged over more than 2600 km of Washington, Idaho, and Montana territory. Nonetheless, military leaders and American newspapers persisted in believing that since Chief Joseph was the most prominent Nez Percé spokesman and diplomat, he must also be their principal military leader.
      By chance, Chief Joseph was the only major leader to survive the war, and it fell to him to surrender the surviving Nez Percé forces to Colonel Nelson A. Miles at the Bear Paw battlefield in northern Montana on 5 October 1877, saying:
     "Tell General Howard I know his heart. What he told me before, I have it in my heart. I am tired of fighting. Our Chiefs are killed; Looking Glass is dead, Ta Hool Hool Shute is dead. The old men are all dead. It is the young men who say yes or no. He who led on the young men is dead. It is cold, and we have no blankets; the little children are freezing to death. My people, some of them, have run away to the hills, and have no blankets, no food. No one knows where they are — perhaps freezing to death. I want to have time to look for my children, and see how many of them I can find. Maybe I shall find them among the dead. Hear me, my Chiefs! I am tired; my heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands I will fight no more forever.".
      Chief Joseph lived out the rest of his life in peace, a popular romantic symbol of the noble "red men" whom many Americans admired now that they no longer posed any real threat.
1879 Manuel Montt Torres, político chileno.
1842 James Ivory, Scottish mathematical astronomer born in 1765.
1832 Walter Scott, 61.         ^top^
     He was a Scottish novelist and poet, whose work as a translator, editor, biographer, and critic, together with his novels and poems, made him one of the most prominent figures in English romanticism. He was born in Edinburgh, August 15, 1771. Trained as a lawyer, he became a legal official, an occupation that allowed him to write.
Early Works
      A love of ballads and legends helped direct Scott's literary activity. His translations of German Gothic romances in 1796 gained him some note, but he first achieved eminence with his edition of ballads, The Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border, in 1802-1803. His first narrative poem, The Lay of the Last Minstrel (1805), brought him huge popularity. Following this success, he wrote a series of romantic narrative poems, which included Marmion (1808), The Lady of the Lake (1810), The Bridal of Triermain (1813), and The Lord of the Isles (1815).
      In 1813, he was offered the poet laureateship of England, and declined, recommending Robert Southey for the post. He also published editions of the writings of the English poet John Dryden in 1808 and of the English satirist Jonathan Swift in 1814.
      Scott's declining popularity as a poet, in part caused by the competition of Lord Byron, led him to turn to the novel. Waverley (1814) began a new series of triumphs. More than 20 novels followed in rapid succession, including Guy Mannering (1815), Old Mortality (1816), The Heart of Midlothian (1818), Rob Roy (1818), The Bride of Lammermoor (1819), Ivanhoe (1819), Kenilworth (1821), Quentin Durward (1823), and The Fair Maid of Perth (1828). Although he published this fiction anonymously, his identity became an open secret. Scott used his enormous profits to construct a baronial mansion called Abbotsford. In 1820 he was made a baronet. Scott was entangled with the printing firm of James Ballantyne and the publishing house of Archibald Constable, which both failed in the economic crisis of 1826. Refusing the easy recourse of bankruptcy, Scott strove for the rest of his life to repay a debt of more than £120'000. He completed the Life of Napoleon Buonaparte (1827) and wrote several new novels. After a series of strokes, he died at Abbotsford. By the sale of copyrights, all of Scott's debts were settled by 1847.
      Scott is the first major historical novelist. In his portraits of Scotland, England, and the Continent from medieval times to the 18th century, he showed a keen sense of political and traditional forces and of their influence on the individual. Although his plots are sometimes hastily constructed and his characters sometimes stilted, these works remain valuable for their compelling atmosphere, occasional epic dignity, and clear understanding of human nature. James Fenimore Cooper in America, Honoré de Balzac in France, and Charles Dickens and William Makepeace Thackeray in England were among the many who learned from Scott's panoramic studies of the interplay between social trends and individual character. In Great Britain, he created an enduring interest in Scottish traditions, and throughout the Western world he encouraged the cult of the Middle Ages, which strongly characterized romanticism.
Biographies of Walter Scott online: The Life of Sir Walter Scott by J. G. Lockhart (Comments by Carlyle on this work) — The Life of Sir Walter Scott by Sydney Fowler Wright Part I _ Part IISir Walter Scott by Richard Holt Hutton
  • The Antiquary
  • Guy Mannering
  • Ivanhoe
  • Ivanhoe
  • The Talisman
  • The Talisman
  • Waverley
  • Waverley
  • The Black Dwarf
  • The Black Dwarf
  • The Keepsake Stories
  • Kenilworth
  • A Legend of Montrose
  • A Legend of Montrose
  • Redgauntlet
  • Rob Roy
  • The Lay of the Last Minstrel
  • The Bride of Lammermoor
  • The Heart of Mid-Lothian
  • Chronicles of the Canongate
  • Selections

    Contributor to Wright's
  • The Siege of Malta Part I, Part II
  • 1820 Joseph Rodman Drake, author. DRAKE ONLINE: The American Flag, The Culprit Fay, and Other Poems
    1792 The French monarchy abolished         ^top^
          In revolutionary France, the National Convention voted to abolish the monarchy. The measure, proposed by Collot D'Herbois, came one year after King Louis XVI reluctantly approved a new constitution that stripped him of much of his power.
          Louis ascended to the French throne in 1774, and from the start was unsuited to deal with the severe financial problems that he had inherited from his grandfather, King Louis XV. In 1789, in a last-ditch attempt to resolve his country's financial crisis, Louis assembled the States-General, a national assembly that represented the three "estates" of the French people — the nobles, the clergy, and the commons.
          The States-General had not been assembled since 1614, and the third estate — the commons — used the opportunity to declare itself the National Assembly, igniting the French Revolution. On 14 July 1789, violence erupted when Parisians stormed the Bastille — a state prison where they believed ammunition was stored. Although outwardly accepting the revolution, Louis resisted the advice of constitutional monarchists who sought to reform the monarchy in order to save it, and also permitted the reactionary plotting of his unpopular queen, Marie Antoinette.
          In October of 1789, a mob marched on Versailles and forced the royal couple to move to Tuileries, and in June of 1791, opposition to the royal pair had become so fierce that the two felt forced to flee. During their attempted flight to Austria, Marie and Louis were apprehended at Varennes, France, and taken back to Paris. There, Louis was forced to accept the constitution of 1791, which reduced him to a mere figurehead.
          On 10 August 1792, the royal couple were arrested by the sans-culottes and imprisoned in the Temple, and in September, the monarchy was abolished by the National Convention (which had replaced the National Assembly). The next January, Louis was convicted of treason and condemned to death by a bare majority of one vote. On 21 January 1793, Louis walked steadfastly to the guillotine in the Place de la Revolution in Paris and was executed. Nine months later, Marie Antoinette was convicted of treason by a tribunal, and on 16 October 1793, she followed her husband to the guillotine.
         — En France, la Convention nationale, qui remplace l'Assemblée nationale, déclare la fin de la monarchie constitutionnelle et la première république.
         — Portrait of Louis XVI by Callet.
    1776 Nathan Hale spied on British for American patriots, hanged
    1662 Adriaen van Starbemt (or Stalbant, or Stalbempt), Flemish artist born on 12 June 1580. 1625 Bartolomeo Cavarozzi Crescenzi, Italian artist born in 1600.
    1605 (or 21 May?) Christofano di Papi dell' Altissimo, Italian painter born approximately in 1520. — more
    1576 Girolamo Cardano, 74, Italian mathematician born on 24 September 1501. He is famed for his Ars Magna, the first Latin treatise devoted solely to algebra.
    1558 Charles V, 58, Holy Roman Emperor. Worn out, he had already retired to a monastery. Charles called the Diet of Worms in 1521, which condemned Martin Luther. — Carlos I de España -emperador de Alemania y Países Bajos como Carlos V- tras abdicar en su hijo Felipe II y retirarse al monasterio de Yuste (Extremadura). — Portrait of Charles V by Jan Vermeyen. (1530) — Portrait of Charles V by Titian. (1548)
    1542 Juan Boscán Almogáver, poeta español.
    1327 Edward II, 43, king of England (1307-1327), murdered Near Gloucester, England, in Berkeley Castle; the same year he abdicated the throne in favor of his eldest son, Edward. An unsuccessful monarch, King Edward II suffered defeat against the Scottish under Robert Bruce, and was deposed in 1326 by his wife Isabelle and her lover Roger Mortimer. — Photo of the tomb of Edward II.
    0687 Conon, Pope
    — 19 BC: Publius Vergilius Maro, "Virgil", 50, poet, author, born on 15 October 70 BC. VIRGIL ONLINE: (in Latin): The Aeneid, The Eclogues, The Georgics — (in English translation): The Aeneid, The Aeneid, The Aeneid, The Eclogues, The Georgics — Dante would make Virgil his companion into the afterworld in La Divina Commedia. — Virgil in paintings: by Ingres: Virgil Reading Aeneid to Augustus, Octavia, and Livia (1815) _ by Signorelli Virgil (1500) & Dante and Virgil Entering Purgatory (1500) _ by Bouguereau Dante and Virgil in Hell _ by Blake Dante and Virgil at the Gates of Hell & Dante and Virgil Approaching the Angel Who Guards the Entrance of Purgatory (1825) & The Devils, with Dante and Virgil by the Side of the Pool (1825) & Virgil Girding Dante's Brow with a Rush (1825).
    Births which occurred on a September 21:
    1998 Shane Michael Urban Zech, to Janet Zech, for whom the greatest tragedy of 11 September 2001 would not occur at the World Trade Center, but in the hospital where the little boy she loved so much died of meningitis.
    1961 Vietnam (in the future): 5th Special Forces Group is activated in US         ^top^
          The US Army’s 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne), 1st Special Forces, is activated at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. The Special Forces were formed to organize and train guerrilla bands behind enemy lines. President John F. Kennedy, a strong believer in the potential of the Special Forces in counterinsurgency operations, visited the Special Warfare Center at Fort Bragg to review the program and authorized the Special Forces to wear the headgear that became their symbol, the Green Beret.
          The 5th S.F. Group was sent to Vietnam in October 1964, to assume control of all Special Forces operations in Vietnam. Prior to this time, Green Berets had been assigned to Vietnam only on temporary duty. The primary function of the Special Forces in Vietnam was to organize the Civilian Irregular Defense Groups (CIDG) among South Vietnam’s Montagnard population. The Montagnards, “mountain people” or “mountaineers,” were a group of indigenous people made up of several tribes, such as the Rhade, Bru, and Jarai, who lived mainly in the highland areas of Vietnam. These forces manned camps along the mountainous border areas to guard against North Vietnamese infiltration. At the height of the war the 5th S.F. controlled 84 CIDG camps with more than 42'000 CIDG strike forces and local militia units. The CIDG program ended in December 1970 with the transfer of troops and mission to the South Vietnamese Border Ranger Command. In February 1971, the 5th Special Forces Group was withdrawn as part of the US troop drawdown.
    1959 The Plymouth Valiant, minus name casting         ^top^
          The first Plymouth Valiant was produced on this day at a plant in Hamtramck, Michigan, although it was not known by that name until 1961. Originally code named "Falcon" after the 1955 Chrysler Falcon, plans for the new model went awry when the Chrysler marketing team found out at the last minute that Ford had already registered the name "Falcon" for its compact car.
          The news resulted in a wild scramble, for the logo castings had already been made and marketing plans finalized. A company-wide contest was held for a new name, and "Valiant" emerged the winner. However, there was no time to make new logo castings, so the car was simply introduced as the Valiant, featuring only a mylar sticker on the engine for identification. It wasn't until 1961 that the Valiant became the Plymouth Valiant, new logo castings and all.
    1947 Stephen King suspense writer (Shining, Kujo)
    1942 The B-29 Superfortress bomber         ^top^
          The US B-29 Superfortress makes its debut flight in Seattle, Washington. It was the largest bomber used in the war by any nation. The B-29 was conceived in 1939 by Gen. Hap Arnold, who was afraid a German victory in Europe would mean the United States would be devoid of bases on the eastern side of the Atlantic from which to counterattack. A plane was needed that would travel faster, farther, and higher than any then available, so Boeing set to creating the four-engine heavy bomber. The plane was extraordinary, able to carry loads almost equal to its own weight at altitudes of 9000 to 12'000 feet. It contained a pilot console in the rear of the plane, in the event the front pilot was knocked out of commission. It also sported the first radar bombing system of any US bomber.
          The Superfortress makes its test run over the continental United States this day, but would not make its bombing-run debut until 05 June, 1944, against Bangkok, in preparation for the Allied liberation of Burma from Japanese hands. A little more than a week later, the B-29 made its first run against the Japanese mainland. On 14 June, 60 B-29s based in Chengtu, China, bombed an iron and steel works factory on Honshu Island. While the raid was less than successful, it proved to be a morale booster to Americans, who were now on the offensive.
          Meanwhile, the Marianas Islands in the South Pacific were being recaptured by the United States, primarily to provide air bases for their new B-29s—a perfect position from which to strike the Japanese mainland on a consistent basis. Once the bases were ready, the B-29s were employed in a long series of bombing raids against Tokyo. Although capable of precision bombing at high altitudes, the Superfortresses began dropping incendiary devices from a mere 1500 meters altitude, firebombing the Japanese capital in an attempt to break the will of the Axis power. One raid, in March 1945, killed more than 80'000 people. But the most famous, or perhaps infamous, use of the B-29 would come in August, as it was the only plane capable of delivering a 10'000-pound bomb — the atomic bomb. The Enola Gay and the Bock's Car took off from the Marianas, on 06 August and 09 August, respectively, and flew into history.
    1937 The Hobbit by J.R.R. Tolkien is published.
    1934 Leonard Cohen, cantautor, poeta y escritor canadiense de ascendencia judía. — Poet-songwriter.
    1917 Phyllis Nicolson, English mathematical physicist who died on 06 October 1968.
    1914 John Kluge Chemnitz Germany, media CEO (Metromedia)/billionaire
    1910 Ennio Morlotti, Italian artist who died in 1992. — moreCostiera ligure
    1909 Kwame Nkrumah President of Ghana (1958-66)
    1908 Rafael Azuero Manchola, político colombiano.
    1904 Hans Heinrich Ernst Hartung, German then French painter, draftsman, printmaker, and photographer, who died on 07 December 1989. MORE ON HARTUNG AT ART “4” SEPTEMBERLINKS Lines and CurvesSchwarz auf RostbraunT1963-R6
    1902 Marie Germinova Toyen, Czech artist who died on 9 November 1980.
    1899 Julius Pawel Schauder, Lvov (now in Ukraine) Jewish Polish mathematician who was killed by the Nazis in September 1943.
    1898 William George Gillies, British artist who died in 1973.
    1898 Pavel Tchelitchev, Russian artist who died in 1957.
    1886 Teiichi Igarashi Japan, climbed Mt Fuji at age 99
    1876 Julio González (or Gonzales), Spanish artist who died on 27 March 1942.
    1874 Gustav Holst Cheltenham, England, of Swedish ancestry, composer (Planets) and teacher who died on 25 May 1934.
    1867 Henry L. Stimson, US Republican statesman who served under five presidents. He died on 20 October 1950. He was President Hoover's Secretary of State (28 March 1929-1933), Secretary of War in the cabinets of Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Truman (19 June 1940-21 September 1945. Stimson made the deciding recommendation to drop the first atomic bomb), and Taft (22 May 1911-1913).
    1866 Charles Jean Henri Nicolle, French Nobel Prize-winning bacteriologist (1928). He died on 28 February 1936.
    1866 H(erbert) G(eorge) Wells, Bromley, near London, English novelist, journalist, sociologist, and historian.         ^top^
         He would be best known for such science fiction as The Time Machine and The War of the Worlds and such comic novels as Tono~Bungay and The History of Mr. Polly.
         Ce célèbre écrivain anglais est connu pour ses romans d'anticipation tels La Guerre des Mondes. H. G. Wells avait commencé par être vendeur dans un magasin de nouveautés avant de se faire instituteur et, enfin, de se lancer dans la carrière littéraire
          Wells received a scholarship to the Normal School of Science in London. After school, he worked as a draper's apprentice and bookkeeper before becoming a freelance writer. His lively treatment of scientific topics quickly brought him success as a writer. In 1895, he published his classic novel The Time Machine, about a man who journeys to the future. The book was a success, as were his subsequent books The Invisible Man (1897) and The War of the Worlds (1898).
          Passionately concerned about the fate of humanity, Wells joined the socialist Fabian Society but quit after a quarrel with George Bernard Shaw, another prominent member. He was involved romantically for several years with Dorothy Richardson, pioneer of stream-of-consciousness writing. In 1912, the 19-year-old writer Rebecca West reviewed his book Marriage, calling him "The Old Maid among novelists." He asked to meet her, and the two soon embarked on an affair that lasted 10 years and produced one son, Anthony. Wells died on 13 August 1946.
  • Ann Veronica: A Modern Love Story
  • Ann Veronica
  • The Door in the Wall and Other Stories
  • The First Men in the Moon
  • The First Men In The Moon
  • God, the Invisible King
  • God The Invisible King
  • The Invisible Man
  • The Invisible Man
  • The Island of Dr. Moreau
  • The Island of Dr. Moreau
  • The Island of Doctor Moreau
  • Twelve Stories and a Dream
  • Twelve Stories and a Dream
  • In the Days of the Comet
  • A Modern Utopia
  • The New Machiavelli
  • The New Machiavelli
  • The Research Magnificent
  • The Research Magnificent
  • The Secret Places of the Heart
  • The Secret Places of the Heart
  • The Soul of a Bishop
  • Soul of a Bishop
  • The Time Machine
  • The Time Machine
  • Tono-Bungay
  • Tono Bungay
  • War and the Future: Italy, France and Britain at War
  • War and the Future
  • The War in the Air
  • The War of the Worlds
  • The War of the Worlds
  • The Wheels of Chance: A Bicycling Idyll
  • The Wheels of Chance
  • When the Sleeper Wakes
  • When the Sleeper Wakes
  • When the Sleeper Wakes
  • The World Set Free
  • The World Set Free
  • The Door in the Wall And Other Stories
  • A Short History of the World (1922)
  • 1859(?69) Percival Leonard Rosseau, US artist who died in 1937.
    1853 Edmund Blair~Leighton, English Pre~Raphaelite historical genre painter who died on 01 September 1922. MORE ON BLAIR~LEIGHTON AT ART “4” SEPTEMBERLINKS The AccoladeCall to ArmsAlain ChartierStitching the StandardThe King and the Beggar-maidTill Death Us Do Part :: Pounds, Shillings and penceOffGod SpeedTristan and IsoldeOliviaEnd of the SongKnighted
    1850 Benjamin Fish Austin, author. AUSTIN ONLINE: Woman, Her Character, Culture and Calling a Full Discussion of Woman's Work in the Home, the School, the Church and the Social Circle, With an Account of Her Successful Labors in Moral and Social Reform (1890)
    1849 Sir Edmund William Gosse London, translator, critic, author. GOSSE ONLINE: Father and Son: A Study of Two Temperaments
    1829 Auguste Toulmouche, French artist who died on 16 October 1890.
    1820 John Reynolds, future Union General.         ^top^
          Union General John Fulton Reynolds is born in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. One of nine children, Reynolds received his education at private academies before Senator James Buchanan, a family friend, secured him an appointment at West Point in 1837. He graduated in 1841, 26 out of 52 in his class. Prior to the Mexican War, Reynolds served in Maryland, South Carolina, and Florida. He was part of General Zachary Taylor's army in Mexico, and he distinguished himself at the Battles of Monterey and Buena Vista. His heroism earned him promotions to captain and major.
          In the 1850s, Reynolds served in Maine, fought Native Americans in the West, and participated in the Mormon War of the late 1850s. In 1860, he returned to West Point as commandant of cadets. With the outbreak of the Civil War, Reynolds received command of a regular army regiment. His orders were soon changed, however, and he became a brigade commander with orders to serve at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Before he shipped for service along the coast, General George B. McClellan—then commander of the Army of the Potomac—used his leverage to secure Reynolds's service in McClellan's army.
          In 1862, Reynolds participated in the Seven Days' Battles around Richmond. This was the climax of McClellan's Peninsular campaign, in which Confederate General Robert E. Lee attacked the Yankees and drove them away from the Rebel capital. At the Battle of Gaines' Mills on 26 June, Reynolds's brigade—protecting a Union retreat—bore the brunt of a Confederate attack. The next day, Reynolds held his position, but he was detached from the main Union army. The Confederates overran Reynolds and part of his command, and the general was sent to Richmond's Libby Prison.
          Reynolds spent less than six weeks at Libby before he was exchanged in August 1862. He was given command of a division, and fought at the Second Battle of Bull Run on 29 August and 30 August, just three weeks after his release. In November, Reynolds returned to the Army of the Potomac as a commander of I Corps. His force fought at Fredericksburg in December, but was held in reserve at Chancellorsville in May 1863.
          Reynolds commanded the left wing of the Army of the Potomac during the Gettysburg campaign. On the morning of 01 July, he rode into Gettysburg and placed his force in front of advancing Confederates, forcing Union General George Meade, commander of the Army of the Potomac, to fight. Reynolds was killed by a Confederate volley and was buried in Lancaster, Pennsylvania on 04 July.
    1815 Hendrik Reekers, Dutch artist who died on 15 May 1854.
    1784 The Pennsylvania Packet and Daily Advertiser, the US's first daily newspaper, begins publication in Philadelphia. The Pennsylvania Packet was the first of several daily newspapers to begin publishing after American independence, as citizens turned to the constitutionally protected free press to debate the multitude of political and social concerns confronting the young republic.
    1756 John Loudon McAdam, created macadam road surface (asphalt). He died on 26 November 1836.
    1742 Marquise de Grollier de Fuligny-Damas, French artist who died in 1828.
    1644 Simon Peeterz Verelst, Dutch Baroque painter who died in 1721. — LINKSFlowers in a Vase
    1452 Girolamo Savonarola Florentine monk/preacher/reformer. A Dominican from 1474, he was famous for his religious zeal. For 14 years he led in the reformation of Florence, before attacks on Alexander VI led to his excommunication. In 1498, he was (falsely) convicted of heresy, and on 23 May 1498, hanged and burned. Among his writings mention are Triumphus Crucis de fidei veritate (1497, his chief work, an apology for Christianity) — Compendium revelationum (1495) — Scelta di prediche e scritti — Trattato circa il Reggimento di Firenze — letters — poems — Dialogo della verita (1497) — sermons — Girolamo Savonarola, 1498 painting by Fra Bartolommeo. — Jérôme Savonarole, à Ferrare. Ce prédicateur exerça une dictature morale sur Florence de 1494 à 1498 et fut brûlé comme un hérétique. Néanmoins depuis lors il y a toujours eu des catholiques, y compris Saint Philippe Neri et Sainte Catherine de Ricci, pour le considérer comme un saint.
    1415 Frederick III Innsbruck Austria, German Emperor (1440-1493)
    Holidays ? : Watticism Day [a watticism is a witticism about electricity?] / Malta : Independence Day (1964) / Philipines : Thanksgiving

    Religious Observances Ang, RC, Luth : St Matthew, apostle, evangelist / Baha'is : World Peace Day / Orth : Nativity of the Birth-Giver of God (ie, Mary) (9/8 OS) / Witch : Alban Elfed-sabbat / Ang, RC : Ember Day / San Mateo.

    Thoughts for the day : “Qui veux voyager loin ménage sa voiture.”
    “Make new friends but keep the old, One is silver, the other gold.”
    [so silver turns to gold as it ages?]
    “Speech is silver, silence is gold.”
    “We enjoy the speech of new friends, but more the silence of old friends.”
    “Though one may conquer a thousand times a thousand men in battle, yet he indeed is the noblest victor who conquers himself.”
    “I found more joy in sorrow / Than you could find in joy.” -
    Sara Teasdale, US author and poet (1884-1933) [Guess why her name wasn't Sara Smilesdale, and why one is tempted to put an r before the s in her surname]. [Was she an admirer of Leopold von Sacher-Masoch?]
    “Some find as much joy in sorrow as they find sorrow in joy ... of others.”
    updated Saturday 20-Sep-2003 21:54 UT
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