• 3 kids go out to play they die blasted by a mine... • Croatia's Nazi dependent independence... • Guillotinés par la Révolution... • Hindenburg elected over Hitler... • Bataan Death March starts... • 88 hour surgery separates conjoined twins... • Arithmometer's inventor is born... • Zapata is murdered... • Puzzle maker is born... • Fiat executive murdered by kidnappers... • Titanic sails off... • 2nd Bank of the US... • Henry Ford II promoted... • Time Warner's web ads... • O. Henry's 2nd short story collection... • Civilian Conservation Corps created... • US public approval of Vietnam policy is down... • B52s begin bombing North Vietnam... • NCR founder dies...
|On a 10 April:|
Police brutalizes Christians in Sudan.
On 26 April 2001, Amnesty International would take note of the Sudanese presidential decree pardoning 47 persons arrested over the recent Easter and called for an impartial and independent investigation into the shootings, beatings and arrests by the Sudanese riot police on 11 April 2001. "Amnesty International is concerned that at least nine people, including children, were flogged as punishment, after being convicted with 47 others for causing 'public disturbance' in an unfair and summary trial." On 11 April, Christians gathered at All Saints Cathedral in Khartoum for prayers and to discuss the cancellation of a religious rally organized by church authorities on 10 April. Some students, angry at the cancellation, reportedly went outside the church with stones. When the riot police intervened, those outside the church ran inside. According to witnesses, police threw teargas inside the church making it difficult for people to breathe, and fired bullets at the crowd injuring many. Police then entered the church and indiscriminately arrested at least 56 people. One person, Edward Jemi, lost a hand from bullet wounds. At least two others were hit by bullets. It is reported that some, including women, were beaten and that one person was stabbed by the riot police. The 56 people arrested were brought the next day to a criminal court and charged with causing public disturbance.The judge refused to allow their lawyer to defend them. The trial lasted less than an hour. Six women and three children were sentenced to 15 and 20 lashes respectively and were flogged on 12 April and then released. The remaining 47 were sentenced to 20 lashes each and from seven to 20 days in prison.
Other people present in the cathedral, including Church officials and a journalist, Alfred Taban, were also arrested. They were later released, apart from Alfred Taban, who was held incommunicado without charge until he was released on 17 April without explanation. "The government should conduct an impartial and independent investigation into the incident", Amnesty International said."And those responsible for unlawful shootings should be brought promptly to justice. All people detained by the police should be given the opportunity of fair trial including being defended by a lawyer of their choice." The human rights organization further urged the Sudanese government to take immediate action to ensure that its security forces comply with international standards, especially the UN Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials, thereby protecting the life and safety of civilians. The organization is also calling on the Sudanese authorities to refrain from inflicting torture such as flogging as punishment, especially for children. The Sudanese authorities should guarantee the right to free assembly and freedom of religious belief and practice. Background Church authorities in Khartoum had planned events for Easter and had invited a German evangelist to address a rally on 10 April in Green Square in central Khartoum, which they had booked. After threats by Islamic groups to disrupt the celebrations, the Sudanese authorities ordered the church authorities on 09 April to move the event to Haj Yusif in the outskirts of Khartoum. Because of the short notice, people turned up on 10 April in Green Square. Clashes ensued with the police. It is alleged that the police threw tear gas and shot at people. At least 50 people were arrested and later released. Clashes were also reported on the same day in Haj Yusif. Following these incidents, the church authorities decided to cancel the event and were discussing their decision with the Christian community the day after in All Saints Cathedral, when they were disrupted by the police. The use of excessive force by the Sudanese security forces has been reported several times in the past, as well as complaints by the Christian community of harassment and restriction of their right to freedom of religion.
| 2001 By a 46-28 vote of its Senate approving a bill
already passed by the lower house, the Netherlands becomes the first country
to legalize assisted suicide and requested euthanasia, but only under strict
conditions when it is the only alternative to hopeless unbearable suffering.
1998 The Northern Ireland peace talks conclude as negotiators reach a landmark settlement to end 30 years of bitter rivalries and bloody attacks.
1998 Mike Saul, former general manager of Island Casino, an online sports-betting company, pleads guilty to conspiring to transmit bets and wagers via the Internet, the first time anyone ever pled guilty to Internet gambling charges.
1996 US President Clinton vetoes a bill that would have outlawed partial birth abortions.
| 1991 A day after Mikhail Gorbachev appealed for a moratorium
on all strikes, demonstrations and rallies, an estimated 200'000 workers
defy the Soviet president by staging a work stoppage in Minsk, Belarus.
1984 US Senate condemns CIA mining of Nicaraguan harbors
1981 Imprisoned IRA hunger striker Bobby Sands elected to British Parliament
1974 Yitzhak Rabin replaces resigning Israeli PM Golda Meir
1972 US, USSR and 70 other nations agree to ban biological weapons
1962 The West Coast office of The Wall Street Journal produces an experimental edition transmitted by radio fax. Page proofs were transmitted by coaxial cable through microwave circuits to Riverside, California, where they were reproduced and distributed. The experiment was a success, and the process was incorporated into daily production on May 28, 1962.
1960 Senate passes landmark Civil Rights Bill
1948 Jewish Hagana repells an Arab attack on Mishmar HaEmek
1945 US Armed forces liberate their first concentration camp at Buchenwald. It is estimated that nearly 57'000 [surely many more: 570'000 or even 5'700'000] prisoners (mostly Jews) perished in the gas chambers of Buchenwald during its eight-year existence.
1868 Brits defeat King of Abyssinia at Magdala.
1865 At Appomattox, Gen Lee issues Gen Order #9, his last
1864 Austrian Archduke Maximilian becomes emperor of Mexico
1862 Lincoln approves resolution calling for gradual emancipation of slaves
1862 Police break up a counterfeiting ring in St. Louis, Missouri
1862 Siege of Yorktown, Virginia continues
1845 More than 1000 buildings damaged by fire in Pittsburgh Pa
1825 Nicaraguan constituent assembly meets at León
1795 (21 germinal an III) SAVARY Louis Jacques, député du département de l'Eure à la Convention nationale, domicilié à Evreux, même département mis lors la loi par décret de la Convention nationale, par suite des malheureuses journées des 31, 1er et 2 Juin 1793; Il s'est soustrait au jugement, le décret a été rapporté le 21 germinal an 3, et il est rentré dans le sein de la Convention.
1794 LIANE Honoré, meneur d'œuvre d'une fabrique de bonnets, domicilié à Marseille, département des Bouches du Rhône, condamné à la réclusion, et ensuite banni à perpétuité, le 21 germinal an 2, par le tribunal criminel dudit département comme faux témoin à charge contre les patriotes
1790 US Patent system established
1741 Prussians defeat Austrians at Mollwitz
0847 Saint Leo IV begins his reign as Pope.
0428 Nestorius is consecrated bishop of Constantinople.
which occurred on a 10 April:
2004 Some ten employees, by 08:30 propane tank explosion at the Red Snapper restaurant in Nuevo Progreso, Taumalipas, Mexico, two blocks from the bridge across the Rio Grande to Progreso, Texas. Four persons are injured.
2004 Some 40 miners by a 07:00 methane explosion 560 meters deep in the Taizhina mine (opened in 1998) in Osinniki, in western Siberia's coal-rich Kuzbass area, Kemerovo Region. 4 injured and 9 unhurt miners manage to escape.
2003 Haider al-Kadar and Abdul Majid al-Khoei [< photo], Muslim mullahs, hacked with knives by an angry mob, inside the shrine of Imam Ali in Najaf, Iraq. Al-Kadar had been in charge of the shrine under Saddam Hussein Ministry of Religion. Al-Khoei was an exile who had returned a week earlier, after the US liberation. He was with al-Kadar to effect a reconciliation. The mob is made up of members of Jimaat-e-Sadr-Thani, fighting for a power grab, now that repression of Shi'ites by the Saddam Hussein regime is ended, on behalf of Muqtada al-Sadr, 22, surviving son of mullah Mohammed Baqer al-Sadr, who was murdered, along with two other sons, by the Iraqi secret service in 1999. The mob shouts insults at the two mullahs. Al-Khoei fires a couple of shots from a handgun, then the enraged crowd kills both. Hawjat Al-Islam (a Shi’a clerical rank below ayatollah) al-Sayid ‘Abd al-Majid al-Khu’i (or Khoei) was the son of revered cleric Grand Ayatollah Al-Sayid ‘Abd Al-Qasim Al-Khu’i. For the Shiites, who are the majority in Iraq (repressed by the Saddam Hussein regime) and nearly 120 million in the world, Najaf is the third holiest city, behind Mecca and Medina in Saudi Arabia. On 05 April 2004 an Iraqui judge compliant with the US-led occupation would order the arrest of al-Sadr for his role in the murders. This would result in his militia, the al-Mahdi Army, conducting an uprising against the occupation troops.
2003 Jasser Alimi and Mahdi Tambouz, shot in Tul Karm, West Bank, by Israeli special Border Police agents, because Alimi was carrying a revolver. Three other Palestinians are wounded.
2003 Mahmoud Zatme, 42, an Islamic Jihad commander, at 16:10, by four missiles fired from Israeli Apache helicopters at his car, in Gaza City. Ten bystanders are injured.
2003 Israelis Staff Sergeant Yigal Lifshitz, 20, and Staff Sergeant Ofer Sharabi, 21; and Palestinians Radwan Karu, 22, and Bassel Suleiman, 20, who shoot the soldiers at 05:15 and are shot by 05:35, in a Golani training base near enclave settlement Bekaot, West Bank. Nine Israeli soldiers are injured.
2003: 28 children, by pre-dawn fire in boarding school for the deaf in Makhachkala, Russia. Some 100 are injured.
2002 Israelis Sgt.-Maj.(res.) Shlomi Ben Haim, 27, of Kiryat Yam; Border Police Lance Cpl. Keren Franco, 18, of Kiryat Yam; Prison Warrant Officer Shimshon Stelkol, 33, of Kiryat Yam; and Sgt. Michael Weissman, 21, all four from Kiryat Yam; Avinoam Alfia, 26, and Sgt.-Maj.(res.) Nir Danieli, 24, both from Kiryat Ata; Sgt.-Maj.(res.) Ze'ev Hanik, 24, from Karmiel; Border Police Lance Cpl. Noa Shlomo, 18, from Nahariya; and a Hamas suicide bomber, aboard Haifa-Jerusalem express Egged bus No. 960 at 07:15, shortly after its first stop, near Kibbutz Yagur, east of Haifa.
2002 María Teresa Guzmán, in the explosion of the car which she was driving in the evening back to her La Paz, Bolivia, home. Her husband, Jorge Carrasco Jahnsen, director of El Diario, would be arrested, accused of having contracted three criminals for the murder.
2000 Ema Alic, 11, Goran Biscevic, 12, and Haris Balicevac, 12. ^top^
3 Kids Go Out to Play...
... They Die Blasted by a Mine.
Helpless to save her, NATO peacekeepers and townspeople watched from the edge of a minefield as a dying 11-year-old girl waved and pleaded for hours to be rescued. Ema, and her friends Goran and Haris died today after venturing into the minefield on the outskirts of Sarajevo, casualties of the Bosnian war that ended five years earlier.
"For two hours, the girl was showing signs of life, waved with her little hand and called for help. Then she went quiet," would say the next day eyewitness Nenad Krestalica, 67, still visibly upset. His wife, Stana, said she was gardening when she heard the explosion.
"We all started running. We heard a child's voice screaming for help," she said. "We called the police and they came, but nobody could approach the children."
As the rescue team carried the bodies of the children from the minefield, Ema's father broke into tears, turned around and told his wife: "It's our child," other witnesses recalled. The woman fainted.
The presence of the minefield was well-known, and signs warned of danger, residents said. Still, the field was not taped off, apparently because of lack of money.
Dozens of people are killed and injured every month in explosions of some of the millions of land mines strewn across Bosnia. Minefields render large areas along the former front line unusable.
Residents gathered around the minefield after the explosion Monday, followed by Italian members of the NATO-led peacekeeping force, but they could only watch the tragedy a few hundred meters away.
Although the experts worked quickly once on the scene, more than 2 1/2 hours elapsed between the time a demining team was notified and the time it reached the victims. By then, all three children were dead.
"It didn't take us more than half an hour to demine a small path to get to the children," said Zoran Gagula, one of the deminers. "We skipped standard procedures, risked our lives, and still, by the time we got to the children, they were dead." [< photo shows mine being defused near where the children died]
Standard demining procedures are slow, with experts sometimes taking as much as an hour per square meter to minimize risk, prodding each inch of terrain for explosive devices.
NATO experts arrived after a team from Norwegian People's Aid and therefore let that squad do the demining, said a NATO spokesman, Maj. Paul Hubbard. "They really did it as quickly as they could," said Hubbard.
Andja Elek, 60, said she saw the children walking earlier and warned them not to play there because of the mines, "but they obviously didn't listen to me." "The girl was able to lift her head a few times and call for help," she said.
Demining Bosnia could take decades. Money for the projects is in short supply, as the war fades in people's memories.
The field was among the 77 areas around Sarajevo slated for demining but where work has been held up for lack of funds. Jusuf Jasarevic, the chief of the regional demining center in Sarajevo, said 500 demining experts are idle in Bosnia because there is no money to pay them. "Some 1818 minefields have been registered only around Sarajevo," he said. "But the public pays attention to the problem only when a tragedy like this occurs."
The next day, friends and neighbors would pay their respects at the houses of the victims, and death notices for Ema and Goran would be posted by relatives at the school they attended. Goran's shows him smiling above a poignant text:
Not believing it ourselves, we are informing all good people that,
in his 12th year and in a children's game,
Goran Bisevic died as a victim of a crazy war of adults.
THE UNITED STATES HAS REFUSED TO SIGN THE INTERNATIONAL TREATY BANNING LAND MINES.
THERE ARE MILLIONS OF MINES LEFT OVER FROM PAST WARS AROUND THE WORLD, WAITING TO KILL AND MAIM.
| 1991:: 138 die as boat rams a tanker in Livorno, Italy,
1963:: 129 die as the nuclear-powered submarine USS Thresher fails to surface off Cape Cod, Massachusetts.
1945 Hendrik Nikolaas Werkman, Dutch artist born on 29 April 1882.
1911 Samuel Loyd, US recreational mathematician born on 31 January 1841. Loyd produced over 10'000 puzzles, many involving sophisticated mathematical ideas. He also wrote Chess Strategy, a book of problems.
1909 Algernon Charles Swinburne, 72, English poet.
1906 Richard Thomas Moynan, British artist born on 27 April 1856.
1865 William Frederick Withereington, Britist artist born on 25 May 1785. [I don't find any examples of his artwork on the internet. Could this be because it had met with a withering ton of criticism?]
1840 Alexander Nasmyth, British artist born on 09 September 1758.
1830 Johann-Jakob Biedermann, VH (Viennese Hungarian?). He was an artist born on 07 August 1763.
1823 Christian Georg Schütz II, German artist born in 1758.
| 1813 Josegh-Louis
Lagrange, French mathematician born Giuseppe Lodovico Lagrangia
on 25 January 1736. He excelled in all fields of analysis and number theory
and analytical and celestial mechanics.
1808 Jean-Laurent Mosnier, French painter born in 1743. LINKS
which occurred on an April 10:
1984 Zoe, Melbourne, Australia, first frozen-embryo child
1941 Paul Edward Theroux (author: The Mosquito Coast, Millroy the Magician)
1911 Maurice Schumann French statesman/writer
1885 Bernard Gimbel (merchant: Gimbel's Department Stores)
1885 Georges Valmier, French artist who died on 25 March 1937.
1881 William John Leech, Irish artist who died in 1968.
1880 Frances Perkins first woman to hold cabinet-level position (Labor)
1880 Hans Purrmann, German artist who died in 1966.
1877 Alfred Paul Kubin, Czech Expressionist illustrator who died on 20 August 1959. MORE ON KUBIN AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1870 (Julian date:: go to Gregorian date 22 April) Vladimir Iliich Ulyanov Lenin.
1866 American Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) forms.
1864 Guido Sigriste, Swiss artist who died in March 1915.
1849 Safety pin patented by Walter Hunt (NYC) sold rights for $100
1847 Joseph Pulitzer Hungary, publisher (St Louis Post-Dispatch, NY World): namesake of the Pulitzer Prize which he founded in 1917.
1797 Claude Ambroise Seurat, Troyes, France, (World's skinniest man)
1794 Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry, opened Japan.
1758 Jean-Joseph-Xavier Bidault, French artist who died on 20 October 1846.
1756 John West, Scottish mathematician who died on 17 October 1817.
1731 Apr 10-1798 Aug 27 Louis-Joseph Watteau de Lille, French painter who died on 27 August 1731-1798, nephew of the famous Jean-Antoine Watteau. [1684-1721]. LINKS The Storm
1651 Ehrenfried Walter von Tschirnhaus, German scientist and mathematician who died on 11 October 1708. He worked on the solution of equations and the study of curves. He is best known for the transformation which removes the term of degree n-1 from an equation of degree n.
1583 Hugo Grotius Holland, jurist, father of international law
1512 James I, king of Scotland (1513-42)
1492 Vincenzo di Benedetto Tamagni San Gemignano, Italian artist who died in 1530.