a 14 August:
2003 Shortly after 16:00 EDT (20:00 UT) the electric power grid fails for 50 million persons in the eastern US and in Canada, including those in New York City, Cleveland, Detroit, and Toronto. For some of them the electricity does not come back on for several days.
2002 CryoLife develops technology for cryopreservation of viable human tissues for vascular, cardiovascular and orthopaedic transplants. Following an investigation sparked by the 10 November 2001 death of Brian Lykins, 23, of Willmar, Minnesota, the FDA issues an order to Cryolife to recall and to cease processing of tissues because of concerns that they may be infected. Stockholders of Cryolife (CRY) have good reason to have the cry of their life as, on the New York Stock Exchange, the stock drops from its previous close of $9.50 to an intraday low of $5.27 and closes at $5.52. The next day it plunges some more, to an intraday low of $1.40, and closes at $2.03. However it then recovers somewhat on the last day of the trading week, Friday 16 August 2002, to an intarday high of $3.07 and closes at $2.99. It had started trading on 29 September 1997 at $9.88, reached a peak of $43.05 on 28 August 2001, and traded as high as $32.00 as recently as 06 May 2002. On 06 September the FDA would grant Cryolife a partial 45-day reprieve and the stock would surge from the 05 September close of $1.89 to an intraday high of $5.20 and close at $4.10. [5~year price chart >]
2002 Deadline set by the US Securities and Exchange Commission for chief executives and chief financial officers of the 947 US firms with revenues during their last fiscal year of more than $1.2 billion, to certify that their firms’ recent reports filed with the SEC [SEC database of corporate filings] are accurate, if their fiscal year coincides with the calendar year. About one-third of the 947 firms have a different fiscal year and these have a 30 September 2002 deadline. [CEO, CFO Certifications of Financial Statements of 947 Companies]. After massive accounting fraud by Enron and others, on 26 June 2002 came the news that WorldCom had reported nearly $3.85 billion in phony income. So the SEC decided to do something to give investors assurance, but it is not likely to make much difference to the corrupt CEOs and CFOs. On 01 August 2002, WorldCom CFO Scott Sullivan and controller David Myers were arrested for their role in the fraud. On 08 August 2002, the new WorldCom management (which on 21 July 2002, under Chapter 11, filed for the largest corporate bankruptcy in US history) said that it had uncovered another $3.3 billion in fraudulent accounting,
2000: 870 new Russian Orthodox saints include tsar Nicholas II and family, priests, monks, and others martyred by the Soviets. Thus votes the Archbishops' Council, after a debate in which opponents said that the last tsar was weak and haughty, more fond of lavish parties than of governing. However Nicholas II had already been canonized by the separate Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, and today's vote removes one obstacle to reunification.
1998 Two days after its wildly successful IPO, Geocities settles with US Federal Trade Commission the complaint that the company had given confidential consumer data to advertisers.
|1997 McVeigh to die for Oklahoma bombing
Timothy McVeigh, convicted on fifteen counts of murder and conspiracy for his role in the 1995 terrorist bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, is sentenced to die by lethal injection.
On 19 April 1995, just after 09:00 central time, a massive truck bomb exploded outside the nine-story building, instantly killing over a hundred people and trapping dozens more in the rubble. Emergency crews raced to Oklahoma City from across the country, and when the rescue effort finally ended two weeks later, the death toll stood at 168 people, including nineteen infants and young children who were in the building's day care center at the time of the blast.
On 21 April the massive manhunt for suspects in the worst terrorist attack ever committed on US soil resulted in the capture of Timothy McVeigh, who matched an eyewitness description of a man seen at the scene of the crime. On the same day, Terry Nicholas, an associate of McVeigh's, surrendered at Herington, Kansas, after learning that the police were looking for him. Both men were found to be members of a radical right-wing survivalist group based in Michigan, and on August 8, John Fortier, who knew of McVeigh's plan to bomb the federal building, agreed to testify against McVeigh and Nichols in exchange for a reduced sentence. Two days later, a grand jury indicted McVeigh and Nichols on murder and conspiracy charges.
While still in his teens, Timothy McVeigh acquired a penchant for guns, and began honing survivalist skills that he believed would be necessary in the event of a Cold War showdown with the Soviet Union. Lacking direction after high school, he enlisted in the US Army, and proved a disciplined and meticulous soldier. It was during this time that he befriended Terry Nichols, a fellow soldier who, although thirteen years his senior, shared his survivalist interests. In early 1991, McVeigh served in the Persian Gulf War, and was decorated with several medals for a brief combat mission. Despite these honors, he was discharged from the US Army at the end of the year, one of many casualties of the US military downsizing that came after the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Another result of the Cold War's end was that McVeigh shifted his ideology from a hatred of foreign Communist governments to a suspicion of the US federal government, especially as its new elected leader, Democrat Bill Clinton, had successfully campaigned for the presidency on a platform of gun control. The August 1992 shootout between federal agents and survivalist Randy Weaver at his cabin in Idaho, in which Weaver's wife and son were killed, followed by the 19 April 1993, inferno near Waco, Texas, that killed some eighty Branch Davidians, deeply radicalized McVeigh, Nichols, and their associates. In early 1995, Nichols and McVeigh planned an attack on the federal building in Oklahoma City, which housed, among other federal agencies, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) the agency that had launched the initial raid on the Branch Davidian compound in 1993. On 19 April 1995, the two-year anniversary of the disastrous end to the Waco standoff, McVeigh parked a Ryder rental truck loaded with a diesel fuel-fertilizer bomb outside the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City and fled. Minutes later, the massive bomb exploded, killing 168 innocent people. On 02 June 1997, he was convicted on fifteen counts of murder and conspiracy, and on 14 August under the unanimous recommendation of the jury, was sentenced to die by lethal injection. Michael Fortier was sentenced to twelve years in prison and fined $200'000 for failing to warn authorities about McVeigh's bombing plans. Terry Nichols was found guilty on one count of conspiracy and eight counts of involuntary manslaughter, and was sentenced to life in prison.
| 1991 IBM announces a notebook computer with a cellular
modem. The computer, which had limited processing power, was aimed at specialized
markets like service technicians who might need to communicate with a home
office. Over the next several years, wireless modems would become a common
laptop accessory. 1987 The US government announces that
the nation’s trade deficit had swelled to a record $15.7 billion.
|1980 Lech Walesa, 36, climbs over the Lenin shipyard
fence in Gdansk ^top^
He joins the striking workers inside. They elect him head of a strike committee to negotiate with management, which on 17 August agrees to the strikers' demands. Strikers elsewhere in the Gdansk region then ask Walesa to continue his strike out of solidarity. So he heads an Interfactory Strike Committee, which demands the right to free trade unions and to strike. On 31 August 31, Walesa and Mieczyslaw Jagielski, Poland's first deputy premier, sign an agreement to that effect.
Lech Walesa, born on 29 September 1943, with only a primary and vocational education, had started working as an electrician at the Lenin Shipyard in 1967. He was fired for his anti-Communist union activities in 1976.
The Gdansk union victory prompted similar agitation by workers throughout Poland and they formed Solidarnosc, a federation of unions, led by Walesa, forcing the Communist government to recognize it in October 1980. But the government imposed martial law on 13 December 1981, outlawed Solidarnosc, and arrested Walesa and other leaders. Walesa was released a year later and continued to lead Solidarnosc, now underground. Walesa received the Nobel Peace prize in 1983.
Labor unrest forced the Communist government to recognize Solidarity again in 1988, and to allow free elections for some seats in the upper house of Parliament (Sejm). Solidarity won most of those seats in June 1989, and formed a new government with Tadeusz Mazowiecki as premier. In 1990 Walesa was elected president in the first post-Communist direct election. In 1995 Walesa sought reelection, but was defeated by former Communist Aleksander Kwasniewski. Walesa went back to work at his old shipyard job as an electrician.
In 2000 Walesa was accused of having lied by denying that he had been "agent Bolek" of the former Communist secret police. A conviction would have barred him from public office for 10 years. But, on 11 August 2000, a Polish court ruled in Walesa's favor, after even the prosecutor agreed that the allegations were based on documents forged by that same secret police.
Massive labor strikes hit Poland
Workers in Gdansk, Poland, seize the Lenin Shipyard and demand pay raises and the right to form a union free from communist control. The massive strike also saw the rise to prominence of labor leader Lech Walesa, who would be a key figure in bringing an end to communist rule in Poland. Gdansk had been a center of labor agitation in Poland since the 1960s. When the Polish government announced new economic austerity policies and higher food prices in 1980, workers at the Lenin Shipyard exploded in anger. Lech Walesa, a veteran of Poland's labor disputes, joined the workers and on 14 August 1980, they took over the shipyard. The workers' first demand was that Walesa be reinstated to his position as a labor leader. Walesa had been fired from his position at the shipyard in 1976, but remained active in labor protests and agitation against the communist government of Poland. For these actions, he was arrested numerous times. A few days after the workers had seized the shipyard, Walesa announced the formation of an organization designed to tie workers from different fields together into one labor movement, known as Solidarity. The strikers were finally able to wring some concessions from the Polish government, but in 1981 the communist regime struck back and arrested Walesa. He was released in November 1982. Solidarity continued to grow, and in 1989, the crumbling and desperate communist government agreed to recognize Solidarity and to have open elections. In 1990, Walesa was elected as the first noncommunist president of Poland since the end of World War II. Walesa became a symbol of hope, not only to the Polish people but also to anticommunist movements around the world. In 1983, Walesa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his work with Solidarity.
| 1979 Rainbow seen in Northern Wales for a 3 hour duration
1974 US Congress authorizes US citizens to own gold
|1973 Pakistan's 3rd constitution promulgated
Pakistan's third constitution was formally submitted on December 31, 1972, approved on April 10, 1973, and promulgated on independence day, 14 August 1973. Although Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto campaigned in 1970 for the restoration of a parliamentary system, by 1972 he preferred a presidential system with himself as president. However, in deference to the wishes of the opposition and some in his own cabinet, Bhutto accepted a formal parliamentary system in which the executive was responsible to the legislature. Supposedly in the interests of government stability, provisions were also included that made it almost impossible for the National Assembly to remove the prime minister.
The 1973 constitution provided for a federal structure in which residuary powers were reserved for the provinces. However, Bhutto dismissed the coalition NAP-JUI ministries in Balochistan and the North- West Frontier Province, revealing his preference for a powerful center without opposition in the provinces. Bhutto's power derived less from the 1973 constitution than from his charismatic appeal to the people and from the vigor of the Pakistan People's Party (PPP). Its socialist program and Bhutto's oratory had done much to radicalize the urban sectors in the late 1960s and were responsible for the popular optimism accompanying the restoration of democracy.
The ideological appeal of the PPP to the masses sat uneasily with the compromises Bhutto reached with the holders of economic and political influence the landlords and commercial elites. Factionalism and patrimonialism became rife in the PPP, especially in Punjab. The internal cohesion of the PPP and its standing in public esteem were affected adversely by the ubiquitous political and bureaucratic corruption that accompanied state intervention in the economy and, equally, by the rising incidence of political violence, which included beating, arresting, and even murdering opponents.
The PPP had started as a movement mobilizing people to overthrow a military regime, but in Bhutto's lifetime it failed to change into a political party organized for peaceful functioning in an open polity. Provincial Identity Bhutto's predilection for a strong center and for provincial governments in the hands of the PPP inevitably aroused opposition in provinces where regional and ethnic identity was strong. Feelings of Sindhi solidarity were maintained by Bhutto's personal connections with the feudal leaders (wadera) of Sindh and his ability to manipulate offices and officeholders.
He did not enjoy the same leverage in the North-West Frontier Province or Balochistan. A long-dormant crisis erupted in Balochistan in 1973 into an insurgency that lasted four years and became increasingly bitter. The insurgency was put down by the Pakistan Army, which employed brutal methods and equipment, including Huey-Cobra helicopter gunships, provided by Iran and flown by Iranian pilots. The deep-seated Baloch nationalism based on tribal identity had international as well as domestic aspects. Divided in the nineteenth century among Iran, Afghanistan, and British India, the Baloch found their aspirations and traditional nomadic life frustrated by the presence of national boundaries and the extension of central administration over their lands. Moreover, many of the most militant Baloch nationalists were also vaguely Marxist-Leninist and willing to risk Soviet protection for an autonomous Balochistan.
As the insurgency wore on, the influence of a relatively small but disciplined liberation front seemed to increase. Bhutto was able to mobilize domestic support for his drive against the Baloch. Punjab's support was most tangibly represented in the use of the army to put down the insurgency. One of the main Baloch grievances was the influx of Punjabi settlers, miners, and traders into their resource-rich but sparsely populated lands. Bhutto could also invoke the idea of national integration with effect in the aftermath of Bengali secession.
External assistance to Bhutto was generously given by the shah of Iran, who feared a spread of the insurrection among the Iranian Baloch. Some foreign governments feared that an independent or autonomous Balochistan might allow the Soviet Union to develop and use the port at Gwadar, and no outside power was willing to assist the Baloch openly or to sponsor the cause of Baloch autonomy.
During the mid-1970s, Afghanistan was preoccupied with its own internal problems and seemingly anxious to normalize relations with Pakistan. India was fearful of further balkanization of the subcontinent after Bangladesh, and the Soviet Union did not wish to jeopardize the leverage it was gaining with Pakistan. However, during the Bhutto regime hostilities in Balochistan were protracted. The succeeding Zia ul-Haq government took a more moderate approach, relying more on economic development to placate the Baloch.
Bhutto proceeded cautiously in the field of land reform and did not fulfill earlier promises of distributing land to the landless on the scale he had promised, as he was forced to recognize and to cultivate the sociopolitical influence of landowners. However, he did not impede the process of consolidation of tenancy rights and acquisition of mid-sized holdings by servicemen. Punjab was the vital agricultural region of Pakistan; it remained a bastion of support for the government.
Bhutto specifically targeted the powerful and privileged Civil Service of Pakistan (CSP) and introduced measures of administrative reform with the declared purpose of limiting the paternalistic power of the bureaucracy. The CSP, however, had played the role of guardian alongside the army since independence. Many of its members reacted badly to Bhutto's politicizing appointments, for which patronage seemed a more important criterion than merit or seniority.
Relations with India were, at best, uneven during the Bhutto period. He accomplished the return of the prisoners of war through the Simla Agreement of 1972, but no settlement of the key problem of Kashmir was possible beyond an agreement that any settlement should be peaceful. Bhutto reacted strongly to the detonation of a nuclear device by India in 1974 and pledged that Pakistan would match that development even if Pakistanis had to "eat grass" to cover the cost.
Bhutto claimed success for his economic policies. The gross national product (GNP ) and the rate of economic growth climbed. Inflation fell from 25 percent in fiscal year 1972 to 6 percent in FY 1976, although other economic measures he introduced did not perform as well.
Bhutto pointed out that his foreign policy had brought Pakistan prestige in the Islamic world, peace if not friendship with India, and self-respect in dealings with the great powers. He felt assured of victory in any election. Therefore, with commitment to a constitutional order at stake, in January 1977 he announced he would hold national and provincial assembly elections in March. The response of the opposition to this news was vigorous. Nine political parties ranging across the ideological spectrum formed a united front the Pakistan National Alliance (PNA). Fundamentalist Muslims were satisfied by the adoption of Nizam-i-Mustafa, meaning "Rule of the Prophet," as the front's slogan. Modern secular elements, however, respected the association of Air Marshal Asghar Khan.
The PNA ran candidates for almost all national and provincial seats. As curbs on the press and political activity were relaxed for the election campaign, an apparently strong wave of support for the PNA swept Pakistan's cities. This prompted a whirlwind tour of the country by Bhutto, with all his winning charm in the forefront. In the background lurked indirect curbs on free expression as well as political gangsterism. National Assembly election results were announced on March 7, proclaiming the PPP the winner with 155 seats versus thirty-six seats for the PNA.
Expecting trouble, Bhutto invoked Section 144 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, which restricted assembly for political reasons. The PNA immediately challenged the election results as rigged and demanded a new election not a recount. Bhutto refused, and a mass protest movement was launched against him. Religious symbols were used by both sides to mobilize agitation; for example, Bhutto imposed prohibitions on the consumption of alcoholic beverages and on gambling. Despite talks between Bhutto and opposition leaders, the disorders persisted as a multitude of frustrations were vented. The army intervened on July 5, took all political leaders including Bhutto into custody, and proclaimed martial law.
|1973 US bombing of Cambodia ends
According to the terms of the Vietnam peace agreement signed in Paris earlier in the year, the US officially ends its bombing of alleged Communist positions in Cambodia. With the end of the Cambodia bombing campaign, direct US military action in Indochina formally comes to an end.
In March of 1969, during the Vietnam War, US President Richard M. Nixon authorized secret bombing attacks against Vietnamese Communist bases across the border in Cambodia. One year later, Cambodian General Lon Nol, 56, ousted Prince Norodom Sihanouk, 47, the ruler of Cambodia since 1953, and established a pro-US military regime. Norodom went into exile, and in April, he received the support of Chinese and North Vietnamese authorities in his call to arms against Lon Nol's rule.
On April 29, supported by US warplanes, artillery, and thousands of American military personnel, South Vietnamese government troops launched an invasion of Cambodia, intending to wipe out North Vietnamese and Vietcong positions there and bolster the pro-US regime of General Lon Nol. The next day, President Nixon announced the "incursion" in a televised address, and also that he had authorized an additional 8000 US combat troops to enter Cambodia and destroy its Communist "control center."
The announcement led to widespread antiwar protests across the United States, and on May 4, at Ohio's Kent State University, four students were killed, eight injured, and one permanently paralyzed when National Guard troops opened fire on a group of antiwar demonstrators.
On 14 August 1973, the US officially ends its bombing and any other direct military involvement in Cambodia. The US and South Vietnam involvement in Cambodia had contributed to the outbreak of a larger civil war in the country, culminating in 1975 with the victory of Pol Pot's Khmer Rouge. Known as "Year Zero," 1975 was the beginning of three years of terror and genocide in Kampuchea, resulting in the murder of over two million people on the country's killing fields.
1971 British begin internment without trial in Northern Ireland
1969 British troops arrive in Northern Ireland to intervene in sectarian violence between dominating Protestants and dominated Roman Catholics.
1959 The first telecast of Earth from outer space is transmitted by the satellite Explorer 6, showing 50'000 square kilometers of the Earth.
1947 India and Pakistan granted independence within British Commonwealth
1941 Atlantic Charter signed by FDR and Churchill
1917: WWI: The Chinese Parliament declares war on the Central Powers (Germany & Austria-Hungary).
1912: 2500 US marines invade Nicaragua; US remains until 1925
1912 The first double-decker bus appears on New York's Broadway. The double-decker originated in London as a two-story horse-drawn omnibus passengers would climb onto the roof during rush hour. The vehicles eventually added roof seating. Two-story buses can still be seen in New York, usually carrying tourists.
1908 Race riot in Springfield Illinois
1896 Prospectors find gold in the Yukon Territory of Canada. Over 30'000 people would rush to the Yukon hoping to get rich
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
1848 Oregon Territory created
1846 Henry David Thoreau jailed for tax resistance
1842 Seminole War ends; Indians removed from Florida to Oklahoma
1793 Republican troops in France lay siege to the city of Lyons.
1756 French commander Louis Montcalm takes Fort Oswego NY, from the British.
1703 J. S. Bach, takes organist post at Arnstadt, Germany.
1559 Spanish explorer de Luna enters Pensacola Bay, Florida.
1457 The Book of Psalms printed by Fust and Schoeffer is one of the earliest books printed.
1457 The first book ever printed is published by a German astrologer named Faust. He is thrown in jail while trying to sell books in Paris. Authorities concluded that all the identical books meant Faust had dealt with the devil.
1385 Portuguese defeat Castilians at Aljubarrota, retain independence
0410 Alaric sacks Rome.
which occurred on an 14 August:
2003 Mohammad Seder, shot by Israeli troops against which he was fighting as they surrounded his house in Hebron, West Bank, intending to arrest him. He was the local head of Islamic Jihad's armed wing.
2003 Some 3000 persons in France, during the last two weeks, are estimated to have died as a result of a heat wave unprecedented in meteorological records. Among measures to deal with the emergency, the French goverment is setting up a “hot line”. [A HOT line?!!! Isn't it exactly the opposite of what is needed?]
2002 Javier Suárez Medina, 33, by lethal injection in Texas for the 13 December 1988 murder of police officer Lawrence Cadena, 43, posing as a buyer of cocaine. Suárez has lived most of his life in the US, but is a Mexican national and after his arrest, in violation Article 36 of the 1963 Vienna Convention of Consular Relations (which became US law in 1969), was never told that he could contact the Mexican consulate for help. The diplomatic protests of Mexico, which like all civilized countries does not have the death penalty, went unheaded by Texas.
2002 Nidal Abu M'khisan (or Nidal Daragmeh, or Nidal Abu Muhsein), 19, and Nasser Jerar, 44, Palestinians, in the village Tubas, near Jenin, West Bank. Israeli troops order Daragmeh to go to the house of Jerar and, on his way there, he is shot dead. Then Jerar is crushed by his house bulldozed by the Israelis. Jerar, a Hamas militant, was wheelchair-bound, having lost both arms and one leg when trying to plant a bomb in May 2001. The Israeli human rights group B'Tselem charged that soldiers used Daraghmeh (nephew of B'Tselem field investigator 'Ali Daraghmeh) as a "human shield.". Former justice minister Yossi Beilin called the practice "immoral and un-Jewish." He charged that Prime Minister Ariel Sharon and Defense Minister Benjamin Ben-Eliezer "are responsible for the worst moral deterioration in the history of Israel. Not only is this practice illegal, not Jewish, and immoral, Israel is paying an enormous price for it. This government is teaching the army the worst practices, and is turning the concept of `purity of arms' into slander."
2002 Yitzroch Loiza Grossberg Larry Rivers, proto-Pop painter and sculptor, jazz saxophonist, writer, poet, teacher, sometime actor and filmmaker, whose partly self-mocking bad boy persona encapsulated the spirit of a restless era that shook up US art. He was born on 17 August 1923. Author of autobiography What Did I Do? MORE ON RIVERS AT ART 4 AUGUST LINKS The Athlete's Dream Bike Girls Parts of the Face: French Vocabulary Lesson French Money Primo Levi: Witness Drawing _ detail On the Phone
2000 Sumiko Iwasaki, 66, her daughter Tomoko, 41, and Tomoko's son Junya, 13, stabbed to death in Notsumachi, Oita Prefecture, by a 15-year-old neighbor, who also seriously injures Sumiko's husband Kazumasa, 65, and Tomoko's other children, daughter Mai, 16, and son Seiya, 11.
1996 35 persons electrocuted, in Peru, when a stray rocket during a fireworks show knocked down a high-tension line.
1972 Jules Romains, 86, French novelist
1972 Manolo Millares Sall, Spanish painter born in 1926. Cuadro 150
1958 Mary Ritter Beard, 82, American historian
1951 William Randolph Hearst newspaper publisher, in Beverly Hills
1930 Florian Cajori, 71, mathematician.
1919 Adrian Gösta Fabian Sandels, Swedish painter born on 25 April 1887.
1905 Simeon Solomon, British painter who was born on 09 October 1840. MORE ON SOLOMON AT ART 4 AUGUST
1860 Ernest T. Seton naturalist/painter/author (Buffalo Wind-1938)
1802 Letitia Elizabeth Landon England, poet/novelist/socialite
1784 Nathaniel Hone, Irish painter born on 24 April 1718. MORE ON HONE AT ART 4 AUGUST LINKS Anne Gardiner with her Eldest Son Kirkman
1777 Hans Christian Oersted Den, physicist/chemist (View of Chemical Law)
1774 Meriwether Lewis Charlottsville VA, capt of Lewis and Clark Expedition. LEWIS ONLINE: co~author of: History of the Expedition Under the Command of Captains Lewis and Clark, to the Sources of the Missouri, Thence Across the Rocky Mountains and Down the River Columbia to the Pacific Ocean volume 1 volume 2 (page images).
1625 Hans Rottenhammer, German painter born in 1564. LINKS Feast of the Gods (The Marriage of Peleus and Thetis) Diana und Aktaion
1603 (or 09 November 1605) Lodewyk Toeput, (or Pozzoserrato, da Treviso), Flemish painter active in Italy, born in 1550. MORE ON TOEPUT AT ART 4 AUGUST LINKS Paesaggio con Figure
| Births which occurred
on an 14 August: ^top^|
1947 Danielle Steel, author.
1925 Russell Baker, Pulitzer Prize-winning author.
1906 Lukacs, mathematician
1903 John Ringling North circus director
1901 Sir James Pitman England, educator/publisher/phonetic speller.
1870 Georges d'Espagnat, French artist who died in 1950.
1856 Pietro Fragiacomo, Italian painter. He died in 1922.
1865 Castelnuovo, mathematician
1842 Gaston Darboux, mathematician.
1840 Briton Rivière, British painter specialized in animal paintings. He died on 20 April 1920 MORE ON RIVIÈRE AT ART 4 AUGUST LINKS Daniel's Answer to the King Persepolis Protection (Song of Peace) Temple Leopards The Lonely Life
1838 Willem Johannes Martens, Dutch painter who died on 02 February 1895.
1817 Lodewijk-Johannes Kleyn, Dutch painter who died on 11 March 1897.
1814 Adolphe Tidemand, Dutch painter. He died on 25 August 1876.
1758 Antoine Charles Horace Carle Vernet, French painter, born on the 44th birthday of his father Claude-Joseph Vernet [14 August 1714 03 December 1789]. Carle Vernet died on 27 November 1836. MORE ON CARLE VERNET AT ART 4 AUGUST LINKS 19 prints at Fine Arts Museums of SF
1739 Josef van Bredael, Flemish artist who died in 1739.
1737 Hutton, mathematician
1714 Claude Joseph Vernet, French painter who died on 03 December 1789. MORE ON C.~J. VERNET AT ART 4 AUGUST LINKS Les Baigneuses Self Portrait Harbor Scene The Town and Harbor of Toulon Shepherd in the Alps Shipwreck Storm with a Shipwreck
1530 Benedetti, mathematician.
1502 Pieter I. Coecke van Aelst, Flemish painter who died in 1550. MORE ON VAN AELST AT ART 4 AUGUST LINKS Design for a pane of glass depicting the Triumph of Fame Pane of glass with the Triumph of Faith Stained glass with Triumph of Time Mary Magdalen and Joseph of Arimathaea Holy Trinity