an August 24:
2002 In the southeastern Bering Sea, fisheries researchers sight, swimming alongside its mother, the first northern right whale calf to be seen in the eastern North Pacific Ocean in perhaps a century. The northern right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) is the most endangered whale in the world. Between 1900 and 1994 there were only 29 reliable sightings of right whales in the eastern North Pacific. Since then scientific expeditions have found a few right whales between about four and 13 individuals in the eastern North Pacific each year. Right whales were hunted extensively in the early 1900s because they were easy to catch (the right whale to hunt), and floated after they were killed. Right whale flesh is very rich in oil.
1995 El Gobierno de Zaire establece con la Alta Comisaría de Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados (ACNUR) un acuerdo sobre las deportaciones de unos 13'000 ruandeses y burundeses, mientras otros 130'000 se esconden en las montañas.
1991 Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev resigned as head of the USSR Communist Party, culminating a stunning Kremlin shakeup that followed the failed coup by hard-liners. In Moscow, thousands of people held a martyrs' funeral for three men killed fighting the coup.
1991 Ukraine declares independence from the USSR.
1990 Iraqi troops surround US and other embassies in Kuwait City
1989 The Voyager 2 space probe flew by Neptune, sending back striking photographs.
1988 El nuevo presidente de Myanmar (Birmania), Maung Maung, levanta la ley marcial en su país.
1967 Liberian flag designed
1960 -88ºC, Vostok, Antarctica (world record)
1959 Hiram L Fong sworn in as 1st Chinese-American US senator while Daniel K Inouye sworn in as 1st Japanese-American Rep (Both from Hawaii)
1956 First non-stop transcontinental helicopter flight arrives in Washington DC
1949 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) established as the North Atlantic Treaty goes into effect.
1949 Termina practicamente la guerra civil en Grecia, una lucha de tres años contra la guerrilla comunista.
1939 Nazi Germany and USSR sign 10-year non-aggression pact
1936 Australian Antarctic Territory created
1921 Se inaugura la torre Einstein, en la cima del Telegrafenberg, cerca de Potsdam (Alemania), en homenaje al gran científico.
1912 Territory of Alaska organized
1912 US passes Anti-gag law, federal employees right to petition the govt
1909 Workers start pouring concrete for Panama Canal
| 1894 The US Congress passes the US's first graduated
income tax law, which is ruled unconstitutional the next year.
1891 Thomas Edison files a patent for the motion picture camera.
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
1821 Juan O'Donoju y O'Rian [30 julio 1762 08 octubre 1821], enviado del gobierno español, y el insurgente Agustín de Iturbide [27 septiembre 1783 19 julio 1824] firman el Pacto de Córdoba, en el que se reconoce la Independencia de México; sin embargo, ésta no fue aceptada por España por carecer O'Donoju de facultades para concertarlo.
1814 British troops under General Robert Ross capture Washington, D.C., which they set on fire (including White House) in retaliation for the American burning of the parliament building in York (Toronto), the capital of Upper Canada.
1780 King Louis XVI abolishes torture as a means to get suspects to confess.
1542 In South America, Gonzalo Pizarro returns to the mouth of the Amazon River after having sailed the length of the great river as far as the Andes Mountains.
1535 Sale de Sanlúcar de Barrameda (Cádiz) la expedición de Pedro de Mendoza, compuesta de 14 naves y 2150 hombres, que exploró y conquistó una parte de la actual República Argentina.
1456 In Mainz, Germany, volume two of the famed Gutenberg Bible was bound, completing a two-year publishing project, and making it the first full-length book to be printed using movable type.
0410 The Visigoths sacked Rome, , symbolizing fall of Western Roman Empire and disillusioning Christians who were trusting in God's protection of this ecclesiastical center of early Christianity. St. Augustine (354©430) later confronted this religious problem in his monumental work, City of God (ca.413ª27).
which occurred on an August 24: ^top^
2003 Three bodyguards of Mohammed Saeed al-Hakim, by terrorist bomb made with a gas cylinder, which explodes just after noon prayers near the Imam Ali mosque in Najaf, Iraq, along the outside wall of the home of al-Hakim, who is lightly wounded. He is a high-ranking Shi'ite ayatollah and the uncle of ayatollah Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim, who would die among some 20 others in a terrorist bombing on 29 August 2003.
2002 Ikhlas Yassin, 35, Palestinian mother of 3, shot in the chest and head by al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades militants, in the evening, on the town square of Tulkarm, West Bank, after they made her confess on videotape [photo >] that she had passed on information to her brother about the movements of a wanted militant who was later killed by Israeli forces.
2000 John Kaiser, 67. ^top^
A native of Minnesota, he was a Catholic missionary priest among the Masai of Kenya for the past 36 years and human rights activist. His body, shot in the back of the head, is found early today along a highway near Naivasha, 80 km northwest of Nairobi. Documents found on the priest's body link two Kenyan Cabinet ministers to violent tribal clashes. Kaiser intended to hand the documents over to a government commission looking into the clashes, which took place in the Rift Valley Province between 1992 and 1997. "Father Kaiser always loved the truth," would say later Bishop Joseph Mairura, who studied under Kaiser in the seminary. "Because he witnessed to the truth, and some powerful people feared the truth, he was killed. Instead of repenting, they killed him."
1991 Bernard Castro, 87, patented convertible couch
1982 Kumano-Go, mathematician.
1971 Wallace John Eckert, US astronomer born on 19 June 1902.
1967 Henry J. Kaiser, 85, in Honolulu. Along with a construction company, a shipyard, an aircraft company, and an aluminum manufacturing plant, Kaiser owned an automobile company. Co-founded with Joseph W. Frazer in 1945, the company produced only a few models before production was ceased in 1954.
1945 At least 524 Koreans and 25 Japanese crew members of the Imperial Japanese navy transport vessel Ukishima Maru which was carrying 4000 Koreans home when an explosion occurs, in Maizuru port in Kyoto.
1943 Simone Weil, escritora francesa.
1940 Paul Nipkow, television pioneer. German engineer Paul Nipkow invented a rotating disk perforated with small openings called the "Nipkow disk." This invention made it possible to scan, analyze, and transmit small portions of a television image. The Nipkow disk was a key piece of television technology until the early 1930s, when it was replaced by electronic scanning devices.
1929 Más de 500 personas en enfrentamientos armados en Jerusalén entre árabes y judíos.
1906 Alfred Stevens, Belgian painter born on 11 May 1823. Not to be confused with English painter Alfred Stevens [1817-1875] MORE ON STEVENS AT ART 4 AUGUST LINKS Le Bain The Desperate Woman, La Tricoteuse Portrait of a Woman in Blue La Douloureuse Certitude What is Called Vagrancy
1903 Charles Henry Smith, who under the pseudonym of Bill Arp wrote From the Uncivil War to Date, 1861-1903
1901 Margaret Fairless Barber, author. MARGARET BARBER ONLINE: The Gathering of Brother Hilarius, The Grey Brethren and Other Fragments in Prose and Verse, The Roadmender
1899 Josef Reznicek Gisela, Austrian artist born on 17 November 1854.
1888 Rudolf Clausius, German physicist, born on 02 January 1822, who did important work in thermodynamics. In 1865 Clausius stated the First and Second laws of thermodynamics thus: 1. Die Energie der Welt ist konstant. 2. Die Entroopie der Welt strebt einem Maximum zu..
1884 Giuseppe de Nittis, Italian artist born on 22 February 1846.
| 1758 Bartolomeo Nazari, Italian artist born on 10 May
1751 Thomas Colley executed in England for drowning alleged witch
1648 Diego de Saavedra Fajardo, escritor político español.
1595 Thomas Digges, English military officer, politician, astronomer, mathematician born in 1546.
1313 Enrique VII, emperador de Alemania.
|0079 Thousands in Pompeii, Stabiae, Herculaneum
and other, smaller settlements, from Vesuvius eruption. ^top^
Mount Vesuvius erupts near Pompeii in southern Italy. Although roughly half the citizens of Pompeii escape towards the sea, more than 2000 are choked by gases and buried under two meters of lava, ash, and pumice. Some 1700 years later, the excavation of Pompeii presented a picture of the everyday life of an ancient civilization, startlingly preserved in sudden death.
After centuries of dormancy, Mount Vesuvius erupts in southern Italy, devastating the prosperous Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum and killing thousands. The cities, buried under a thick layer of volcanic material and mud, were never rebuilt and largely forgotten in the course of history. In the 18th century, Pompeii and Herculaneum were rediscovered and excavated, providing an unprecedented archaeological record of the everyday life of an ancient civilization, startlingly preserved in sudden death.
The ancient cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum thrived near the base of Mount Vesuvius at the Bay of Naples. In the time of the early Roman Empire, 20'000 people lived in Pompeii, including merchants, manufacturers, and farmers who exploited the rich soil of the region with numerous vineyards and orchards. None suspected that the black fertile earth was the legacy of earlier eruptions of Mount Vesuvius. Herculaneum was a city of 5000 and a favorite summer destination for rich Romans. Named for the mythic hero Hercules, Herculaneum housed opulent villas and grand Roman baths. Gambling artifacts found in Herculaneum and a brothel unearthed in Pompeii attest to the decadent nature of the cities. There were smaller resort communities in the area as well, such as the quiet little town of Stabiae.
At noon on August 24, 79 A.D., this pleasure and prosperity came to an end when the peak of Mount Vesuvius exploded, propelling a 15-km mushroom cloud of ash and pumice into the stratosphere. For the next 12 hours, volcanic ash and a hail of pumice stones up to 3 inches in diameter showered Pompeii, forcing the city's occupants to flee in terror. Some 2000 persons stayed in Pompeii, holed up in cellars or stone structures, hoping to wait out the eruption.
A westerly wind protected Herculaneum from the initial stage of the eruption, but then a giant cloud of hot ash and gas surged down the western flank of Vesuvius, engulfing the city and burning or asphyxiating all who remained. This lethal cloud was followed by a flood of volcanic mud and rock, burying the city. The people who remained in Pompeii were killed on the morning of August 25 when a cloud of toxic gas poured into the city, suffocating all that remained. A flow of rock and ash followed, collapsing roofs and walls and burying the dead.
Much of what we know about the eruption comes from an account by Pliny the Younger, who was staying west along the Bay of Naples when Vesuvius exploded. In two letters to the historian Tacitus, he told of how "people covered their heads with pillows, the only defense against a shower of stones," and of how "a dark and horrible cloud charged with combustible matter suddenly broke and set forth. Some bewailed their own fate. Others prayed to die." Pliny, only 17 at the time, escaped the catastrophe and later became a noted Roman writer and administrator. His uncle, Pliny the Elder, was less lucky. Pliny the Elder, a celebrated naturalist, at the time of the eruption was the commander of the Roman fleet in the Bay of Naples. After Vesuvius exploded, he took his boats across the bay to Stabiae, to investigate the eruption and reassure terrified citizens. After going ashore, he was overcome by toxic gas and died.
According to Pliny the Younger's account, the eruption lasted 18 hours. Pompeii was buried under 14 to 17 feet of ash and pumice, and the nearby seacoast was drastically changed. Herculaneum was buried under more than 60 feet of mud and volcanic material. Some residents of Pompeii later returned to dig out their destroyed homes and salvage their valuables, but many treasures were left and then forgotten.
In the 18th century, a well digger unearthed a marble statue on the site of Herculaneum. The local government excavated some other valuable art objects, but the project was abandoned. In 1748, a farmer found traces of Pompeii beneath his vineyard. Since then, excavations have gone on nearly without interruption until the present. In 1927, the Italian government resumed the excavation of Herculaneum, retrieving numerous art treasures, including bronze and marble statues and paintings.
The remains of 2000 men, women, and children were found at Pompeii. After perishing from asphyxiation, their bodies were covered with ash that hardened and preserved the outline of their bodies. Later, their bodies decomposed to skeletal remains, leaving a kind of plaster mold behind. Archaeologists who found these molds filled the hollows with plaster, revealing in grim detail the death pose of the victims of Vesuvius. The rest of the city is likewise frozen in time, and ordinary objects that tell the story of everyday life in Pompeii are as valuable to archaeologists as the great unearthed statues and frescoes. It was not until 1982 that the first human remains were found at Herculaneum, and these hundreds of skeletons bear ghastly burn marks that testifies to horrifying deaths.
Today, Mount Vesuvius is the only active volcano on the European mainland. Its last eruption was in 1944 and its last major eruption was in 1631. Another eruption is expected in the near future, would could be devastating for the 700'000 persons who live in the "death zones" around Vesuvius.
| Births which
occurred on an August 24: ^top^
1944 Gregory B Jarvis Detroit Mich, astronaut (STS 25)
1941 Carlos Casares Mouriño, escritor español.
Rahman 'Abd Arra'uf al-Qudwah Yasir Arafat,
chairman of the PLO, head of the Palestinian Authority.
Arafat may have assumed that name [my guess] from Jabal (Mount) Arafat, near Mecca, where pilgrims hear a sermon and spend an afternoon during the hajj. (According to the Palestinian authority, he was born on 04 August 1929).
His mother was related to the anti-Zionist grand mufti of Jerusalem, Amin al-Husayni, who died in 1974. Arafat graduated from the University of Cairo as a civil engineer. In Egypt he had joined the Muslim Brotherhood and the Union of Palestinian Students, of which he was president during 1952-1956.
After participating in the 1956 war with Israel as an Egyptian officer, Arafat worked as an engineer in Kuwait, where he co-founded Al-Fatah, which would become the military wing of the Palestinian Liberation Organization. Arafat became chairman of the PLO in 1968, commander in chief of the Palestinian Revolutionary Forces in 1971, head of the PLO's political department in 1973.
At the end of August 1982, the Israeli invasion of Lebanon forced Arafat to move his headquarters from Beirut to Tunisia, he moved them to Baghdad in 1987. An 15 November the State of Palestine was proclaimed (in exile) and on 02 April 1989, Arafat became its president.
On 13 December 1993, in Washington, Arafat signed a peace accord with Israel's prime minister Yitzhak Rabin, establishing the Palestinian National Authority with limited authority on the West Bank and in the Gaza Strip. Arafat became its president, confirmed by a general election on 30 March 1989. Arafat, Rabin, and Israeli foreign minister Shimon Peres received the 1994 Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East.
Yasir Arafat, político palestino
Mohammed Abed Ar´ouf Arafat nació el 24 de agosto de 1929, en Gaza, Palestina, entonces dominio británico. Estudió en la Universidad de El Cairo (1952-1956), donde llegó a ser presidente de la Asociación General de los estudiantes palestinos. Después trabajó como ingeniero en Kuwait. Colaboró en la fundación del movimiento "Al-Fatah", en 1958, el más importante de los grupos guerrilleros reivindicadores del territorio de Palestina ocupado por Israel, del que, posteriormente, se convertiría en portavoz y líder. En 1968, después de la derrota de los árabes frente a Israel en la denominada "Guerra de los Siete Días", surge con nueva fuerza política la Organización para la Liberación de Palestina (OLP), fundada en 1964 por Ahmed es-Suqueiri, y controlada, ahora, por Al-Fatah. En 1969, es elegido presidente del comité ejecutivo de la OLP, representando al sector moderado de esta Organización. En 1982 Israel invade el Líbano, derrota a los guerrilleros palestinos instalados allí y expulsa a Arafat, que traslada su cuartel general a Túnez. Dos años más tarde, presenta su dimisión ante el Congreso Nacional Palestino, pero es rechazada, por lo que refuerza su figura dentro de la OLP. A partir de este momento, estalla en los territorios ocupados de Gaza y Cisjordania la revuelta conocida con el nombre de la "Intifada", que se va incrementando hasta 1988. A finales de este año, Arafat proclama la primera Constitución del Estado Palestino, en una ceremonia celebrada en Argel durante la reunión del Consejo Nacional.
El 13 Dec 1988 del mismo año, Arafat interviene ante la Asamblea General de la ONU, en Ginebra, con una rama de olivo y una piedra en sus manos, como presidente del nuevo Estado de Palestina. En 1989, durante la celebración de un congreso del grupo Al-Fatah, se hace un llamamiento a la lucha armada para poner fin a la ocupación de Israel de los territorios palestinos, y se nombra por unanimidad a Yasser Arafat presidente del Comité Central de Al-Fatah.
El apoyo prestado a Saddam Hussein en la crisis del Golfo, en 1990, le valió a Arafat la pérdida de la confianza internacional, pronto restablecida al apoyar la participación de Palestina en la Conferencia de Paz de Oriente Medio celebrada, en su primera fase, en Madrid, y la segunda, en Washington, en 1991. A pesar de ser criticado y acosado por los palestinos más exaltados por utilizar la vía negociadora para conseguir el reconocimiento del Estado de Palestina, Yasser Arafat e Itzhak Rabin, en presencia de Bill Clinton, firmaron la paz en Washington, el 13 Dec 1993, consiguiendo así el reconocimiento de la autonomía de Palestina. A pesar de ello, prosiguen las manifestaciones de los radicales integristas que mantienen la inestabilidad en un país en el que Yasser Arafat sigue siendo el líder más aclamado por el pueblo. En 1994 le fue otorgado el Premio Nobel de la Paz.
| 1927 Harry M. Markowitz, teórico de los sistemas financieros
modernos, Premio Nobel de Economía en 1990.
1922 René Lévesque Québec premier (1976-85)
1915 Fernando Claudín, teórico marxista español.
1915 Alice H.B. Sheldon, science fiction writer and artist, CIA photo-intelligence operative, lecturer at American University and major in the US Army Air Force.
1903 Graham Vivian Sutherland, etcher, lithographer, and painter, who died on 17 February 1980. MORE ON SUTHERLAND AT ART 4 AUGUST LINKS — Descent from the Cross — Thorn Cross — Crucifixion Insect — Somerset Maugham — Lord Goodman Devastation: East End Factory Ventilation Shaft — Entrance to a Lane — Form over River — The Scales
1902 Fernand Braudel French historian (Civililization & Capitalism)
1902 Felipe Alfau, poeta, escritor y traductor español.
1898 Albert Claude Belgium, physician (Nobel 1974)
1898 Malcolm Cowley Belsano Penn, author (Flowering of New England)
1896 Thomas Brooks, shot by an unknown assailant, begining a six year feud with the McFarland family. The long simmering feud between the brooks and McFarland clans erupted into gunfire at the new railroad town in Indian territory.
|1860 Alfons Maria Mucha, Czech Art
Nouveau illustrator, designer, painter, who died on 14 July 1939.
ON MUCHA AT ART 4 AUGUST
LINKS — Self-portrait
Chivalry — Jaroslava
Champenois Imprimeur-Editeur — Fruit
Monte Carlo — Dance
— La Dame
aux Camélias — Pevecké
Sdruzeni Ucitelu Moravskysk — Fleur
Food for Infants — La Samaritaine
Masson (Manhood) Job
for a Ten Pound Banknote Biscuits
Lefèvre-Utile _ détail
Moderne, Numero I Design
for Moët~Chandon Champagne label Design
for a fan
1848 José Villegas y Cordero, Spanish artist who died on 10 November 1922.
1810 Theodore Parker, anti-slavery movement leader. THEODORE PARKER ONLINE: The Function and Place of Conscience in Relation to the Laws of Men, The Nebraska Question, The New Crime Against Humanity, The Trial of Theodore Parker, for the "Misdemeanor" of a Speech in Faneuil Hall Against Kidnapping
1787 James Weddell Ostend England, Antarctic explorer (Weddell Sea)
1766 Adrian Meulemans, Dutch artist who died on 30 May 1835.
1759 Etienne-Barthélémy Garnier, French artist who died on 16 November 1849.
1759 Wilbur Wilberforce England, crusaded against slavery.
1724 George Stubbs, British artist specialized in horses, who died on 10 July 1806. MORE ON STUBBS AT ART 4 AUGUST
LINKS — The Milbanke and Melbourne Families (ZOOM) — Captain Samuel Sharpe Pocklington with his Wife and Sister (ZOOM) Horse Startled by a Lion Mares and Foals _ detail The Grosvenor Hunt — The Anatomy of the Horse Horse Attacked by a Lion a different Horse Attacked by a Lion Mares and Foals in a Wooded Landscape Racehorses Belonging to the Duke of Richmond Exercising at Goodwood Mares and Foals Disturbed by an Approaching Storm Whistlejacket John and Sophia Musters Out Riding at Colwick Hall The Moose Cheetah with Two Indian Attendants and a Stag Self~Portrait Soldiers of the 10th Light Dragoons Laetitia, Lady Lade Red Deer Stag and Hind.
1670 Louis Galloche, French artist who died on 21 July 1761.
1591 Robert Herrick England, poet (Gather ye rosebuds) (baptized)
1561 Bartholomeo Pitiscus, German Calvinist minister and mathematician who died on 02 July 1613. Author of Trigonometria (1595, he invented the word), Thesaurus Mathematicus.
1113 Geoffrey IV Plantagenet “le Bel”, comte d'Anjou, duc de Normandie, France, conquered Normandy. He died on 07 September 1151. [portrait >]
Geoffroy IV Plantagenet est le fils de Foulques V le Jeune [1092 – Nov 1142] et de Eremburge du Maine, né le 24 août 1113, mort le 07 septembre 1151 au Mans. Il est Comte d'Anjou, Maine, et Touraine de 1131 à 1151. Il épouse au Mans le 17 Jun 1128 Mathilda [1103-1169] fille de Henri I Beauclerc Roi d'Angleterre (en premières noces elle avait épousé l'Empereur Germanique Henri V). Il est le père de Henri II, le fondateur de l'Empire Plantagenet.
Après le départ de son père, Foulques, en Terre Sainte (qui y deviendra Roi de Jérusalem), Geoffroy est confronté en 1131 à une coalition de ses vassaux d'Anjou, conduite par Lisiard Seigneur de Sablé. Il vient à bout des révoltés un à un. Il s'empare et brûle Meslay en Mayenne et oblige Guy IV de Laval à demander la paix. Il enlève Thouars, fait raser le Donjon du château et soumet le Vicomte Aimery VI [–1139]. Les Seigneurs de Blaison et Parthenay se rendent et Mirebeau se soumet après un siège de quarante jours. Il s'empare de l'Ile Bouchard dont le Seigneur, Peloquin, se soumet. Geoffroy enlève Briollay et La Suze au Seigneur de Sablé et fait construire un château à Châteauneuf-sur-Sarthe pour le contrôler.
A la mort de son beau-père Henri I, en 1135, Mathilde d'Angleterre est écartée du trone par Étienne de Blois qui devient Roi d'Angleterrre et Duc de Normandie. Geoffroy Plantagenet réclame le Duché de Normandie, il engage la lutte en 1136 et prend Lisieux. Blessé, il ne reprend le combat qu'en 1137 et une trève de deux ans est achetée par Etienne de Blois.
A partir de 1141 Geoffroy engage une conquête systématique et méthodique de la Normandie. Il est reconnu Duc par tous les Seigneurs Normands en 1144. Il cèdera le Duché de Normandie à son fils Henri en 1150. En 1145 Geoffroy doit réduire son frère Hélie qui réclamait le Comté du Maine. Il le capture et le maintient en prison jusqu'à sa mort le 15 janvier 1151. Il doit également réduire Giraud de Berlai Seigneur de Montreuil-Bellay. Geoffroy Plantagenet est populaire en Normandie. Après une courte guerre avec Louis VII Roi de France, il traita avec lui en Août 1151 et lui cèda le Vexin Normand. Geoffroy est mort à Château-du-Loir le 07 septembre 1151 et a été inhumé dans la Cathédrale du Mans. C'est sur son tombeau que fut posée la plaque émaillée dont la photo est ci-contre.
Il a eu trois fils avec Mathilde d'Angleterre:
- Henri II, né le 05 May 1133 au Mans, le fondateur de l' Empire Plantagenet, qui meurt en 1189;
- Geoffroy né le 03 Jun 1134,
- Guillaume né le 22 Jul 1136.
Il a également eu une fille naturelle, Emma, épouse de David de Norfolk.
Geoffroy est donc à l'origine de la famille Plantagenet qui a possédé pendant 60 ans plus de la moitiè de la France et régné plus de 300 ans sur l'Angleterre.