an August 25:
2003 Presidential elections in Rwanda, the first in which opposition parties are nominally allowed, though severely repressed, as the transitional government of the Rwandan Patriotic Front, set ut in 2001 with Paul Kagame, a Tutsi, as President, instills a climate of fear (according to Amnesty International), and the main opposition candidate, former prime minister Faustin Twagiramungu, a Hutu, expects to be arrested for being “divisive”, while he receives 3.5% of the vote. Kagame [< speaking in Kigali's Amahoro stadium, in the early hours of 26 August] gets elected to a 7-year term, with 94% of the vote. The other two opposition candidates, Hutus, are Jean-Népomucène Nayinzira (who claims to be designated by God and gets 1% of the vote), and Ms. Alivera Mukabaramaba, whom Kagame “persuaded” to withdraw on the very day of the election and to endorse him.
2000 On the NASDAQ, high-tech firm Emulex Corp. (EMLX) stock falls $43 during the day, from its previous close of 113-1/16, on false news posted on the Internet by Internet Wire and repeated by Bloomberg and Dow Jones. Trading in the stock is stopped. It resumes after authoritative denials, and EMLX regains most of its loss, closing at 105-3/4. Mark Jakob, the author of the phony press release, would be sentenced to nearly four years in prison for wire and securities fraud.
1991 Thousands of abortion foes rallied at a stadium in Wichita, Kan., where six weeks of anti-abortion protests led by Operation Rescue resulted in more than 2600 arrests.
1990 UN security council authorizes military action against Iraq
| 1989 Voyager 2 makes its closest approach to Neptune
1987 Dow Jones industrial stock avg reaches record 2722.42
1983 US & USSR sign $10 billion grain pact
1981 The US spacecraft Voyager 2 came within 107'000 km of Saturn's cloud cover, sending back pictures of and data about the ringed planet.
1929 Graf Zeppelin passes over SF for LA after trans-Pacific voyage
1921 US signs peace treaty with Germany
1919 1st scheduled passenger service by airplane (Paris-London)
1916 National Park Service established in the Dept of the Interior
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
1862 Secretary of War authorizes Gen Rufus Saxton to arm 5000 slaves
1835 NY Sun publishes Moon hoax story about John Herschel
1830 Belgium revolts against Netherlands
1814 British capture Washington DC
1718 Hundreds of French colonists arrive in Louisiana; New Orleans, founded
1689 Montréal taken by Iroquois
1609 Galileo demonstrates his 1st telescope to Venetian lawmakers
1580 Battle of Alcantara, Spain defeats Portugal
1560 Protestantism was formally adopted at the First General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. Scottish Parliament had earlier voted to accept a Calvinist confession of faith, declaring that the pope no longer had jurisdiction over Scotland.
0325 The General Council of Nicea ended. This first ecumenical conclave in the history of the Church was attended by 300 bishops, who together established the Nicene Creed and set down the lunar formula for celebrating Easter.
occurred on an August 25:
2003 Mohammad Akbar, his wife, and daughter-in-law, their throats slit by militants who broke into their home, in the Manjakote area of the Rajouri district of Indian-occupied Kashmir, during the night of 24 to 25 August.
2003:: 52 persons in Mumbai, India, by two terrorist bombs in the trunks of parked taxis, one at 13:03 in the Zaveri Bazaar of jewelry stores, the other at 13:08 in a parking facility near the Gateway of India, archway monument which commemorates the 1911 visit of King George V of Great Britain, and the nearby high-rise Taj Mahal Hotel. Some 140 persons are injured.
[pre-blast photos below: left: the Gateway to India — right: the Gateway and surrounding area]
| 2002 Per Anger, 88, of a stroke. He was a former Swedish
diplomat, who was working as first secretary of the Swedish Legation in
Budapest when Nazi Germany occupied Hungary in 1944. He began issuing temporary
Schuetzpaesse (protective passports) that identified Jews as Swedes to keep
them from being sent to Nazi death camps. He was soon joined (09 July 1944)
by Raoul Wallenberg, who extended the practice and is credited with saving
some 20'000 Jews from deportation before he was arrested on 17 January 1945
by invading Soviet troops and disappeared at the age of 32. After the war,
Anger was one of the leading figures trying to learn what happened to Wallenberg,
traveling to Moscow in the 1980s to appeal personally to Soviet leader Mikhail
Gorbachev to reveal the diplomat's fate. Anger also was active in spreading
information about Wallenberg's deeds around the world, believing that Wallenberg
remained alive as late as 1989. In 2000 Russia acknowledged for the first
time that Wallenberg and his driver were imprisoned for political reasons
until they died allegedly in 1947 (Wallenberg on 17
July 1947, of a heart attack). The two men were officially rehabilitated
as victims of Soviet repression,' but details were not provided.
About 600'000 of Hungary's 1 million Jews died victims of the Nazis. Per
Anger was the author of With Raoul Wallenberg in Budapest: memories
of the war years in Hungary (1981), and the subject of Elisabeth Skoglund's
A quiet courage: Per Anger, Wallenberg's co-liberator of Hungarian Jews
2001 Husband and wife, Yaniv and Sharon Ben-Shalom, as their car is ambushed by gunmen of the Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigade on a road just north of Jerusalem, near the West Bank enclave settlement of Modi'in. Sharon's brother, who was driving, is critically injured after being hit in the head by a bullet. The couple's two children, aged 1 and 2, are lightly injured by flying glass from the windshield. The Ben-Shaloms were settlers from the West Bank enclave settlement of Ofarim.
2001 Alla Abu Bakra, Palestinian police sergeant, killed by shrapnel from Israeli tanks making incursion in Rafah, southern Gaza Strip,
2001 Major Gil Oz, 30, and medic Staff Sergeant Kobi Nir, 21, [photos: >]; one other Israeli soldier; and Hisham Abu Jamous, 24, and Amin Muhamad Abu Khatam, 26, the two Palestinian attackers (belonging to the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine) of the Marganit military base ( in the southern Gaza Strip) at 03:00 with automatic rifles and hand grenades. Seven Israeli soldiers are wounded.
2001 André Mazmanian, 61, shot in his own home mistaken for a burglar, by a helpful neighbor, in Aix-en-Provence. The neighbor suspected burglars were watching the house while the Mazmanians were away on vacation. Armed with a rifle he breaks into the house when he notices activity in it. Hearing a strange voice coming from upstairs, he orders the presumed burglars to surrender and fires a warning shot. In fact he noise is coming from the television being watched by the Mazmanians already home from their vacation, unbeknown to their neighbor. Hearing the shouts and gunshot, they in turn grab guns and fired on the presumed intruder. In the exchange of gunfire Mazmanian is fatally wounded. The assailant would be charged with involuntary manslaughter. A wave of burglaries in the region had made the locals nervous.
1988 Four villagers of Birjinni, in Iraqi occupied Kurdistan, in poison gas bombardment by the Iraqi air force of dictator Saddam Hussein. Some other villagers are injured.
Smith, 13, Arthur Smith,
her father, and all 6 others aboard her plane,
which crashed near Auburn, Maine. ^top^
Samantha was the girl who two years earlier had thought that the Cold War didn't make sense, wrote to the new president of the Soviet Union, Yuri Andropov, and, at his invitation, visited the Soviet Union. She then wrote the book Journey to the Soviet Union and worked for peace in the world.
Samantha Smith dies in plane crash Samantha Smith, the 13-year-old "ambassador" to the Soviet Union, dies in a plane crash. Smith was best known for writing to Soviet leader Yuri Andropov in 1982 and visiting the Soviet Union as Andropov's guest in 1983. In late 1982, Smith, a fifth-grader at Manchester Elementary School in Manchester, Maine, wrote a plaintive letter to Soviet leader Andropov. She said that she was "worrying about Russia and the United States getting into a nuclear war. Are you going to have a war or not?" A few months later, Smith's letter was reprinted in Russia and it was announced that Andropov was writing a response. Smith received his letter in April 1983. Andropov assured Smith that he did not want a nuclear war with the United States or any other country. Calling Smith a "courageous and honest" little girl, Andropov closed the letter with an invitation for her to visit the Soviet Union. In July, accompanied by her parents, Smith embarked on a two-week trip. She was a hit in the Soviet Union, and although she did not get to meet with Andropov, she traveled widely and spoke to numerous groups and people. In the United States, some people branded her as a patsy for the communists and claimed that Soviet propagandists were merely using her for their own purposes, but Samantha's enthusiasm and contagious optimism charmed most Americans and millions of other people around the world. During the next two years, Smith became an unofficial US goodwill ambassador, speaking to groups throughout the United States and in foreign nations such as Japan. On August 25, 1985, while traveling with her father, their small plane crashed and both were killed. Smith's legacy lived on, however. Her mother began the Samantha Smith Foundation, which has as its goal bringing people from different nations and cultures together to share their experiences. In particular, the foundation established a student exchange program with the Soviet Union. In the Soviet Union, news of Smith's death was met with great sadness. The Russian government responded by issuing a stamp in her honor and naming a mountain after the young girl.
Samantha Smith's letter:
Dear Mr. Andropov,
My name is Samantha Smith. I am ten years old. Congratulations on your new job. I have been worrying about Russia and the United States getting into a nuclear war. Are you going to vote to have a war or not? If you aren’t please tell me how you are going to help to not have a war. This question you do not have to answer, but I would like to know why you want to conquer the world or at least our country. God made the world for us to live together in peace and not to fight.
Andropov's answer (received several weeks later):
Samantha Smith, Manchester, Maine USA
1967 George Lincoln Rockwell head of American Nazi Party, assassinated
1956 Alfred C Kinsey,
1915 275 persons by hurricane in Galveston, Texas, with $50 million damage.
1912 Andrew Wilson, editor of World Scripture: A Comparative Anthology of Sacred Texts, Social and Environmental Aspects of Desertification
1912 José María Velasco, Mexican painter born on 06 July 1840 Velasco at Arts History of Mexico Self~Portrait The Hacienda of Chimilpa
| 1904 Henri Théodore Jean Ignace Fantin~Latour,
French painter, best known for his group portraits and flower paintings,
born on 14 January 1836. MORE
ON FANTIN~LATOUR AT ART 4 2~DAY
and Purple Stock Asters
Rockets and Fruit Spray
of Purple Lilac Flowers
in a Vase Damnation
of Faust. Apparition Lohengrin
du Christ Edouard
to Delacroix An
Atelier in the Batignolles The
1901 Clara Maass, 25, army nurse sacrificed her life to prove that the mosquito carries yellow fever
1900 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche philosopher, in Weimar, Germany (dies on 124th anniversary of the death of philosopher David Hume). NIETZSCHE ONLINE: (in English translations): The Antichrist, On the Use and Abuse of History for Life, Thus Spake Zarathustra, Thus Spake Zarathustra (other site)
1896 Bill Doolin, 38, outlaw, shot while resisting arrest by a posse in Lawson, Oklahoma, after his 05 July 1896 escape from Guthrie, Oklahoma, where he was awaiting trial since his January 1896 arrest by lawman Bill Tilghman . For six years, Doolin had participated in bank and train robberies. In 1895, Doolin and several of his partners went into hiding in New Mexico. Doolin made several offers to surrender in exchange for a light sentence, but his offers were rejected.
1876 Adolphe Tidemand, Dutch (Norwegian?) artist born on 14 August 1814.
1768 Johann Joseph Konrad Seekatz, German artist born on 04 September 1719. [Did Seekatz see cats as apt subjects for his paintings?]
1867 Michael Faraday, author. FARADAY ONLINE: The Chemical History of a Candle, A Course of Six Lectures on the Various Forces of Matter, and Their Relation to Each Other
1805 Alexander Carlyle, 83, Scottish clergyman, author of his Autobiography, which contains Anecdotes of David Hume (1800) dies on 29th anniversary of the death of David Hume.
1685 Francisco de Herrera, el Mozo (or el Joven), in Madrid, Spanish artist born in Seville in a year variously given from 1612 to 1627. MORE ON HERRERA AT ART 4 2~DAY LINKS Christ Bearing the Cross The Triumph of St. Hermengild The Coronation of the Virgin
1679 Jonas Moore, mathematician
1649 Thomas Shepard, author of The Change of the Sabbath
which occurred on an August 25:
1996 Navio Communications Inc. Netscape announces that it has started a new company, Navio Communications. The new company is dedicated to integrating Netscape software into televisions, phones, cars, and other electronic devices.
1918 Leonard Bernstein (conductor: New York Philharmonic Orchestra; composer: West Side Story, On the Town, My Sister Eileen, On the Waterfront, Jeremiah, The Age of Anxiety, Kaddish, Chichester Psalms, Mass, Songfest)
1916 The US National Park Service is established within the Department of the Interior.
1916 Dr. Frederick C. Robbins, US pediatrician who shared a Nobel Prize in 1954 for discovering a way to grow the polio virus in a test tube and paving the way for the vaccines that have eliminated the crippling disease from much of the world. He died on 04 August 2003.
1913 Walt Kelly cartoonist, creator of "Pogo"
1912 Erich Honecker Germany, East German political leader
1896: Atanasio Soldati, Italian artist of the Concrete Art Movement. He died on 27 August 1953. Composizione
1891 Andrea de Chirico “Alberto Savinio, Italian writer, theorist, Surrealist painter, composer, and theater designer, born in Athens, Greece, who died on 06 May 1952, not to be confused with his brother Giorgio de Chirico [10 Jul 1888 19 Nov 1978] MORE ON “SAVINIO” AT ART 4 2~DAY — LINKS — Le rêve du poète — Le contrarietà del pensatore — Annunciazione
1880 Cornelis Vreedenburgh, Dutch artist who died in 1946.
1867 Herman Dudley Murphy, US artist who died in 1945.
1867 Kolosov, mathematician
1851 George Parsons Lathrop, editor of A Masque of Poets: Including Guy Vernon, a Novelette in Verse (page images at MOA)
1850 Edgar Wilson Nye, under the pseudonym Bill Nye, he would become a journalist and one of the major American humorists in the last half of the 19th century. His columns were gathered in books from Bill Nye and Boomerang (1881) to Bill Nye's History of the US (1894). He died on 22 February 1896.
1850 Marie Egner, Austrian artist who died in 1940.
1845 Ludwig II mad king of Bavaria (1864-86)
1844 Muir, mathematician
1841 Theodor Kocher, Swiss surgeon, thyroid specialist (Nobel 1909)
1837 Jacob Henricus (or Hendrikus) Maris, Dutch painter specialized in Landscapes, who died on 07 August 1899. MORE ON MARIS AT ART 4 2~DAY LINKS The Tow Path View of Amsterdam View of Old Delft Harbor of Amsterdam Dutch Town on the Edge of the Sea Harbor Town Close of Day — A View of a Harbor Town — Collecting Shellfish The Bridge
1836 Bret (Francis) Harte (writer: How Santa Claus Came to Simpson's Bar)
1688 Christian-Johann Bendeler, German artist who died on 19 November 1728.
1661 Gregor Brandmüller, Swiss artist who died on 27 August 1691.
1658 Claude Andran III, French artist who died on 27 May 1734.
1623 Filippo Lauri, Italian artist who died on 12 December 1694.
1561 Lansberge, mathematician
1530 Ivan IV (the Terrible) 1st tsar of Russia (1533-84)