|On an August
2002 The flood that is receding in Prague has moved downriver from the Vltava into the Elbe and is now in Dresden. The Elbe rises from a normal summer level of about two meters to 9.16 meters, well surpassing the 8.77 meter record of 1845. Among other disastrous consequences: the priceless artwork at the Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden (= Zwinger museum of art?) is endangered [and that link, temporarily, does not work]. [note: it is the Zwinger palace, NOT the Swinger palace.]
[Photo below: the Zwinger palace and its flooded court]
the Zwinger palace as it is normally
1994 Alianza del Pueblo, coalición socialista en la oposición, gana las elecciones legislativas en Sri Lanka.
1994 AOL announces that it has one million members. America OnLine had tripled in size in a single year and was positioned to become the dominant online service (but not necessarily the best).
| 1991 US President Bush (Sr.) declares that the recession
is near an end.
1990 Iraq orders 4000 British and 2500 US nationals in Kuwait to Iraq.
1989 Miles de personas hacen vigilia para ver el eclipse total de Luna, de tres horas y 35 minutos.
1989 El presidente de Nicaragua, Daniel Ortega, inicia el proceso de excarcelación de 1200 "contras".
1988 IBM introduces software for artificial intelligence
1988 Jailed black nationalist Nelson Mandela struck with tuberculosis
1983 Oficiales franceses llegan al Chad para unirse a los 3000 soldados allí acantonados y contrarrestar la presencia de tropas libias en el norte del país.
| 1972 African-American Methodist clergyman from Dominica,
West Indies, Philip A. Potter, 51, is named general secretary of the World
Council of Churches. Serving until 1984, Potter gave strong spiritual guidance
to the work of the WCC.
1967 Vietnam: Tonkin Gulf Resolution challenged President Johnson's broad interpretation of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution is attacked in the Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee by the Chairman, Senator William Fulbright of Arkansas, who feels that Johnson has no mandate to conduct the war on the present scale.
1962 Argelia se convierte en miembro de la Liga Árabe.
1960 Britain grants independence to crown colony of Cyprus.
1960 Joseph Kittinger parachutes from balloon at 31'330 m.
1960 Republic of the Congo (later called Zaïre) forms.
1956 Adlai E. Stevenson is nominated as Democratic presidential candidate.
1937 Harvard Traffic School Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, became the first school to institute graduate study courses in traffic engineering and administration.
1934 US ends occupation of Haiti (been there since 1915)
1934 William Beebe [29 July 1877 04 June 1962] and engineer Otis Barton, in the bathysphere they invented in 1930, descend to a record depth of 923 meters, in Bermuda waters. The spherical steel bathysphere had portholes and was suspended by a steel cable from a ship. Because of the danger of rupture of that cable, it was dangerous, and was supplanted in 1948 by the navigable bathyscaphe of Auguste Piccard [28 January 1884 24 March 1962]. US biologist, explorer, and writer on natural history, Beebe is the author of Jungle Days (1925), Pheasants, Their Lives and Homes (1926), Beneath Tropic Seas (1928), High Jungle (1949), The Edge of the Jungle (1950), Unseen Life of New York (1953), Half Mile Down (1951).
1923 Though its late founder wasn’t always the best friend of labor, Carnegie Steel establishes the eight-hour day for its workers.
|1921 The Times of London exposes the Protocols
of the Learned Elders of Zion as a forgery, plagiarized
from an anti-Napoleon work. ^top^
Regretfully, Mr. Henry Ford Snr. initiated a campaign of Jew-hate in 1920. His Book, "THE INTERNATIONAL JEW" WAS BASED MAINLY ON "THE PROTOCOLS'. However Mr. Ford completely retracted his views expressed in his book:
"To my great regret I learn that in the Dearborn Independent and in reprint pamphlets entitled, 'THE INTERNATIONAL JEW', there have appeared articles which induce the Jews to regard me as their enemy, promoting anti-Semitism.
"As a result of this survey I am deeply mortified that this journal, which is intended to be constructive and not destructive, has been made the medium for resurrecting exploded fictions, for giving currency to the so-called Protocols of the Wise Men of Zion, which have been demonstrated, as I learn, to be gross forgeries, and for contending that the Jews have been engaged in a conspiracy to control the capital and the industries of the world, besides laying at their door many offences against decency, public order and good morals...I deem it to be my duty as an honourable man to make amends for the wrong done to the Jews as fellow men and brothers, by asking their forgiveness for the harm which I have unintentionally committed, by retracting, as far as lies within my power the offensive charges laid at their door by these publications, and by giving them the unqualified assurance that henceforth they may look to me for friendship and good will...
"Had I appreciated even the general nature to say nothing of the details of these utterances, I would have forbidden their circulation without a moment's hesitation...This statement is made on my own initiative and wholly in the interest of right and justice, and is in accordance with what I regard as my solemn duty as a man and as a citizen."
What are the Protocols?
As many of our readers may not be familiar with this infamous forgery the following is a brief summary of its evil ingredients. The Protocols are set forth as the minutes of twenty-four secret sessions of "the innermost circle of the rulers of Zion". These fictitious minutes are thus laid down as twenty-four Protocols or master plan to enslave the world by the most dastardly and unscrupulous methods imaginable. here are a few examples:
How Did the Protocols Originate?
In 1901 a Russian official in the Chancery of the Synod of Moscow named Serge A. Niles published a strange work entitled, The Great in the Little and the AntiChrist as a Proximate Political Possibility. Nilus expressed the view that only the Holy Russian Empire could save the world from the rule of Antichrist. The idea behind the book was to bolster the absolute authority of the Czarist regime. In 1905 a second edition of the book appeared with one significant addition - the Protocols! Thus was born one of the most infamous documents ever published. And only Nilus himself ever claimed to have seen the original.
The Protocols Exposed as an Infamous Forgery
In August 1921 Mr. Phillip Graves, correspondent of the London Times in Constantinople came into the possession of a small book in a tattered condition. Such an insignificant incident may well have passed unnoticed and been swallowed into oblivion had not Mr. Graves recognized a sentence as being identical with one of the Protocols. Yet, THIS BOOK HAD THE NAME "JOLI" AS THE AUTHOR!
Mr. Graves compared the book written by Monsieur Joli with a copy of the Protocols and in it he found repeated word for word, paragraph for paragraph and page for page the text of the earlier book written by Joli. The only alteration was that instead of the word "Zion" Joli had written "France", and instead of "We the Jews" the original book had "The Emperor"!
The book written by Joli was a satire directed against Napoleon III and was entitled "Dialogue in Hell between Machiavelli and Montesquieu". IT HAD NOTHING WHATEVER TO DO WITH THE JEWS!
In three consecutive issues dated 16 August, 17 August, and 18 August, 1921 the London "Times" printed long extracts from the Protocols side by side with Joli's "Dialogue in Hell". Thus was the infamous forgery exposed as ONE OF THE MOST INSOLENT FORGERIES OF ALL TIME.
Count Heinrich Coudenhove-Kalergi in his book "ANTI-SEMITISM THROUGHOUT THE AGES" (English translation, Hutchinson, 1935) writes: "This plagiarism is an anti-Semitic forgery from the beginning to the end without any connection whatever with Jewish personalities, groups, organizations or conferences. The publication is in no wise, whether directly or indirectly, a product of the Jewish spirit, or Jewish tradition, or of Jewish sentiments and opinions.
"In the entire fraud committed against humanity which the Protocols represents, the Jews are merely innocent objects, while the anti-Semites were the guilty agents. Thousands of Jews have been massacred, maltreated, plundered and imprisoned in the Ukraine and in Germany on account of this forgery. At the same time many millions of non-Jews have been deceived by the Protocols, they have been induced to commit deeds and to utter words which they would most deeply regret were the facts of the forgery known to them. No book and no event in the history of modern anti-Semitism has played such an important part as this plagiarism; it constitutes the piece de resistance, the choice morsel of after-war anti-Semitism.
"It is, therefore, they duty of all decent men in the world, be they non-Jews or Jews, Anti-Semites or Philo-Semites, to work with all their might and see to it that this shameless lie, forgery and calumny disappears from the world.
"It ought to be made clear to all those who know the Protocols that the publication is a plagiarism of fatal world importance. The work of enlightenment is not only a duty to the calumniated Jews, but also to truth, for it is no exaggeration to say that the so called "Protocols of the Elders of Zion" are both one of the most insolent forgeries of all time and one of the meanest calumnies which has existed in human history."
Hitler knew only too well how to manipulate the masses with lies of great magnitude and he exploited the Protocols to the fullest extent. Four years after the publication of the warning contained in Count Kalergi's book the harvest of hatred against the Jews began in Europe, and the flames of the holocaust were not extinguished until six million innocent Jewish victims had perished.
The Law Steps In
Dr. A. Zander, editor of a Swiss Nazi organ, published a series of articles on the acceptability of the Protocols. But Swiss law offered redress and community leaders in that country determined to expose the fraudulent basis of the iniquitous document before a well-respected court of justice.
Trial began in Berne on 29 October 1934, the plaintiffs being Dr. J. Dreyfus-Brodsky, Dr. Marcus Cohen, and Dr. Marcus Ehrenpreis.
On 19 May, the Cantonal Court of Berne, after full investigation declared the Protocols to be forgeries, plagiarisms, and obscene literature and gave judgment in favor of the Cantonal Bernese Act. The Nazi, Dr. Zander, was fined.
At Grahamstown, South Africa, in August, 1934, the Court imposed fines totalling 1775 pounds ($4,500) on three men for concocting a modern version of the Protocols.
| 1915 I Guerra Mundial: El crucero inglés "Baralong"
hunde el submarino alemán "U-27".
1914 Liege, Belgium, falls to the German army.
1898 Publicación en España del famoso artículo "Sin pulso", de Francisco Silvela, que inició la llamada "Literatura del desastre".
1898 Roller coaster patented
1863 Emancipation Proclamation signed
1863 La República Dominicana comienza una guerra contra España por la restauración de su soberanía.
1863 Union General William S. Rosecrans moves his army south from Tullahoma, Tennessee to attack Confederate forces in Chattanooga.
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
1861 Union and Confederate forces clash near Fredericktown and Kirkville, Missouri.
1861 US President Lincoln prohibits the states of the Union from trading with the seceding states of the Confederacy.
1780 British decisively defeat American Patriots in Battle of Camden, SC
1777 France declares bankruptcy.
1777 Americans defeat British in Battle of Bennington, Vermont.
1773 Publicación del Breve de Clemente XIV que disuelve la Compañía de Jesús en todo el mundo.
1519 Tras deshacerse de sus naves, Hernán Cortes se adentra con sus hombres en territorio de México.
1513 Henry VIII of England and Emperor Maximilian defeat the French at Guinegatte, France, in the Battle of the Spurs.
| Deaths which
occurred on an August 16:
2003 Idi Amin Dada Oumée, 78 or 80, in Jiddah, Saudi Arabia, where he lived in luxurious exile (paid for by the Saudi government) with some of his four wives and approximately 30 children, after fleeing before Ugandan exiles and their Tanzanian allies, on 13 April 1979, captured Kampala, where he had been the cruel and buffoon dictator of Uganda since 25 January 1971 when he had overthrown President Milton Obote [28 Dec 1924–], who was abroad at the time.
2002 Sabri al-Banna Abu Nidal, 65, found dead in his Baghdad apartment with multiple gunshot wounds. He was a Palestinian terrorist leader whose gang, since the mid-1970s, opposed Yasser Arafat's Palestinian Liberation Organization and murdered some of its leaders. Abu Nidal had been suffering from leukemia. Abu Nidal ("father of the struggle") was born in Jaffa in 1937. The family later moved to Nablus, and he left to organize opposition to the establishment of Israel. He masterminded the killings of both Jews and fellow Palestinians who opposed him. He is reported to run an international extortion racket running into millions of dollars, shaking down governments with threats of attacks. He has been accused of dealing in arms and of being a hit man for his various Arab backers. The chain-smoking schoolteacher-turned-terrorist has struck targets from Paris to Pakistan. His followers bombed US airliners, shot travelers in airports, machine-gunned sidewalk cafés and synagogues and blew up hotels. His most famous but not most fatal attacks were twin assaults on the Israeli airline El Al's ticket counters at Rome and Vienna airports on 27 December 1985, killing 18 wounding 120. MORE ON ABU NIDAL'S TERRORISM
2002 Edward McBride, 37, drowns in the Arkansas River, with, in a bag and in his pockets, some 25 kg of goods he had just burglarized from a home in Tulsa, Oklahoma, fleeing from police who try to rescue him, but reach too late the spot, 40 meters from the river bank, where McBride sinks into 3 meters of water after calling for help.
1990 Clark Alan Jacobsen, martyr, arrested and killed in Liberia by government troops.
1987:: 156 as Northwest Flight 255 crashes at take off in Detroit.
Elvis Aron Presley, 42, of a heart attack.
The death of the king of rock and roll brought legions of mourning fans to Graceland, his home in Memphis, Tennessee. Doctors claimed he died of a heart attack induced by barbiturates; although some later reports suggested suicide. Elvis Presley, born on 08 January 1935, recorded twenty-five golden records, nine more than the Beatles, which is why "Long Live the King" remains a fitting epitaph. Presley would become the subject of urban legends by being alleged sighted alive after his death. His picture would be put on a US postage stamp [>>>], after the public voted between a youthful picture and an older, fatter one.
Elvis Presley Enterprises would turn Graceland, on Elvis Presley Boulevard, into a prosperous tourist attraction, together with the grave of Elvis (no last name needed), the jet airplanes he owned, and a number of related restaurants, shops and museums, not to mention licensed products and memorabilia.
Among other tributes for the 25th anniversary of his death was made a toast portrait of Elvis.
| 1973 Fulgencio Batista, dictador cubano
1973 Selman A. Waksman, microbiólogo estadounidense de origen ruso, descubridor de la estreptomicina. Premio Nobel en 1952.
1963 Joan Kathleen Harding Eardley, of breast cancer, Scottish painter born on 18 May 1921. MORE ON EARDLEY AT ART 4 AUGUST Salmon Net Posts — The Old Plow — Between Fields of Barley, Catterline — The Old Pram — The Girl with Red Hair
1948 Babe Ruth, 53, baseball legend, a candy bar bears his name.
1920 Norman Lockyer, editor of Nature, discoverer of helium in the Sun.
1916 Umberto Boccioni, Italian futurist painter and sculptor born on 19 October 1882. MORE ON BOCCIONI AT ART 4 AUGUST LINKS Study of a Female Face Street Noises Invade the House States of Mind I: Those who Leave States of Mind II: Those who Stay The City Rises
1910 Pedro Montt, presidente de Chile.
1893 Jean Martin Charcot, neurólogo francés.
1888 John Stith Pemberton, estadounidense creador de la Coca-Cola.
1836 Marc-Antoine Parseval des Chênes, French mathematician born on 27 April 1755.
1835 Jean-Baptiste Mallet, French painter born in 1759. MORE ON MALLET AT ART 4 AUGUST — LINKS — Une Nymphe au Bain, Environnée d'Amours — Bacchante dans un Paysage Young French Marquise in Exile in Lausanne
1819 Eleven persons who want reform, in the Peterloo Massacre in Manchester, England: troops charged through a peaceful crowd assembled to hear speakers demanding parliamentary reform. In the aftermath, the troops were praised, the speakers were arrested and condemned to prison, and the reporters who published the event suffered the same penalty.
1727 Jakob van Waltskapelle, Dutch artist born in May 1644.
1708 Michel Corneille des Gobelins, French artist born on 29 September 1642.
1705 Jacob Bernoulli, 51, Basel Swiss mathematician, born on 27 December 1654, who was the first to use the term integral. He studied the catenary, the curve of a suspended string. He was an early user of polar coordinates and discovered the isochrone.
1665 Pieter Janszoon Zaenredam (or Saenredam), Dutch painter who was born on 9 June 1597. MORE ON ZAENREDAM AT ART 4 AUGUST LINKS Interior of the Church of St Bavo in Haarlem Interior of the Church of St Odulphus at Assendelft, seen from the Choir to the West The Old Town Hall of Amsterdam
| Births which
occurred on an August 16:
1930 Ted Hughes England, poet laureate (1984- )
1928 Eduardo Cote Lamus, poeta y político colombiano.
1923 Simon Peres, político israelí.
1920 Charles Bukowski, US poet and novelist.
1923 Shimon Peres, Israeli Prime Minister, later relatively dovish Foreign Minister in coalition cabinet presided by his archrival, alleged war criminal Ariel Sharon.
1913 Menachem Begin Israeli PM (1977-83, Nobel 1978) 1913 - Menachem Begin (Israeli Prime Minister: signed peace treaty w/Egypt's President Anwar Sadat )
1906 Franz Josef II prince of Liechtenstein (1938- )
1904 Wendell Stanley biochemist, first to crystallize a virus (Nobel '46)
1902 Georgette Heyer England, novelist (Friday's Child)
1897 Robert Ringling, circus master.
1888 Julio Rey Pastor, Spanish mathematician who died on 21 February 1962.
1886 Angel Zárraga, Mexican painter who died on 23 September 1946. MORE ON ZARRAGA AT ART 4 AUGUST LINKS — Autorretrato — La Dádiva Ex Voto: San Sebastián — Paisaje
1884 Hugo Gernsback sci-fi writer (1960 Hugo)
1877 Augusto Giacometti, Swiss painter and decorative artist who died on 09 July 1947. — more
1874 Arthur Meighen Canada, PM of Canada (1920,1,6)
1860 Jules Laforgue Uruguay, French symbolist poet, noted for his ironic, pessimistic point of view and his innovations in free verse. Notable among his works are Les complaintes (1885), L'imitation de Notre-Dame la Lune (1886), and Le concile féerique (1886). Laforgue's fresh imagery, loosely woven style, and coinage of new words made him an important influence on 20th-century poets.. He died in 1887 LAFORGUE ONLINE: Les Complaintes Les Complaintes Imitation de Notre-Dame la Lune
1852 Adolf von Schlatter, Swiss Protestant New Testament scholar. His 1921 History of Christ maintained that the success of any systematic theology had to be based on a foundation of solid biblical exegesis.
1842 Jakob Rosanes, German mathematician who died on 06 January 1922. Author of Theorie und Praxis des Schachspiels.
1638 Nicolás Malebranche, sabio francés.
1837 Joseph-Marie de Tilly, Belgian artillery lieutenant and mathematician, who died on 04 August 1906.
1821 Arthur Cayley, English mathematician whose most important work would be in the algebra of matrices and in non-euclidean and n-dimensional geometry. He died on 26 January 1895.
1815 Giovanni Melchior Bosco (St. John Bosco), Italian educator. Poverty among the children in the city of Turin led him in 1859 to establish the Society of St. Francis de Sales (the Salesians). Bosco was canonized by Pius XI in 1934.
1773 Louis-Benjamin Francoeur, Parisian mathematician who died on 15 December 1849.
1658 Jan Frans van Zoon, Flemish painter who died in 1718.