|On a February 10:|
1999 Clinton impeachment trial in US Senate: censure?
(1) In what might be an indication of languishing attempts to come up with a censure resolution, Sen. Dianne Feinstein (D-California) says she and the other colleagues who were pushing censure now may simply pass the proposal around among other senators to be signed and released as a statement.
(3) After a second full day of closed-door impeachment deliberations, it grows even more certain that President Bill Clinton will not be removed from office as three moderate Senate Republicans announce they would not support either article of impeachment. Sens. James Jeffords of Vermont, Arlen Specter of Pennsylvania and John Chafee of Rhode Island say they will not support the charges of perjury and obstruction of justice alleged in the articles of impeachment passed by the House.
| 1998 America OnLine announces increase in monthly flat
rate Internet access from $19.95 to $21.95
1997 Comet Shoemaker-Holt 2 Closest Approach to Earth (1.9245 AU)
1997 Lemrick Nelson found guilty in the fatal stabbing on Hasidic Jew Yankel Rosenbaum in Crown Heights Brooklyn in 1991
1997 O. J. Simpson jury reaches decision on $25 million in punitive damages
1996 US President Clinton signed a $265 billion defense bill, but said he would battle for repeal of a section forcing the discharge of service members with the AIDS virus.
1991 Lithuania votes for independence from USSR
1990 Perrier Water pulls product from shelf due to benzene in water
| 1988 3-judge panel of 9th US Circuit Court of Appeals
in San Francisco strikes down Army's ban on homosexuals (later overturned
1988 Rocky Malebane-Metsing coup in Bophuthatswana fails
1974 Iran/Iraqi border fight breaks out
1974 Silver futures hit record $4.81½ an ounce in London
1972 Ras al Khaima joins the United Arab Emirates
1962 USSRUS spy exchange.
Francis Gary Powers, a US pilot who was shot down over the Soviet Union while flying a CIA spy plane in 1960, is released by the Soviets in exchange for the US release of a Russian spy. The exchange concluded one of the most dramatic episodes of the Cold War. Powers had been a pilot of one of the high altitude U-2 spy planes developed by the United States in the late-1950s. Supposedly invulnerable to any Soviet antiaircraft defense, the U-2s flew numerous missions over Russia, photographing military installations. On 01 May 1960, Powers' U-2 was shot down by a Soviet missile. Although Powers was supposed to engage the plane's self-destruct system (and commit suicide with poison furnished by the CIA), he and much of the plane were captured.
The United States at first denied involvement with the flight, but had to admit that Powers was working for the US government when the Soviets presented incontrovertible evidence. In retaliation, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev called off a scheduled summit with President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Powers was put on trial, convicted of espionage, and sentenced to 10 years imprisonment. In February 1962, the Soviet Union announced that it was freeing Powers because of a petition from the prisoner's family. US officials made it quite clear, however, that Abel was being exchanged for Powers a spy-for-a-spy trade, not a humanitarian gesture on the part of the Soviet Union.
The US government announced that in exchange for Powers, it would release Col. Rudolf Ivanovich Abel, a Russian convicted of espionage in the United States. On 10 February Abel and Powers were brought to the Gilenicker Bridge that linked East and West Berlin for the exchange. After the men were successfully exchanged, Powers was flown back to the United States.
The Soviet Union declared that its release of Powers was partially motivated by "a desire to improve relations between the Soviet Union and the United States." US officials were cautious in evaluating the Soviet overture, but did note that the action could certainly help lessen Cold War tensions. The exchange was part of the ongoing diplomatic dance between Khrushchev and President John F. Kennedy. Both men seemed earnestly to desire better relations, and the February 1962 exchange was no doubt part of their efforts. Just a few months later, however, the Cuban Missile Crisis, in which the Soviets helped construct missile bases in Cuba, erased the memory of these diplomatic overtures and brought the two powers to the brink of nuclear conflict.
American spy pilot Francis Gary Powers is released by the Soviets in exchange for Soviet Colonel Rudolf Abel, a senior KGB spy who was caught in the United States five years earlier. The two men were brought to separate sides of the Glienicker Bridge, which connects East and West Berlin across Lake Wannsee. As the spies waited, negotiators talked in the center of the bridge where a white line divided East from West. Finally, Powers and Abel were waved forward and crossed the border into freedom at the same moment 08:52 Berlin time. Just before their transfer, Frederic Pryor an American student held by East German authorities since August 1961 was released to American authorities at another border checkpoint. In 1957, Reino Hayhanen, a lieutenant colonel in the KGB, walked into the American embassy in Paris and announced his intention to defect to the West. Hayhanen had proved a poor spy during his five years in the United States and was being recalled to the USSR, where he feared he would be disciplined. In exchange for asylum, he promised CIA agents he could help expose a major Soviet spy network in the United States and identify its director. The CIA turned Hayhanen over to the FBI to investigate the claims. During the Cold War, Soviet spies worked together in the United States without revealing their names or addresses to each other, a precaution in the event that one was caught or, like Hayhanen, defected. Thus, Hayhanen initially provided the FBI with little useful information. He did, however, remember being taken to a storage room in Brooklyn by his superior, whom he knew as "Mark." The FBI tracked down the storage room and found it was rented by one Emil R. Goldfus, an artist and photographer who had a studio in Brooklyn Heights. Emil Goldfus was Rudolf Ivanovich Abel, a brilliant Soviet spy who was fluent in at least five languages and an expert at the technical requirements of espionage. After decorated service as an intelligence operative during World War II, Abel assumed a false identity and entered an East German refugee camp where he successfully applied for the right to immigrate to Canada. In 1948, he slipped across the Canadian border into the United States, where he set about reorganizing the Soviet spy network.
After learning of Hayhanen's defection, Abel fled to Florida, where he remained underground until June, when he felt it was safe to return to New York. On 21 June 1957, he was arrested in Manhattan's Latham Hotel. In his studio, FBI investigators found a hollow pencil used for concealing messages, a shaving brush containing microfilm, a code book, and radio transmitting equipment. He was tried in a federal court in Brooklyn and in October was found guilty on three counts of espionage and sentenced to 30 years imprisonment. He was sent to the federal penitentiary in Atlanta, Georgia. Less than three years later, on 01 May 1960, Francis Gary Powers took off from Peshawar, Pakistan, at the controls of an ultra-sophisticated Lockheed U-2 high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft. Powers, a CIA-employed pilot, was to fly over some 3000 km of Soviet territory to Bodö military airfield in Norway, collecting intelligence information en route. Roughly halfway through his journey, he was shot down over Sverdlovsk in the Ural Mountains. Forced to bail out at 5000 meters altitude, he survived the parachute jump but was promptly arrested by Soviet authorities.
On 05 May, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev announced that the American spy aircraft had been shot down and two days later revealed that Powers was alive and well and had confessed to being on an intelligence mission for the CIA. On 07 May, the United States acknowledged that the U-2 had probably flown over Soviet territory but denied that it had authorized the mission.
On 16 May, leaders of the United States, the USSR, Britain, and France met in Paris for a long-awaited summit meeting. The four powers were to discuss tensions in the two Germanys and negotiate new disarmament treaties. However, at the first session, the summit collapsed after President Dwight D. Eisenhower refused to apologize to Khrushchev for the U-2 incident. Khrushchev also canceled an invitation for Eisenhower to visit the USSR. In August, Powers pleaded guilty to espionage charges in Moscow and was sentenced to 10 years imprisonment three in prison and seven in a prison colony. At the end of his 1957 trial, Rudolf Abel escaped the death penalty when his lawyer, James Donovan, convinced the federal judge that Abel might one day be used either as a source of intelligence information or as a hostage to be traded with the Soviets for a captured US agent. In his five years in prison, Abel kept his silence, but the latter prophecy came true in 1962 when he was exchanged for Powers in Berlin. Donovan had played an important role in the negotiations that led to the swap.
Upon returning to the United States, Powers was cleared by the CIA and the Senate of any personal blame for the U-2 incident. In 1970, he published a book, Operation Overflight, about the incident and in 1977 was killed in the crash of a helicopter that he flew as a reporter for a Los Angeles television station. Abel returned to Moscow, where he was forced into retirement by the KGB, who feared that during his five years of captivity US authorities had convinced him to become a double agent. He was given a modest pension and in 1968 published KGB-approved memoirs. He died in 1971.
| 1954 Eisenhower warns against US intervention in Vietnam.
1948 Greek General Markos' guerrilla army bombs Saloniki.
1947 WWII peace treaties signed.
1947 Italy cedes most of Venezia Giulia to Yugoslavia.
1947 Province of Petsamo returned to Soviet Union by Finland.
1944 U-666/U-545/U-283 sink off Ireland.
1934 1st Jewish immigrant ship to break the English blockade in Palestine.
1931 New Delhi becomes capital of India.
1930 Grain Stabilization Corporation is authorized by US Congress.
1916 Conscription begins in Britain.
1906 State of siege proclaimed in Zululand.
1904 Japan & Russia declares war after Japan's surprise attack on Russian fleet at Port Arthur disabled 7 Russian warships
1899 US-Spain peace treaty signed by President McKinley; US gets Puerto Rico & Guam.
1897 The New York Times begins printing "All the news that's fit to print" on its front page.
1890 About 4.5 million hectares, which US had forced Sioux to give up, open for settlement by non-Amerindians.
1880 Pope Leo XIII publishes encyclical Arcanum about Christian marriage.
1879 Henry Morton Stanley departs to the Congo.
1878 Peace of Zanjón.
1859 General Horsford defeats Begum of Oude & Nana Sahib in Indian mutiny.
1855 US citizenship laws amended all children of US parents born abroad granted US citizenship.
| 1846 British defeat Sikhs in battle of Sobraon, India.
1716 Scottish pretender to the throne James III Edward returns to France
1549 Tomé de Sousa appointed Governor-General of Brazil
1535 12 nude Anabaptists run through Amsterdam streets
1098 Crusaders defeat Prince Redwan of Aleppo at Antioch
0385 Pope Saint Siricius answers a letter, in which questions were asked on fifteen different points concerning baptism, penance, church discipline, and the celibacy of the clergy, which had arrived to Rome addressed to Pope Saint Damasus I (who had died in December 384) by Bishop Himerius of Tarragona, Spain. Siricius gives his decisions as to the matters in question, exercising with full consciousness his supreme power of authority in the Church. This letter of Siricius is of special importance because it is the oldest completely preserved papal decretal. It is, however, certain that before this earlier popes had also issued such decretals, for Siricius himself in his letter mentions "general decrees" of Pope Liberius (Damasus's immediate predecessor) that the latter had sent to the provinces; but these earlier ones have not been preserved. Saint Siricius was born in 334; died on 26 November 399. He was elected pope and then, on 17 December 384, consecrated bishop.
0060 St Paul thought to have been shipwrecked off Malta.
which occurred on a February 10:
2004 All but 3 of the 40 passengers and 6 crew members aboard a Fokker-50 plane of Kish Air[< the wreckage], which crashes at 11:40, 3 km short of its destination in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. The dead are 19 Iranians, 12 Indians, 4 Egyptians, 2 Filipinos, 2 Algerians, 1 Syrian, 1 Chinese, 1 Nigerian, and 1 Bangladeshi. The three survivors are severely injured. The flight originated in Kish island, Iran. Foreign workers in the UAE use such flights to nearby destinations to meet the exit and entry requirement for renewal of their visa, which takes two or three days to process. Many of those workers are Indian, Pakistani, Filipino, and other Asian laborers and maids. Visas are not needed to enter Kish, and tickets and hotels are cheap, and the extremist fundamentalist Islamic laws of mainland Iran are not fully enforced.
2004:: 53 persons and suicide truck bomber at 09:15 at police station in Iskandariyah, Iraq, where job applicants were in a waiting line. Some 60 others are injured.
2003 Ron Ziegler, born on 12 May 1939, of a heart attack. He was press secretary to crooked US president Nixon from 1968 until 1974. On 19 June 1972, Ziegler said of the 17 June 1972 Watergate burglary that it was a “third-rate burglary”. He did not state what were his criteria for rating burglaries, nor what made him an expert at it.
2003 Nineteen sheep killed during the previous two weeks by some 60 ravens living by a garbage dump near Loerrach, Germany, according to a Reuters news story published today. The sheep are among the 500 (worth $100 each) of shepherd Juergen Fritz, who is prohibited from shooting the ravens, a protected species. Much of the area is covered with snow so that the raven find no other food. The birds bring to mind those in the 1963 Hitchcock movie The Birds, which terrorize a US village.
2002 Two Palestinians attackers and Lt. Keren Rothstein, 20, and Cpl. Aya Malachi, 18, Israeli women soldiers sitting at outdoor tables of Avraham Baldinger's pastry shop across the street from the Israeli Southern Command headquarters in Beersheba, at about 13:30. The The Izz a-din el Kassam (military wing of Hamas) gunmen are then shot by Israeli soldiers. One of them wore an undetonated explosive belt. Some half-dozen persons are wounded.
1998 Maurice Schumann, French foreign minister (1969-73)
1997 Milton Cato, PM of San Vincent & Grenadines (1979-84)
1995 Paul Monette, 49, writer
1995 S. van der Linde, 89, church historian
1995 Kenton Kilmer, 85, poet/translator
1993 Maurice Bourges-Maunoury, PM of France (1957)
1992 Thomas Graftdijk, Dutch writer (Dr Faustus)
1992 Wim Ramaker, Dutch director/writer (On Death Track)
1992 Alex Haley, 70, US writer (Autobiography of Malcolm X, Roots)
1987: 17 civilians massacred by Philippine troopsLupao Massacre
1983 Emil Greenzweig, by grenade thrown by right-wing extremist Yona Avrushmi at Peace Now demonstration near the bank of Israel, Jerusalem, which Greensweig was leading in opposition to Ariel Sharon's dirty Lebanon war.
|1970 Dry powder avalanche moving at 120 mph smashes
into youth hostel killing 40 Belgian, French, & German youths (Val d'Isere,
1968 Pitirim Alexandrovich Sorokin, Russian US sociologist born on 21 January 1889. Author of The Crisis of Our Age (1992) — Fads and Foibles in Modern Sociology and Related Sciences (1976) — On the Practice of Sociology (1998) — Principles of Rural-Urban Sociology (1969) — Social and Cultural Dynamics (1970) — Altruistic Love : A Study of American Good Neighbors and Christian Saints (1968) — The Basic Trends of Our Times (1964) — Crisis of Our Age the Social and Cultural Outlook (1941) — Explorations in Altruistic Love and Behavior (1970) — Hunger As a Factor in Human Affairs (1975) — Long Journey : the Autobiography of Pitirim A. Sorokin (1963) — Reconstruction of Humanity (1948) — Social and Cultural Mobility (1959) [short extract] — Society, Culture, and Personality: Their Structure and Dynamics (1962) — Sociological Theries of Today (1979) — Sociology of Revolution (2000)
1966 Gary Douglas Hopps USN/O3 (born 28 August 1936), of Coral Gables, killed in action over North Vietnam at 17º12'58"N, 106º34'59"E.aboard A1H#137627.
1951 Miller, mathematician.
1942 Normandie, former French liner, capsizes in New York Harbor the day after it caught fire while being refitted for the US Navy.
1940 Day 72 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland.
More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.
Heavier fighting in Taipale
Central Isthmus: the commander of the Finnish 3rd Division says the main defensive position in Summa is under attack from three Soviet divisions and a tank brigade. The Soviet infantry has broken through in the Merkki sector. Finnish troops successfully repulse the enemy assaults in Marjapellonmäki, but are unable to retake the Karhu stronghold.
Eastern Isthmus: the fighting in Taipale continues with increasing ferocity. The enemy artillery opens fire at 10.30 in the morning. At 12 minutes past noon the enemy infantry launches its assault with the support of six assault tanks. At 2.30 p.m. Major Saarelainen announces that the enemy assault has been successfully repulsed and four of their assault tanks destroyed.
Mikkeli: Prime Minister Ryti, Foreign Minister Tanner and Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Forces, Marshall Mannerheim discuss possible terms for peace. Mannerheim urges the Government to seek peace.
Ladoga Karelia: in the Aittojoki sector, troops belonging to Detachment Pajari carry out a new assault on the River Kuukkausjoki. After fierce close combat the Finnish troops manage to clear the enemy from the west bank of the river by the evening.
Viipuri: enemy bombing destroys the Dominican monastery built in 1481 and currently serving as the church for the rural congregation around Viipuri.
Abroad: a train from the Finnish Centre for Nordic Aid arrives in Stockholm with 300 Finnish children.
A Danish officer, Colonel Tretow-Loof is travelling to Finland to lead the Danish volunteer battalion.
An association called 'Wings for Finland' is founded in New York to procure aircraft for Finland. -
^ Taipaleessa taistelu jatkuu entistä voimakkaampana Talvisodan 73. päivä, 10.helmikuuta.1940
3. Divisioonan komentajan mukaan suomalaisten puolustusasemaa vastaan Summassa hyökkää kolme neuvostodivisioonaa ja panssariprikaati. Neuvostojalkaväki pääsee murtoon Merkin lohkolla. Marjapellonmäessä vihollisen hyökkäykset torjutaan, mutta Karhun tukikohtaa ei onnistuta valtaamaan takaisin.
Taipaleessa taistelu jatkuu entistä voimakkaampana. Vihollisen tykistö avaa tulen klo 10.30. Klo 12.12 vihollisen jalkaväki hyökkää kuuden hyökkäysvaunun tukemana. Klo 14.30 majuri Saarelainen ilmoittaa, että vihollisen hyökkäykset on torjuttu ja neljä hyökkäysvaunua on tuhottu.
Pääministeri Ryti, ulkoministeri Tanner ja puolustusvoimien ylipäällikkö Mannerheim neuvottelevat rauhan ehdoista Mikkelissä. Mannerheim kehottaa pyrkimään rauhaan.
Osasto Pajarin joukot tekevät uuden hyökkäyksen Aittojoen suunnassa Kuukkausjoella.
Rajujen lähitaistelujen jälkeen suomalaiset saavat iltaan mennessä joen länsirannan puhdistetuksi vihollisista.
Viipurissa tuhoutuu vihollisen pommituksessa vuonna 1481 rakennettu dominikaaniluostarina toiminut nykyinen Maaseurakunnan kirkko.
Suomen Avun Keskuksen juna, jossa on 300 suomalaislasta saapuu Tukholmaan.
Tanskalainen eversti Tretow-Loof matkustaa Suomeen johtaakseentanskalaisista koottua vapaaehtoispataljoonaa.
New Yorkissa perustetaan "Wings for Finland"-yhdistys, jonka tavoitteena on lentokoneiden hankkiminen Suomelle. -
^ I Taipale tar kampen allt blodigare former Vinterkrigets 73 dag, den 10 februari 1940
Enligt kommendören för den 3. Divisionen anfaller tre ryska divisioner och en pansarbrigad de finska försvarsställningarna vid Summa. Det ryska infanteriet lyckas bryta in vid Merkkiavsnittet. Vid Marjapellonmäki avvärjs fiendens anfall men försöken att återerövra Karhubasen misslyckas.
I Taipale tar kampen allt blodigare former. Fiendens artilleri öppnar eld kl. 10.30. Kl. 12.12 anfaller fiendens infanteri med stöd av sex stridsvagnar. Kl. 14.30 meddelar major Saarelainen att fiendens anfall har avvärjts och fyra stridsvagnar har förintats.
Statsminister Ryti, utrikesminister Tanner och försvarsmaktens överbefälhavare Mannerheim förhandlar om fredsvillkoren i S:t Michel. Mannerheim anser att man borde eftersträva fred.
Avdelning Pajaris trupper anfaller på nytt i riktning Aittojoki vid Kuukkausjoki.
Efter häftiga närkamper lyckas finnarna framåt kvällen rensa flodens västra strand från inkräktare.
I Viborg förstörs landsförsamlingens kyrka som byggdes år 1481 och som tidigare fungerade som dominikankloster.
Finlandshjälpens tåg med 300 finska barn anländer till Stockholm.
Den danska översten Tretow-Loof reser till Finland för att leda en bataljon bestående av danska frivilliga.
Föreningen "Wings for Finland" grundas i New York. Föreningens mål är att skaffa flygplan åt Finland.
| 1939 Pius XI [Ambrogio D A Ratti], Italian Pope (1922-39),
dies at 81
1932 Richard Horatio Edgar Wallace, British novelist, playwright, journalist, born on 01 April 1875. He who produced popular detective and suspense stories and was in his time "the king" of the modern thriller. Wallace's literary output - 175 books, 24 plays, and countless articles and review sketches - have undermined his reputation as a fresh and original writer. . WALLACE ONLINE: The Clue of the Twisted Candle The Green Rust (1919)
1927 Greenhill, mathematician.
1927 Gustav Gunnar Nils Wentzel, Norwegian painter born on 07 October 1859. MERE OM WENTZEL PÅ KUNST FOR FEBRUAR with links to images.
1923 Wilhelm Konrad von Rontgen, 77, physicist (Nobel 1901)
1918 Abdül-Hamid II, 34th sultan of Turkey (lost Serbia/Egypt), 65
1912 Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister, surgeon (pioneer of antiseptic)
1901 Telemaco Signorini, Italian artist born on 18 August 1835.
1891 Sofia Kovalevskaya, 40, mathematician.
1887 Ellen Price (Mrs. Henry Wood) Johnny Ludlow, 73, English author of whodunits born on 17 January 1814. WOOD ONLINE: East Lynne.
1883: 71 persons in fire at un-insured New Hall Hotel in Milwaukee Wisconsin.
1837 (29 January Julian) Alexandr Sergeyevich Pushkin, Russian poet, novelist, dramatist, and short-story writer; he has often been considered his country's greatest poet and the founder of modern Russian literature. He was born on 06 June (26 May Julian) 1799. Biography (in Russian) Portraits of Pushkin by: Kiprensky Tropinin Serov Bruni PUSHKIN ONLINE: (in Russian) Complete Works Complete Works Selected Works Selected Works (in English translation): Marie: A Story of Russian Love
1829 Leo XII [Annibale Sermattei], 68, Italian Pope (1823-29).
1810 Abraham-Louis-Rodolphe Ducros (or Ducroz), Swiss artist born in April 1748.
1772 Louis Tocqué, French artist born on 19 November 1696. MORE ON TOCQUÉ AT ART 4 FEBRUARY with links to images.
1772 Jozef Wenceslas, 75, monarch of Liechtenstein / general.
1765 Jean-Baptiste Henri Deshays de Colleville le Romain, French artist born in December 1729. MORE ON DESHAYS AT ART 4 FEBRUARY with links to images.
1720 Hendrik Govaerts (or Goovaerts), Flemish artist born on 21 July 1669.
1711 Lukas Fencer, 22, Dutch poet (Meleager & Atalante)
1685 David Teniers III, Flemish artist born on 10 July 1638.
1676 All men in Lancaster, Massachusetts, killed by Wampanoag Indians under King Philip.
1674 Leonaert Bramer, Dutch genre and history painter born on 24 December 1596. MORE ON BRAMER AT ART 4 FEBRUARY with links to images.
1667 Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo, Spanish painter born in 1612. MORE ON DEL MAZO AT ART 4 FEBRUARY with links to images.
1660 (burial) Judith Leyster, Dutch Baroque painter, baptized as an infant on 28 July 1609. MORE ON LEYSTER AT ART 4 FEBRUARY with links to images.
1657 Sebastian Stoskopff, German artist born in some year from 1596 to 1599.
1567 Lord Darnley Stuart, husband of English queen Mary, murdered.
1526 Bernardino Zenale, Italian painter born in 1436. LINKS
1495 Sir William Stanley, English lord chamberlain, executed for conspiracy
1258 The Mongols conquer Baghdad, killing and burning.
which occurred on a February 10:
2002 Sextuplets, prematurely to Idalina Santos, 31, in her 23rd week of' pregnancy. The mother, from the island of Madeira, had undergone fertility treatment after losing triplets during an earlier pregnancy. She also has an eight-year-old son. The babies are put on a respirator since their lungs are not fully formed. But they all die of respiratory complications, the biggest one, a boy who weighed 570 g at birth, dying last, on 22 Feb 2002, at Alfredo da Costa maternity hospital in Lisbon (where the aptly surnamed head of neonatology is Dr. Odilia Nascimento).
1961 George Stephanopoulos, presidential adviser (to Clinton)
1957 The styrofoam cooler is invented.
1953 John Shirley, US, sci-fi author (Eclipse Penumbra, Eclipse Corona)
1951 Roxanne Pulitzer, Glendale CA, author (The Prize Pulitzer)
1938 National Mortgage Association of Washington (name changed later in 1938 to Federal National Mortgage Association, familiarly Fannie Mae) The National Housing Act, enacted on 27 June 1934 as one of several economic recovery measures, provided for the establishment of a Federal Housing Administration (FHA) to be headed by a Federal Housing Administrator. Title II of the Act provided, as one of the principal functions of the FHA, for the insurance of home mortgage loans made by private lenders. Title III of the Act provided for the chartering of national mortgage associations by the Administrator. These associations were to be private corporations regulated by the Administrator, and their chief purpose was to buy and sell the mortgages to be insured by FHA under Title II. Only one association was ever formed under this authority: the FNMA, as a subsidiary of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, a government corporation. By amendments made in 1948, the charter authority of the FHA Administrator was repealed and Title III became a statutory charter for the Federal National Mortgage Association. By revision of Title III in 1954, Fannie Mae was converted into a mixed-ownership corporation, its preferred stock to be held by the government and its common stock to be privately held. It was at this time that Section 312 was first enacted, giving Title III the short title of Federal National Mortgage Association Charter Act. By amendments made in 1968, the Federal National Mortgage Association was partitioned into two separate entities, one to be known as Government National Mortgage Association (Ginnie Mae), the other to retain the name Federal National Mortgage Association. Ginnie Mae remained in the government, and Fannie Mae became privately owned by retiring the government-held stock. Ginnie Mae has operated as a wholly owned government association since the 1968 amendments.
1931 Thomas Bernhard, writer
1927 Jakov Lind, German/British author (Counting My Footsteps)
1920 Alexander Comfort, English poet/writer (Wreath for the Living) [Was there any Comfort for the dying?]
1910 Dominique Pire, Belgium, educator, aided WWII refugees (Nobel 1958)
1906 Henry Phelps Brown, historian/economist
1906 HMS Dreadnought, Great Britain's first modern and largest battleship is launched
1902 Armand Bernier, Belgian poet (Sorcier Triste)
1902 Walter H Brattain, Amoy China, US physicist (Nobel 1956-transistor)
1901 Brauer, mathematician.
1898 Bertolt Brecht Germany, poet, playwright (Mother Courage) and composer who died on 14 August 1956.
1898 Joseph Kessel French journalist/writer (Army of the Shadows)
1897 John Franklin Enders Connecticut, micro-biologist (polio-Nobel 1954)
1894 [Maurice] Harold MacMillan London, (C) British PM (1957-63) He died on 29 December 1986.
1891 Harold 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis, Governor-General of Canada (1945-52)
1890 Boris Leonidovich Pasternak Russian Jewish novelist and poet (Dr Zhivago, Nobel 1958). He died on 30 May 1960.
1889 Howard Spring British author/novelist/writer/critic (O Absalom)
1888 Brodetsky, mathematician.
1888 G Ungaretti, writer.
1888 Wilhelm Thöny, Austrian artist who died in 1949.
1887 [Fran J] Vital Celen Flemish literary/author
1879 1st electric arc light used (California Theater)
1878 Otto Eduard Pippel, German artist who died in 1960.
1870 YWCA (Young Women's Christian Association) is founded (New York NY)
1868 William Allen White, US journalist and author who died on 29 January 1944. WHITE ONLINE: The Martial Adventures of Henry and Me (illustrated) — The Real Issue: A Book of Kansas Stories
1866 Rafael Altamira Crevea Spanish lawyer/historian
1863 First US fire extinguisher patent, it is granted to Alanson Crane, Virginia.
1795 Ary Scheffer, French artist who died on 15 June 1858. MORE ON SCHEFFER AT ART 4 FEBRUARY with links to images.
1793 Léon-Matthieu Cochereau, French artist who died on 10 August 1817. Interior of the Studio of David
1785 Navier, mathematician.
1775 Charles Lamb London England, critic / poet / essayist who died on 27 December 1834. LAMB ONLINE: The Adventures of Ulysses Beauty and the Beast — Beauty and the Beast (illustrated) Elia: Essays Which Have Appeared Under That Signature in the London Magazine The Last Essays of Elia co-author with Mary Lamb of: Tales from Shakespeare Tales from Shakespeare Tales from Shakespeare (illustrated) Tales from Shakespeare (searchable, illustrated ) Tales from Shakespeare (illustrated)
1755 Tonnay Nicolas Antoine Taunay (or Tonnay), French artist who died on 20 March 1830. LINKS
1747 Aida, mathematician.
1685 Aaron Hill, English poet, dramatist, and essayist who died on 08 February 1750. His 1736 ("The Tragedy of Zara") and 1749 adaptations of Voltaire's plays Zaïre of 1732 and Mérope enjoyed considerable success.
1670 William Congreve, English Restoration writer CONGREVE ONLINE: The Double-Dealer — Incognita: or, Love and Duty Reconcil'd — Love for Love — The Old Bachelor — Semele: An Opera (libretto only) — The Way of the World — The Way of the World co-translator of Ovid's Metamorphoses
1670 Norbert Cefalus van Bloemen (or Blommen), Flemish artist who died in 1746.
1635 Académie Française is founded in Paris (by Cardinal Richelieu)
1609 Sir John Suckling, English Cavalier poet/dramatist/courtier.