| On a July 02:
2000: Mexican elections, not yet completely
fair, but the "fairest" ever, evidence of which is that an opposition
candidate is given a chance to become the first non-PRI (Partido Revolucionario
Institucional) president in 71 years. The results announced the next day
would prove that the election is fair enough: Vicente Fox, the canditate
of PAN (Partido Acción Nacional) is elected, to assume the presidency
on December 1.
Artificial heart is implanted in patient.
Surgeons from the University of Louisville implant the first self-contained
artificial heart, a titanium and plastic pump, into Robert Tools at
Jewish Hospital. Doctors said they expect the new implant to extend
the patient's life only a month or so. But the device is considered
a technological leap from mechanical hearts used in the 1980s, which
were attached by wires and tubes to machinery outside the body.
The new grapefruit-sized pump, known
as AbioCor, is designed to allow recipients to maintain a productive
lifestyle while wearing it. No wires, no tubes. Power is sent from
a battery pack worn outside the body through the skin to an implanted
coil, control package and backup battery. The internal battery, about
the size of a typical pager, can work on its own for about 30 minutes
between charges long enough for a patient to take a shower,
Drs. Laman Gray
and Robert Dowling, who trained by implanting the pump in baby cows,
performed the surgery. Surgical teams at four other hospitals around
the country had been trained to do the surgery, but Louisville was
first. Experts hope that the experimental heart, made by Abiomed Inc.
of Danvers, Massachusetts, will lead to new hope for patients with
M. Lederman, Abiomed's
president and chief executive officer, said earlier in 2001 that the
company had received Food and Drug Administration approval to perform
at least five human trials with the artificial heart. If the experiments
are successful, more patients could be added to the trial later. Patients
selected for the trial must be suffering from a chronic, progressive
heart disease expected to result in death within 30 days. They had
to be ineligible for receiving a human heart transplant. The goal
of the experimental trials with the artificial heart is to double
the life span of these patients to 60 days, but every patient is expected
to die on the AbioCor.
A second goal is to evaluate how the
mobile mechanical heart affects the quality of life of those patients,
most of whom are so ill that they cannot walk or perform the daily
routine of life, such as getting dressed.
The first recipient of an artificial heart, Barney Clark, a Seattle-area
dentist, lived 112 days after receiving a Jarvik-7 device on 02 December
1982. The survival record for a total artificial heart is held by
William Schroeder of Jasper, Indiana, who lived 620 days on one before
he died in August 1986. But artificial heart patients of the 1980s
all had a variety of complications, and use of the devices as permanent
replacements for diseased hearts was largely suspended.
Still, the scientists building the next generation of devices -including
those that assist rather than replace a diseased heart - learned too
much to consider those early tests mistakes. The second man to receive
a Jarvik-7, Thomas Gaidosh, of Sutersville, Pennsylvania, was on the
device only a few days before he received a human heart transplant.
He lived 11 more years, long enough to be best man at the wedding
of inventor Dr. Robert Jarvik.
Five hospitals were approved as sites for implanting the AbioCor.
The others were Brigham & Women's and Massachusetts General in Boston;
Hahnemann University Hospital in Philadelphia; the Texas Heart Institute
in Houston; and the UCLA Medical Center in Los Angeles.
SURVIVES LONGER THAN EXPECTED.
[< Robert Tools,
center, the recipient of the first totally self-contained artificial
heart, addressed the media on 21 August 2001 alongside his surgeons
Drs. Laman Gray Jr., left, and Robert Dowling.]
than six weeks after he received the experimental device, Robert Tools,
59, a former telephone company employee and teacher, is introduced
to the news media via closed circuit television at Jewish Hospital
in Louisville. "I had a choice to stay home and die or come here and
take a chance," said Robert Tools of Franklin, Kentucky. "I decided
to come here and take a chance." advertisement "I asked for it because
I knew I had no more chances to survive," said Tools, who appeared
frail and spoke with an airy voice while holding his throat because
of a tracheotomy. Tools smiled as he said the whirring sound of the
device took some getting used to, but he liked it because he knew
he was alive.
Tools, a diabetic
with a history of heart problems, was deemed too ill to receive a
heart transplant. Before the surgery, he was so weak he could take
only a few steps at a time and couldn't raise his head to talk to
his doctors. Tools was given only a slight chance of surviving 30
days. Tools moved to Kentucky from Colorado in 1996 hoping to receive
a transplant, but he grew so weak he could barely cross the street.
BUT HE SUFFERS A STROKE ON 11 NOVEMBER 2001
Robert Tools suffers a stroke in the afternoon of 11 November and
is put back on a ventilator at Jewish Hospital.
AND DIES ON 30 NOVEMBER 2001.
dies on 30 November 2001, having lived with the artificial heart for
151 days, much longer than his estimated life expectancy of 30 days
before the implantation operation and of 60 days after it. Tools began
bleeding on 10 November and his organs began failing later that night.
His abdominal bleeding was caused by continuous anti-coagulation problems
Tools had experienced since the surgery. His death was unrelated to
his 11 November stroke. The deterioration of his condition was not
caused by complications or any malfunction of the experimental AbioCor
heart device. Blood-thinning drugs are often given to patients to
prevent the clots that can cause strokes, but Tools could not be given
high doses, because such drugs can also cause internal bleeding. Doctors
had said early on that strokes were among the risks for the artificial
heart patients. The AbioCor was designed with a smooth plastic lining
to decrease the chance of blood clots forming.
2000 et tous les ans: Tous
les 2 juillet, la terre se trouve à son aphélie. Dans son
mouvement de rotation autour du Soleil, la Terre décrit une ellipse dont
le demi-grand axe est de 149'598'600 km. En janvier, la Terre est plus proche
du Soleil, soit 147'100'000 km (périhélie) et en Juillet, elle est la plus
éloignée, soit 152'100'000 km (aphélie). Cela fait une variation de 3,3%
dans l'intensité de la radiation solaire, négligeable par
rapport à la variation due à l'inclinaison de l'axe de la
1998 Un grupo de extremistas protestantes
incendia diez capillas católicas en Irlanda del Norte.
Electricity and phone service was knocked out for millions of customers
from Canada to the Southwest after power lines throughout the West failed
on a record-hot day.
1996 Seven years after they
had shot their parents to death in the family's Beverly Hills mansion, Lyle
and Erik Menendez were sentenced to life in prison without parole.
1995 La cadena comercial española Galerías Preciados
cierra sus puertas tras más de 60 años de actividad, absorbida por su eterno
competidor El Corte Inglés.
Unidos comunica a la OTAN la retirada de sus armas nucleares tácticas en
One millionth Corvette ^top^
Original Corvette engineer Zora
Arkus Duntov drives the one-millionth Chevrolet Corvette
off the assembly line in Bowling Green, Kentucky. The event is monumental
to both America's first sports car and the man that made the car possible.
Duntov was born in Belgium, the son
of Russian immigrants. He pursued an interest in motorcycle racing
and engineering until the outbreak of World War II, at which point
he joined the French Air Force. After the French surrender, Duntov
managed to secure exit visas to Spain for his entire family. He later
resettled in Manhattan, and started a performance engineering firm,
called Ardun, with his brother. The firm enjoyed a reputation for
quality, but eventually went out of business as the result of questionable
financial practices on the part of a third partner that Duntov and
his brother had taken on.
moved to England to work on the Allard sports car, which he co-drove
at Le Mans in 1952 and 1953. Duntov earned a reputation as an exacting
driver and engineer in the European tradition of performance car racing.
After witnessing the prototype Corvette on display at the 1953 Motorama
in New York City, he decided to join Chevrolet. While Duntov was visually
taken by the car, he expressed dismay at what lay under the hood.
He wrote Chevrolet chief engineer Ed Cole and offered his services
to improve the Corvette, including with his note a technical paper
outlining his plan to increase the Corvette's performance capabilities.
Chevrolet was so impressed that engineer Maurice Olley, then in charge
of the Corvette, offered Duntov a position as a staff engineer.
Soon after arriving at Chevrolet, Duntov
set the tone for his career at the company by distributing a paper
to his superiors entitled "Thoughts Pertaining to Youth, Hot Rodders,
and Chevrolet." The paper laid the foundation for a strategy to create
both racing and performance parts programs for Chevy. It was his desire
that the Corvette measure itself against the best sports cars in the
world: Porsche, Ferrari, and Mercedes.
He helped develop the small-block V-8 engine to increase the little
Corvette's power; he introduced the Duntov high-lift cam-shaft; and
he introduced fuel injection, seeing the Corvette through from its
inauspicious beginnings to its triumphant end. He created the Corvette
Grand Sport Program in 1963, making the Corvette competitive on all
levels of international performance competition. Duntov also helped
to build the Corvette culture, appearing at Corvette shows, clubs,
and rallies all over the US He retired from Chevrolet in 1975, but
Duntov's legacy will stay alive as long as Corvettes roam the open
1991 A European Community-brokered truce between Yugoslavia
and the breakaway republic of Slovenia was shattered as the federal army
battled Slovene militias.
Stephen Hawkings breaks British bestseller records
Theoretical physicist Stephen Hawkings breaks British publishing records
on this day in 1992. His book, A Brief History of Time, has
been on the nonfiction bestseller list for three and a half years,
selling more than 3 million copies in 22 languages. A Brief History
of Time explains the latest theories on the origins of the universe
in language accessible to educated lay people.
The book was made into an acclaimed documentary in 1992, which focused
largely on Hawkings' own story. Diagnosed with Lou Gehrig's disease
in his 20s, Hawkings was told he had only two years to live. Despite
the sobering prognosis, Hawkings pursued his studies in theoretical
physics, married, and had a son. Eventually, his disease left him
paralyzed except for his left hand. He was able to speak, although
his speech was difficult to understand, until he underwent a tracheotomy
in 1985 during a bout with pneumonia. Afterward, he relied on a mouse-controlled
voice synthesizer, which improved the clarity of his speech.
1990 Imelda Marcos (on her 61st birthday) & Adnan Khashoggi
found not guilty of racketeering
The US Commerce Department announces a standard to protect electronic
documents from tampering. The method, developed jointly with the National
Security Agency, would make it impossible to alter some documents
by creating an "electronic signature." The Commerce Department hopes
that the measure will encourage the use of electronic documents in
1986 Se inicia
en Chile la primera jornada de huelga general contra Pinochet.
Andrei Gromiko es nombrado presidente del Soviet Supremo de la URSS y sustituido
en la cartera de Exteriores por Eduard Shevardnadze.
US Supreme Court rules death penalty not inherently cruel or unusual
1976 Formal reunification of North & South Vietnam
1975 El Frente Polisario es expulsado de Mauritania.
de la République Socialiste du Vietnam.
Actuellement, elle approche les 75 millions d’habitants. La démographie
est importante, même si elle a subi une diminution importante lors
des guerres d’indépendance, contre les Japonais (40 - 45) contre les
Français (45 - 56) et contre les Américains (56 - 76). De même les
nouvelles conditions de vie, exode vers les villes et urbanisation
galopante, industrialisation forcée, ouverture au monde capitaliste,
retour de la propriété privée, ont contribué à fléchir le taux de
Le régime politique
reste "Communiste", un anachronisme peut-être, mais qui semblait convenir
à ce peuple qui a essayé de penser ses plaies sans l’aide des Occidentaux,
et sans aide importante de la part du bloc Communiste. Depuis 5 ans,
une réforme constitutionnelle amorce un virage prudent vers l’économie
de marché, mais la gérontocratie gouvernementale, malgré l’apport
de quelques conseillers et techniciens plus jeunes, reste puissante
et désireuse de ne pas "brûler" les étapes.
Ce pays vaut 10 fois la Belgique, il mesure plus de 331"000 km².
Il s’étend tout en longueur dans la partie orientale de la Péninsule
Indochinoise, avec une plaine à chaque extrémité. Il offre un peu
l’image d’un "fléau" d’épaule, une espèce de bambou qui soutiendrait
un sac de riz à chaque extrémité, car ces deux plaines sont deux deltas
très fertiles ; le delta du Sông Hông (fleuve rouge) au nord et du
Mékong (fleuve jaune) au sud.
Les 3 régions importantes sont le Tonkin au nord (capitale Hanoï),
l’Ammam au centre et la Cochinchine au sud (capitale Saïgon). Si les
plaines fertiles des deux deltas et du littoral au centre sont très
peuplées, les montagnes couvrent près des deux tiers du territoire
et la densité d’habitants y est faible.
Sur les plans philosophique et religieux, les Vietnamiens ont jadis
reçu de la Chine le bouddhisme Mahayana, le confucianisme et le taoïsme,
qui ont profondément marqué leur mentalité. Mais ils ont aussi pratiqué
des cultes autochtones, comme celui des ancêtres, célébré devant les
tablettes funéraires de l’autel familial, du génie gardien du village,
honoré dans le temple communal (d–ình), ceux de certains arbres, animaux
Aujourd’hui, le confucianisme
et le taoïsme sont en voie de disparition, les cultes locaux perdent
de plus en plus d’adeptes, mais le bouddhisme (amidisme et école du
Dhyana) fait preuve d’une grande vitalité et 80 % des Vietnamiens
déclarent y adhérer. Trois autres mouvements religieux comptent un
nombre notable de croyants ; ce sont le catholicisme (près de 2 millions
de baptisés) et, dans le Sud, les sectes Cao-–Dài (1,5 million de
fidèles) et Hoà-Ha’o.
1966 Francia realiza su primer experimento atómico en el
atolón de Mururoa.
US President Johnson signs Civil Rights Act
In a nationally televised White House ceremony, US President Lyndon
B. Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964 into law, after lobbying
hard for its passage. The act, which is the most sweeping civil rights
legislation passed by Congress since Reconstruction, prohibits racial
discrimination in employment and education, and outlaws racial segregation
in public facilities.
legislation comes ten years after the US Supreme Court ruled in Brown
v. Board of Education that racial segregation in public educational
facilities is unconstitutional. In the decade that followed the historic
decision, the Black civil rights movement made great strides in winning
federal support for integration, and in 1960, John F. Kennedy made
passage of a new civil rights bill one of the platforms of his successful
President Lyndon Johnson served as chairman of the President's Committee
on Equal Employment Opportunities, and, after the president was assassinated
on 22 November 1963, Johnson vowed to carry out Kennedy's proposals
for civil rights reform.
1959 Juan XXIII publica su primera encíclica Ad Petri
attack LBJ's Vietnam policy.
At a joint news conference, Senate Republican leader Everett Dirksen
(Illinois) and House Republican leader Charles Halleck (Indiana) say
that the Vietnam War will be a campaign issue because "Johnson's indecision
has made it one." President Lyndon B. Johnson had assumed office after
the assassination of John F. Kennedy on 22 November 1963. Kennedy
had supported Ngo Dinh Diem, the president of South Vietnam, who was
assassinated during a coup just before Kennedy was killed. The deaths
of both Diem and Kennedy provided an opportunity for the new administration
to undertake a reassessment of US policy toward Vietnam, but this
was not done. Johnson, who desperately wanted to push a set of social
reforms called the Great Society, was instead forced to focus on the
deteriorating situation in South Vietnam.
Caught in a dilemma, he later wrote: "If I...let the Communists take
over South Vietnam, then I would be seen as a coward and my nation
would be seen as an appeaser and we would both find it impossible
to accomplish anything for anybody anywhere in the entire globe."
Faced with having to do something about Vietnam, Johnson vacillated
as he and his advisers attempted to devise a viable course of action.
The situation changed in August 1964 when North Vietnamese torpedo
boats attacked US destroyers off the coast of North Vietnam. What
became known as the Tonkin Gulf incident led to the passage of the
Tonkin Gulf Resolution, which passed 416 to 0 in the House, and 88
to 2 in the Senate. This resolution, which gave the president approval
to "take all necessary measures to repel an armed attack against the
forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression," provided
the legal basis for President Johnson to initiate a major commitment
of US troops to South Vietnam, which ultimately totaled more than
540'000 by 1968.
1957 El senador demócrata J. F.
Kennedy solicita que su gobierno intervenga a favor de la independencia
1947 Dimite el Gobierno chileno y González
Videla forma un nuevo Ejecutivo con personalidades sin filiación política.
1944 Los alemanes bombardean Inglaterra con munición V-1,
los primeros misiles autopropulsados empleados en la historia bélica.
Union rejects Marshall Plan assistance
Soviet Foreign Minister V. M. Molotov walks out of a meeting with
representatives of the British and French governments, signaling the
Soviet Union's rejection of the Marshall Plan. Molotov's action indicated
that Cold War frictions between the United States and Russia were
intensifying. On 04 June 1947, Secretary of State George C. Marshall
gave a speech in which he announced that the United States was willing
to offer economic assistance to the war-torn nations of Europe to
help in their recovery. The Marshall Plan, as this program came to
be known, eventually provided billions of dollars to European nations
and helped stave off economic disaster in many of them. The Soviet
reaction to Marshall's speech was a stony silence. However, Foreign
Minister Molotov agreed to a meeting on 27 June with his British and
French counterparts to discuss the European reaction to the US offer.
Molotov immediately made clear
the Soviet objections to the Marshall Plan. First, it would include
economic assistance to Germany, and the Russians could not tolerate
such aid to the enemy that had so recently devastated the Soviet Union.
Second, Molotov was adamant in demanding that the Soviet Union have
complete control and freedom of action over any Marshall Plan funds
Germany might receive. Finally, the Foreign Minister wanted to know
precisely how much money the United States would give to each nation.
When it became clear that the
French and British representatives did not share his objections, Molotov
stormed out of the meeting on 02 July. In the following weeks, the
Soviet Union pressured its Eastern European allies to reject all Marshall
Plan assistance. That pressure was successful and none of the Soviet
satellites participated in the Marshall Plan. The Soviet press claimed
that the US program was "a plan for interference in the domestic affairs
of other countries." The United States ignored the Soviet action and,
in 1948, officially established the Marshall Plan and began providing
funds to other European nations. Publicly, US officials argued that
the Soviet stance was another indication that Russia intended to isolate
Eastern Europe from the West and enforce its Communist and totalitarian
doctrines in that region. From the Soviet perspective, however, its
refusal to participate in the Marshall Plan indicated its desire to
remain free from US "economic imperialism" and domination.
La Unión Soviética rechaza el plan Marshall mientras los representantes
francés y británico deciden proseguir su aplicación.
1940 Gonvernement ira à Vichy. C'est parce que Bordeaux
où le gouvernement s'est réfugié pendant la débâcle fait, depuis l'armistice,
partie de la France occupée, qu'il lui faut trouver dans la zone libre une
ville qui puisse l'accueillir ainsi que la Chambre. Le casino et les nombreux
hôtels de la station balnéaire qu'est Vichy offrent des conditions de vie
acceptables. Pétain y convoque le Parlement pour le 10 juillet prochain.
Mines, bombs, and leaflets on Budapest
As part of Operation Gardening, the British and US strategy to lay
mines in the Danube River by dropping them from the air, US aircraft
also drop bombs and leaflets on German-occupied Budapest. Hungarian
oil refineries and storage tanks, important to the German war machine,
were destroyed by the US air raid. Along with this fire from the sky,
leaflets threatening "punishment" for those responsible for the deportation
of Hungarian Jews to the gas chambers at Auschwitz were also dropped
on Budapest. The US government wanted the SS and Hitler to know it
Horthy, regent and virtual dictator of Hungary, vehemently antiCommunist
and afraid of Russian domination, had aligned his country with Hitler,
despite the fact that he little admired him. But he, too, demanded
that the deportations cease, especially since special pleas had begun
pouring in from around the world upon the testimonies of four escaped
Auschwitz prisoners about the atrocities there. Hitler, fearing a
Hungarian rebellion, stopped the deportations on 08 July. Horthy would
eventually try to extricate himself from the war altogether
only to be kidnapped by Hitler's agents and consequently forced to
One day after the deportations
stopped, a Swedish businessman, Raoul Wallenberg, having convinced
the Swedish Foreign Ministry to send him to the Hungarian capital
on a diplomatic passport, arrived in Budapest with 630 visas for Hungarian
Jews, prepared to take them to Sweden to save them from further deportations.
1926 US Army Air Corps created; Distinguish Flying Cross
Earhart lost: ^top^
The Lockheed aircraft carrying legendary
aviator Amelia Earhart and her copilot Frederick J. Noonan is reported
missing. In 1928, Earhart was the first woman to fly across the Atlantic
Ocean, and in 1932 she became the first female pilot to cross it solo.
She disappeared on the last leg of her global journey somewhere between
New Guinea and Howland Island in the South Pacific. Two radio amateurs
picked up a signal that she was low on fuel the last trace
the world would ever know of Amelia Earhart. New
York Times story (370703)
The Lockheed aircraft carrying US aviator Amelia Earhart and navigator
Frederick Noonan is reported missing near Howland Island in the Pacific.
The pair were attempting to fly around the world when they lost their
bearings during the most challenging leg of the global journey: Lae,
New Guinea, to Howland Island, a tiny island 2227 nautical miles away,
in the center of the Pacific Ocean. The US Coast Guard cutter Itasca
was in sporadic radio contact with Earhart as she approached Howland
Island and received messages that she was lost and running low on
fuel. Soon after, she probably tried to ditch the Lockheed in the
ocean. No trace of Earhart or Noonan was ever found.
Amelia Earhart was born in Atchison, Kansas, in 1897. She took up
aviation at the age of 24 and later gained publicity as one of the
earliest female aviators. In 1928, the publisher George P. Putnam
invited her to become the first woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean.
The previous year, Charles A. Lindbergh had flown solo nonstop across
the Atlantic, and Putnam had made a fortune off Lindbergh's autobiographical
book We. In June 1928, Earhart and two men flew from Newfoundland,
Canada, to Wales, Great Britain. Although Earhart's only function
during the crossing was to keep the plane's log, the flight won her
great fame, and people in the US were enamored of the daring young
pilot. The three were honored with a ticker-tape parade in New York,
and "Lady Lindy," as Earhart was dubbed, was given a White House reception
by President Calvin Coolidge.
Earhart wrote a book about the flight for Putnam, whom she married
in 1931, and gave lectures and continued her flying career under her
maiden name. On 20 May 1932 she took off alone from Newfoundland in
a Lockheed Vega on the first solo nonstop transatlantic flight by
a woman. She was bound for Paris but was blown off course and landed
in Ireland on May 21 after flying more than 3000 km in just under
15 hours. It was the fifth anniversary of Lindbergh's historic flight,
and before Earhart no one had attempted to repeat his solo transatlantic
flight. For her achievement, she was awarded the Distinguished Flying
Cross by Congress. Three months later, Earhart became the first woman
to fly solo nonstop across the continental United States.
In 1935, in the first flight of its kind, she flew solo from Wheeler
Field in Honolulu to Oakland, California, winning a $10'000 award
posted by Hawaiian commercial interests. Later that year, she was
appointed a consultant in careers for women at Purdue University,
and the school bought her a modern Lockheed Electra aircraft to be
used as a "flying laboratory."
On March 17, 1937, she took off from Oakland and flew west on an around-the-world
attempt. It would not be the first global flight, but it would be
the longest 47'000 km, following an equatorial route. Aboard
her Lockheed were Frederick Noonan, her navigator and a former Pan
American pilot, and co-pilot Harry Manning. After resting and refueling
in Honolulu, the trio prepared to resume the flight. However, while
taking off for Howland Island, Earhart ground-looped the plane on
the runway, perhaps because of a blown tire, and the Lockheed was
seriously damaged. The flight was called off, and the aircraft was
shipped back to California for repairs.
In May, Earhart flew the newly rebuilt plane to Miami, from where
Noonan and she would make a new around-the-world attempt, this time
from west to east. They left Miami on 01 June, and after stops in
South America, Africa, India, and Southeast Asia, they arrived at
Lae, New Guinea, on 29 June. About 35'000 km of the journey had been
completed, and the last 11'000 km would all be over the Pacific Ocean.
The next destination was Howland Island, a tiny US-owned island that
was just a few miles long. The US Department of Commerce had a weather
observation station and a landing strip on the island, and the staff
was ready with fuel and supplies. Several US ships, including the
Coast Guard cutter Itasca, were deployed to aid Earhart and Noonan
in this difficult leg of their journey.
As the Lockheed approached Howland Island, Earhart radioed the Itasca
and explained that she was low on fuel. However, after several hours
of frustrating attempts, two-way communication was only briefly established,
and the Itasca was unable to pinpoint the Lockheed's location or offer
navigational information. Earhart circled the Itasca's position but
was unable to sight the ship, which was sending out miles of black
smoke. She radioed "one-half hour fuel and no landfall" and later
tried to give information on her position. Soon after, contact was
lost, and Earhart presumably tried to land the Lockheed on the water.
If her landing on the water was perfect,
Earhart and Noonan might have had time to escape the aircraft with
a life raft and survival equipment before it sank. An intensive search
of the vicinity by the Coast Guard and US Navy found no physical evidence
of the fliers or their plane. Additional searches through the years
have likewise failed to find any trace of the Lockheed or of Earhart
and Noonan, who almost certainly perished at sea.
1917 Jozef Pilsudski dimite del Consejo de Estado Polaco
en protesta por la tutela a que se ve sometido este órgano por las administraciones
militares alemana y austro-húngara. Los alemanes, en represalia, le hacen
|1917 First plane-to-ground phone
phone call from an airplane is received at Langley Field, Virginia.
The call, placed from an airplane three kilometers away, come through
loud and clear: Unfortunately, the plane can only transmit, not receive,
the call. The first two-way, ground-to-air conversation would occur
the following month.
1912 Bulgaria, Serbia y Grecia firman un convenio militar
|1914 Thursday : in the aftermath
of the June 28 assassination in Sarajevo of Archduke Francis Ferdinand
of Austria-Hungary and of his wife, Sophia: Emperor
Franz Josef sends a letter to Kaiser
Wilhelm II thanking him for his condolences regarding the Archduke's
death. The letter contains undertones of the actions to follow.
text of the letter]
1905 Entra en vigor en Francia
una ley que limita el horario laboral de los menores a nueve horas.
1894 Government obtains injunction against striking Pullman
Zeppelin demonstrates airship
In the sky over Germany's Lake Constance, Count Ferdinand Graf von
Zeppelin, a retired Prussian army officer, successfully demonstrated
the world's first rigid airship. The 128-meter, cigar-shaped LZ-1
is lifted by hydrogen gas and powered by a sixteen-horsepower engine.
Zeppelin had first become interested
in lighter-than-air travel in 1863, when as a military observer in
the US Civil War he had made several ascents in Union observation
balloons. In 1891, he retired from the Prussian army to devote himself
to the building of motor-driven dirigibles, and in 1900 he successfully
tested his first airship. Although a French inventor had built a power-driven
airship several decades before, the Zeppelin's rigid dirigible, with
its steel framework, was by far the largest airship ever constructed.
Size, however, was exchanged for safety as the heavy steel-framed
airships were vulnerable to explosion because they had to be lifted
by highly flammable hydrogen gas, instead of non-flammable helium
During World War I, several
"Zeppelins," as all rigid airships became popularly known, were used
by the Germans in bombing missions over Britain. After the war, commercial
passenger service increased, and one of the most famous rigid airships,
the Graf Zeppelin, traveled around the world in 1929. In the 1930s,
the Graf Zeppelin also pioneered the first transatlantic air service,
leading to the construction of the largest dirigible ever built: the
On 06 May 1937, at
the end of its maiden voyage across the Atlantic, the Hindenburg burst
into flames upon touching its mooring mast in Lakehurst, New Jersey,
killing thirty-six passengers and crew [however a recent theory
is that the hydrogen was not responsible but the envelope of the airship,
with a flammable coating including aluminum powder, caught fire from
static electricity, while the hydrogen vented harmlessly upward].
Lighter-than-air passenger travel rapidly fell out of favor after
the Hindenberg disaster, and no existing rigid airship survived World
Lock-out at Carnegie's plant ^top^
By the late nineteenth century, the
workers at Andrew Carnegie's Homestead, PA plant had eked out a modicum
of power. They won a key strike in 1889, and in the process became
a potent unit of the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers.
Still, these victories hardly erased the harsh working conditions
at the Homestead mills. Nor did they mean that the Carnegie Company
was pleased with or readily recognized the union. Ever mindful of
Amalgamated's potentially deleterious impact on his profit margins,
Andrew Carnegie looked to erode the power of the union.
In 1892, the company made its move against Amalgamated, though not
with Carnegie at the helm: the steel baron had departed for a vacation
in Scotland, leaving the task of smashing the union in the hands of
his partner, Henry Clay Frick. Frick took his mission all too seriously:
after refusing to renew the company's contract with Amalgamated, he
dug in for war, erecting a three-mile long steel wire fence around
the plant. Frick also enlisted the aid of the Pinkerton Detective
agency, which sent three hundred men to Homestead to ensure the plant's
transition to non-union workers. Amalgamated's leaders responded in
kind, lining up scores of workers, as well as a good chunk of the
town, to wage battle against the plant.
The showdown begins in earnest on 02 July as Frick halted work at
Homestead until the plant was staffed entirely by non-union workers.
Three days later, the Homestead affair turned bloody, as the Pinkerton
agents made their first appearance on the scene. Attempting to reach
the plant via the Monongahela River, the agents were met by Amalgamated's
forces; the two sides engaged in a long and vicious battle that left
nine strikers and seven agents dead. Despite the losses, Amalgamated's
motley army was able to turn back the detectives.
Sensing that they were on the verge of disaster, officials for Carnegie
enlisted the aid of the Pennsylvania Government. And, on 09 July,
1892, the state sends 7000 troops to Homestead to "restore law and
order." The militia effectively squelched Amalgamated's strike: the
troops helped the Carnegie restaff its plant with non-union workers
and by September, the Carnegie company would have resumed production.
Later that November, the union conceded defeat and called off its
strike; Carnegie responded by summarily firing and even blacklisting
1885 Canada's North-west Insurrection ends with surrender
of Big Bear
Sherman Anti-Trust Act ^top^
The federal government tackled the
rising specter of outsized business conglomerations by passing the
Sherman Anti-Trust Act. Sponsored by Ohio Senator John Sherman, the
bill is designed as a direct strike against "every contract, combination
in the form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy, in restraint of
trade of commerce among the several States, or with foreign nations."
Along with attempting to block
the future creation of monopolies, the Sherman Anti-Trust Act also
calls for existing monopolies to be disbanded. But, such seemingly
strong tactics betray the bill's weak language. Written by Senator
George Hoar (Mississippi) and Senator George F. Edmunds (Vermont),
the Sherman Act is fraught with ambiguous terms like "trust," leaving
it ripe for exploitation by both litigious business officials and
savvy attorneys. Sure enough, the ensuing years would see anti-labor
forces manipulate the bill in their crusade against organized labor
unions. In 1894, these anti-labor efforts were legally sanctioned
by the Supreme Court which ruled in United States v. Debs
that the Sherman Act did indeed cover unions, as well as hulking business
1876 Se promulga en España la Constitución de 1876. (Véase
español y Historia
de España: 1875-1931).
US President shot and incapacited. Is the VP promoted?
only four months in office, while on his way to visit his ill wife
in Elberon, New Jersey, President James A. Garfield, 49, is shot in
the back and the arm at the Baltimore & Potomac railroad station in
Washington, D.C., by Charles J. Guiteau, , a mentally disturbed man,
who had been tracking President Garfield for a while. When Garfield
was running for office, Guiteau sent him a deranged speech to read
to his audience. Not surprisingly, Garfield never read the speech,
but Guiteau insisted that it was instrumental in getting him elected
and demanded the position of ambassador to France in return.
Since the White House did not have
standard security in place at this time, Guiteau became a frequent
visitor and even met the president on one occasion. He began to harass
the secretary of state every day about the ambassador position. When
he was summarily rejected, Guiteau decided to seek revenge by shooting
the president. He later told authorities that he followed Garfield
for weeks, once sitting directly behind him at church. After checking
out the prisons in Washington DC, to make sure the accommodations
would suit him, Guiteau makes his attack on the president on 02 July.
Guiteau peaceably surrendered to police, calmly announcing, "I am
a Stalwart. Arthur is now president of the United States."
With the bullet lodged near his pancreas,
Garfield, mortally ill, was treated in Washington and then taken to
the seashore at Elberon, New Jersey, where he attempted to recuperate
with his family. For 80 days he performed only one official act
the signing of an extradition paper. It was generally agreed that,
in such cases, the vice president was empowered by the Constitution
to assume the powers and duties of the office of president. But should
he serve merely as acting president until Garfield recovered, or would
he receive the office itself and thus displace his predecessor?
Because of an ambiguity in the Constitution,
opinion was divided, and, because Congress was not in session, the
problem could not be debated there. On 02 September 1881, the matter
came before a cabinet meeting, where it was finally agreed that no
action would be taken without first consulting Garfield. But in the
opinion of the doctors this was impossible, and no further action
was taken before the death of the president, the result of slow blood
poisoning, on 19 September.
following day, Arthur was inaugurated as the twenty-first president
of the United States. Garfield had three funerals: one in Elberon,
another in Washington, where his body rested in state in the Capitol
for three days, and a third in Cleveland, Ohio, where he was buried.
Charles Guiteau's murder trial began
in November. Despite strong indications of insanity, prosecutors would
tried him for murder. Acting as his own attorney during the 10-week
trial, Guiteau screamed incessantly and sometimes danced around the
courtroom. But the court did not put a stop to his antics, even after
he called the prosecutors "dirty liars." During his closing argument,
he claimed that God had told him to kill the president. When the jury
pronounced him guilty of murder, Guiteau shouted at them, "You are
all low, consummate jackasses!" Guiteau was hanged on 30 June 1882.
Two hundred spectators at the jail watched as hundreds more gathered
outside. From the gallows, Guiteau recited a poem in a high, childlike
voice, "I am going to the Lordy, I am so glad."
Manuel II, primer [entonces ¿porqué el II]
rey de Italia, entra en el palacio del Quirinal, antigua residencia papal.
1864 The US Congress passes the Wade-Davis Bill,
requiring a majority of a seceded state's white citizens to take an oath
of loyalty to the Constitution and guarantee black equality, but President
Abraham Lincoln pocket vetoes the harsh plan for dealing with the defeated
1864 General Early & Confederate
forces reach Winchester
1863 Morgan's raiders cross
the Cumberland River near Burkesville, Kentucky
Battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania continues
Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
Land Grant Act approved by President Lincoln
Partial emancipation of Russian serfs
en Cataluña la primera huelga
general realizada en España, que duró ocho días.
Portugal decreta la abolición de la pena
de muerte por motivos políticos.
bearing the 1st US 10 cent stamps, still exists today
An alligator falls from the sky during a Charleston SC thunderstorm
1798 Napoleón Bonaparte dirige una expedición militar francesa
en Egipto y toma Alejandría al asalto. (Batalla de las Pirámides.)
Tecumseh urges Amerindians to fight for their land.
Alarmed by the growing encroachment
of whites squatting on Amerindian lands, the Shawnee Chief Tecumseh
calls on all Indians to unite and resist. Born around 1768 near Springfield,
Ohio, Tecumseh early won notice as a brave warrior. He fought in battles
between the Shawnee and the white Kentuckians, who were invading the
Ohio River Valley territory. After the US Army won several important
battles in the mid-1790s, Tecumseh reluctantly relocated westward
but remained an implacable foe of the white men and their ways. By
the early 19th century, many Shawnee and other Ohio Valley Indians
were becoming increasingly dependent on trading with the US invaders
for guns, cloth, and metal goods. Tecumseh spoke out against such
dependence and called for a return to traditional Indian ways. He
was even more alarmed by the continuing encroachment of white settlers
illegally settling on the already diminished government-recognized
land holdings of the Shawnee and other tribes. The US government,
however, was reluctant to take action against its own citizens to
protect the rights of the Ohio Valley Indians. On this day in 1809,
Tecumseh began a concerted campaign to persuade the Indians of the
Old Northwest and Deep South to unite and resist. Together, Tecumseh
argued, the various tribes had enough strength to stop the whites
from taking further land. Heartened by this message of hope, Indians
from as far away as Florida and Minnesota heeded Tecumseh's call.
By 1810, he had organized the Ohio Valley Confederacy, which united
Indians from the Shawnee, Potawatomi, Kickapoo, Winnebago, Menominee,
Ottawa, and Wyandot nations. For several years, Tecumseh's Indian
Confederacy successfully delayed further white settlement in the region.
In 1811, however, the future president William Henry Harrison led
an attack on the confederacy's base on the Tippecanoe River. At the
time, Tecumseh was in the South attempting to convince more tribes
to join his movement. Although the battle of Tippecanoe was close,
Harrison finally won out and destroyed much of Tecumseh's army. When
the War of 1812 began the following year, Tecumseh immediately marshaled
what remained of his army to aid the British. Commissioned a brigadier
general, he proved an effective ally and played a key role in the
British capture of Detroit and other battles. When the tide of war
turned in the favor of the US, Tecumseh's fortunes went down with
those of the British. On October 5, 1813, he was killed during Battle
of the Thames. His Ohio Valley Confederacy and vision of Indian unity
died with him.
1787 de Sade shouts from Bastille that prisoners are
1777 Vermont becomes 1st American
colony to abolish slavery
1776 Continental Congress
resolves "these United Colonies are & of right ought to be Free & Independent
1652 Bataille de la porte Saint-Antoine
(Paris) entre Turenne et Condé. Les troupes de Condé sont sauvées par la
duchesse de Montpensier (cousine de Louis XIV) qui leur fait ouvrir les
portes de Paris. El Congreso Continental norteamericano ratifica
su decisión de separarse de Inglaterra.
1648 Le roi fait
des réformes. Devant le Parlement réuni, Saint Louis fait donner
la lecture d'un texte. Les membres du Parlement sont étonnés par les vingt-sept
articles dont le contenu peut passer pour être révolutionnaire. Les impôts
sont diminués. Les intendants sont rappelés. L'habeas corpus est
établi à l'exemple de l'Angleterre.
of Marston Moor; Parliamentary forces defeat royalists
0310 or 311 Saint
Miltiades is elected 32nd pope. During his pontificate, Christianity
was finally tolerated by Rome, following the Emperor Constantine's conversion
to the Christian faith.
Michel de L'Hospital, chancelier conciliateur
La place de chancelier du royaume est vacante depuis la mort d'Olivier
, mort de chagrin (?). Celui-ci avait dû juger les conjurés d'Amboise
qui avaient voulu soustraire le roi à l'influence du très catholique
Guise, il ne s'en serait pas remis moralement. Les partisans de Condé
qui ont participé à cette conjuration ont été pendus, décapités, noyés
dans la Loire. Catherine de Médicis trouve qu'il est temps d'apaiser
les esprits. Elle impose à son fils, François II, Michel de L'Hospital
pour cette charge. Il est catholique. Il est modéré. Il est humaniste.
Il ne tarde pas à en faire la preuve. Lors des Etats généraux qui
se tiennent à Orléans en décembre 1561 il déclare : " Otons ces mots
diaboliques, noms de partis, de factions, de séditions, luthériens,
huguenots, papistes : ne gardons que le nom de chrétiens. "