a 25 July:
2002 The stock of electric utility Reliant Energy (REI) is upgraded by Banc of America Securities from Market Perform to Buy. The stock recovers from its 24 July intraday low of $4.23 and close of $5.41 to an intraday high of $8.81 and closes at $8.80. On 23 July it had already plunged from an intraday high of $13.34 to an intraday low of $7.52 and closed at $7.91. REI is still much below its price at any time before July 2002 and its high of $50.02 on 30 April 2001. [3~year price chart >]
2000 The Middle East summit at Camp David collapses.
1999 Mathematician Dr. John Cosgrave, of St. Patrick's College, Dublin, Ireland, announces that he has discovered that the 382'447th Fermat number F382'447, 2n+ 1 where n is the 115'128-digit number 2382'447, has the prime factor 3 x 2382'449 + 1. In August 1640, Fermat [17 Aug 1601 – 12 Jan 1665] had guessed that all the numbers of the form 2n+ 1 where n is the pth power of 2 (since called Fermat numbers, Fp), are prime, as he observed to be the case for F0, F1, F2, F3 and F4: 3, 5, 17, 257, 65537, and thought that he had almost proved in general. He was wrong. In 1732 Euler [15 Apr 1707 – 18 Sep 1783] discovered that P5, 2n+ 1 where n = 25, which is 4'294'967'297, has the prime factorization 641 x 6'700'417. In 1854 Clausen [16 Jan 1801 – 23 May 1885] proved that F6, the 6th Fermat number 2n+ 1 where n = 26, 18'446'744'073'709'551'617 is not a prime; and on 07 July 1880 Landry [1798–] wrote to Lucas [04 Apr 1842 – 03 Oct 1891] that is the product of 67'280'421'310'721 with the prime 274'177. It was only in 1970 that F7, the 7th Fermat number (2n+ 1 where n = 27), 340'282'366'920'938'463'463'374'607'431'768'211'457, was prime factorized as (116'503'103'764'643 x 29 + 1) x (11'141'971'095'088'142'685 x 29 + 1) which is 59'649'589'127'497'217 x 5'704'689'200'685'129'054'721, though it had been proved not to be a prime more than 60 years earlier. By the time Cosgraves announces his discovery, no Fermat number has been proved to be a prime beyond the 4th (2n+ 1 where n = 24 , i.e. 216+ 1 = 65'537), but some, all smaller than Cosgrave's, have been proved not to be prime, including all Fp with 4 < p <23 (but no factor of F14, F20, or F22 has yet been found).
1996 AT&T says that it will promote Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser. In return, Microsoft will grant the company access to tens of millions of potential subscribers by building AT&T's Internet provider service into all copies of Windows 95
1994 El rey Hussein de Jordania y el primer ministro israelí, Isaac Rabin, firman en Washington una reconciliación histórica que pone fin a 46 años en estado de guerra entre los dos países. The Middle East summit at Camp David collapsed.
1991 El Gobierno de Guatemala y la guerrilla suscriben en Querétaro (México) un acuerdo para lograr la democratización del país.
1990 US Ambassador tells Iraq, US won't take sides in Iraq-Kuwait dispute
1989 El diputado socialista español Enrique Barón es elegido presidente del Parlamento Europeo.
1983 1st nonhuman primate (baboon) conceived in a lab dish, San Antonio
1981 Voyager 2 encounters Saturn
1979 Israel devuelve a Egipto 60 km2 de la península del Sinaí.
1979 El Gobierno de Nicaragua nacionaliza la banca y las empresas financieras.
1972 US health officials concede Blacks were used as guinea pigs in unethical 40 year syphillis experiment.
|1969 US's Vietnamization policy is
President Richard Nixon, at a briefing in Guam for the news media accompanying him on his trip to Asia, discusses at length the future role the United States should play in Asia and the Pacific region after the conclusion of the Vietnam War. Nixon said that while the United States would continue to have primary responsibility for the defense of its allies against nuclear attack, the noncommunist Asian nations would have to bear the burden of their own defense against conventional attack and assume responsibility for internal security. The president's remarks were nicknamed the "Nixon Doctrine."
President Richard Nixon announces that henceforth the United States will expect its Asian allies to tend to their own military defense. The Nixon Doctrine, as the president's statement came to be known, clearly indicated his determination to "Vietnamize" the Vietnam War. When Richard Nixon took office in early 1969, the United States had been at war in Vietnam for nearly four years. The bloody conflict had already claimed the lives of more than 25'000 US soldiers and countless Vietnamese. Despite its best efforts, the United States was no closer to victory than before. At home, antiwar protesters were a constant presence in US cities and on college campuses.
Nixon campaigned in 1968 with the promise of "peace with honor" in Vietnam. In July 1969, an important part of his plan for Vietnam became evident. During a stopover in Guam during a multination tour, the president issued a statement. It was time, he declared, for the United States to be "quite emphatic on two points" in dealing with its Asian allies. First, he assured the US's friends in Asia that "We will keep our treaty commitments." However, "as far as the problems of military defense, except for the threat of a major power involving nuclear weapons," the United States would be adopting a different stance. In relation to military defense, the US would now "encourage and has a right to expect that this problem will be increasingly handled by, and the responsibility for it taken by, the Asian nations themselves." He concluded that his recent talks with several Asian leaders indicated, "They are going to be willing to undertake this responsibility."
The Nixon Doctrine marked the formal announcement of the president's "Vietnamization" plan, whereby US troops would be slowly withdrawn from the conflict in Southeast Asia and be replaced by South Vietnamese troops. Over the course of his first term in office, Nixon held true to this doctrine by withdrawing a substantial portion of America's fighting forces from Vietnam. In 1973, the United States and North Vietnam signed a peace treaty formally bringing the Vietnam War to a conclusion. Two years later, North Vietnamese forces crushed the South Vietnamese army and succeeded in reuniting the divided country under a communist regime.
| 1968 Pope Paul
VI issues his Encyclical Humanae
the Regulation of Birth) — translations [English,
1963 US, Russia & England sign nuclear test ban treaty
1962 Los representantes de los 14 países que celebran en Ginebra la conferencia de desarme acuerdan la neutralidad de Laos.
1959 Vice President Richard Nixon squares off against Soviet Premier Nikita Khruschev during the so-called Kitchen debate in Moscow.
1957 Monarchy in Tunisa abolished in favor of a republic Proclamación de la República en Túnez, tras 250 años de monarquía.
1956 Jordanians attack UN Palestine truce.
1953 NYC transit fare rises from 10 cents to 15 cents, 1st use of subway tokens.
1952 1952, Puerto Rico becomes a self-governing commonwealth of the United States. (Constitution Day) Se promulga la Constitución de Puerto Rico como Estado libre Asociado de los EEUU.
1950 Se inicia la Guerra de Corea.
1947 US Air Force, Navy, and War Department are united to form the US Department of Defense, under which the US Department of the Army is created.
1946 Se celebra la conferencia de Londres, intento británico de reunir a David Ben Gurión y a Hadj Ahmed para solucionar pacíficamente la convivencia entre palestinos y hebreos.
1946 1st bikini is shown at a Paris fashion show
1946 US detonates underwater A-bomb at Bikini Atoll (5th atomic explosion, 1st underwater).
1944 1st jet fighter used in combat (Messerschmitt 262)
|1943 Fascists have king dismiss Mussolini
With American and British forces racing across Sicily, Benito Mussolini, fascist dictator of Italy, is voted out of power by his own Grand Council and arrested upon leaving a meeting with King Vittorio Emanuele, who tells Il Duce that the war is lost. Mussolini responded to it all with an uncharacteristic meekness.
During the evening of 24 July and the early hours of 25 July, the Grand Council of the fascist government met to discuss the immediate future of Italy. While all in attendance were jittery about countermanding their leader, Mussolini was sick, tired, and overwhelmed by the military reverses suffered by the Italian military. He seemed to be looking for a way out of power. One of the more reasonable within the Council, Dino Grandi, argued that the dictatorship had brought Italy to the brink of military disaster, elevated incompetents to levels of power, and alienated large portions of the population. He proposed a vote to transfer some of the leader's power to the king. The motion was passed, with Mussolini barely reacting.
While some extremists balked, and would later try to convince Mussolini to have those who voted with Grandi arrested, Il Duce was simply paralyzed, unable to choose any course of action. Shortly after the Grand Council vote, Mussolini, groggy and unshaven, kept his routine 20-minute meeting with the king, during which he normally updated Victor Emanuele on the current state of affairs. This morning, the king informs Mussolini that General Pietro Badoglio would assume the powers of prime minister and that the war is all but lost for the Italians. Mussolini offers no objection.
Upon leaving the meeting, he is arrested by the police, who had been secretly planning a pretext to remove the leader for quite some time. They now had the Council vote of "no confidence" as their formal rationale. Assured of his personal safety, Mussolini acquiesced to this too, as he had to everything else leading up to this pitiful denouement. When news of Mussolini's arrest was made public, relief seemed to be the prevailing mood. There was no attempt by fellow fascists to rescue him from the penal settlement on the island of Ponza to which he was committed. The only remaining question was whether Italy would continue to fight alongside its German allies or surrender to the Allies.
Benito Mussolini, an Italian World War I veteran and publisher of Socialist newspapers, broke with the Italian Socialists in 1919 to establish the nationalist Fasci di Combattimento. Commonly known as the Fascist party, Mussolini's new, right-wing organization advocated Italian nationalism, had black shirts for uniforms, and launched a program of terrorism and intimidation against its leftist opponents. On 28 October 1922, Mussolini led the Fascists on a march on Rome, and King Emmanuel, who had little faith in Italy's parliamentary government, asked Mussolini to form a new government.
Initially, Mussolini, who was appointed prime minister at the head of three-member Fascist cabinet, cooperated with the Italian parliament, but, with the assistance of his brutal police organization, he soon became the effective dictator of Italy. In 1924, a socialist backlash was suppressed, and, on 03 January 1925, the Fascist State was officially proclaimed with Mussolini as Il Duce.
Although Mussolini appealed to Italy's former Western allies for new treaties, his brutal 1935 invasion of Ethiopia ended all hope of alliance with the Western democracies. In 1936, Mussolini joined Nazi leader Adolf Hitler in his support of Francisco Franco's Nationalist forces in the Spanish Civil War, prompting the signing of a treaty of cooperation in foreign policy between Italy and Nazi Germany in 1937.
Although Hitler's Nazi revolution was modeled after the rise of Mussolini and the Italian Fascist Party, Fascist Italy and its Il Duce proved overwhelmingly the weaker partner in the Berlin-Rome Axis during World War II.
In July of 1943, the failure of the Italian war effort and the imminent invasion of the Italian mainland by the Allies led to a rebellion within the Fascist party. On 24 July, two days after the fall of Palermo, the Fascist Grand Council rejected the policy dictated by Hitler through Mussolini, and the next day, Il Duce was arrested. On 26 July , Fascist Marshal Pietro Badoglio took over the reins of the Italian government.
On 03 September the Italian government surrendered unconditionally to the Allies, but on 12 September German commandos freed Mussolini from his prison in the Abruzzi Mountains. He subsequently became the puppet leader of German-controlled Northern Italy. However, with the collapse of Nazi Germany in April of 1945, Mussolini was captured by Italian partisans. On 29 April, after a brief court-martial, Mussolini and his mistress Clara Petacci were executed by firing squad. Their bodies, brought to Milan, were hanged by their feet in a public square for all the world to see.
| 1941 The US government freezes Japanese and Chinese
1938 Guerra Civil española: Comienza la batalla del Ebro, que duró cuatro meses y fue ganada por los nacionales.
1936 Guerra Civil española: Fuerzas republicanas recuperan Albacete y Lérida, en principio a favor de los sublevados.
1933 Record high temperature in Japan: 41ºC in Yamagata, on "Doyo Ushi no Hi" a day determined by the ancient solar calendar as the hottest, celebrated yearly by eating eels, thought to offer relief from the heat.
1914 Austria rompe relaciones diplomáticas con Serbia y tres días más tarde la invade, lo que se desencadena la Primera Guerra Mundial.
1909 French aviator Louis Blériot becomes the first person to fly across the English Channel in an airplane (a monoplane), from Calais to Dover in 37 minutes. Louis Blériot, a bordo del aeroplano Blériot XI, logra cruzar el Canal de la Mancha en poco más de media hora.
London sails for the Klondike
Jack London, 21, (actual name John Griffith Chaney), leaves for the Klondike to join the gold rush, where he will write his first successful stories. London was born in San Francisco on 12 January 1876. His father, an astrologer named Chaney, abandoned the family, and his unwed mother, a spiritualist and music teacher, married a Mr. London, whose last name. Jack assumed. From the age of 14, London dropped out of school and struggled to make a living, working in a cannery and as a sailor, oyster pirate, and fish patroller.
During the national economic crisis of 1893, he joined a march of unemployed workers. He was jailed for vagrancy for a month, during which time he decided to go to college. The 17-year-old London completed a high school equivalency course and enrolled at the University of California at Berkeley, where he read voraciously for a year. However, he dropped out to join the 1897 gold rush.
While in the Klondike, London began submitting stories to magazines. In 1900, his first collection of stories, The Son of the Wolf, was published. Three years later, his story The Call of the Wild made him famous around the country. London continued to write stories of adventure amid the harsh natural elements. He sailed a ketch to the South Pacific, telling of his adventures in The Cruise of the Snark (1911). During his 17-year career, he wrote 50 fiction and nonfiction books. He settled in northern California about 1911, having already written most of his best work.
The optimism and energy with which he attacked his task are best conveyed in his autobiographical novel Martin Eden (1909), perhaps his most enduring work. He wrote two other autobiographical novels of considerable interest: The Road (1907) and John Barleycorn (1913).
Although Jack London became the highest-paid writer in the United States, his earnings never matched his expenditures, so that his hastily written output is of uneven quality. His Alaskan stories The Call of the Wild (1903), White Fang (1906), and Burning Daylight (1910), in which he dramatized in turn atavism, adaptability, and the appeal of the wilderness, are outstanding. Other important works are The Sea-Wolf (1904), which features a Nietzschean superman hero, and The Iron Heel (1907), a fantasy of the future that is a terrifying anticipation of fascism.
London, a heavy drinker, died on 22 November 1916 of renal failure.
| JACK LONDON ONLINE:
|| DUPLICATE SITES:
| White Fang
Two men are out in the wild of the north. Their dogs disappear as they are lured by a she-wolf and eaten by the pack. They only have three bullets left and Bill, one of the men, uses them to try to save one of their dogs; he misses and is eaten with the dog. Only Henry and two dogs are left; he makes a fire, trying to drive away the wolves. They draw in close and he is almost eaten, saved only by a company of men who were traveling nearby.
The wolves are in the midst of a famine. They continue on, lead by several wolves alongside the she-wolf, and when they finally find food the pack starts to split up. The she-wolf mates with one of the wolves and has a litter of pups. Only one survives after several more famines, and he grows strong and is a feisty pup.
They come to an Indian village where the she-wolf's (who is actually half-wolf, half-dog) master is. He catches her again and White Fang, her pup, stays nearby. Soon, she is sold to another Indian, while White Fang stays with Gray Beaver, her master. The other dogs of the village terrorize White Fang, especially one named Lip-lip.
White Fang becomes more and more vicious, encouraged by his master. He kills other dogs. Gray Beaver goes to Fort Yukon to trade and discovers whiskey. White Fang is passed into the hands of Beauty Smith, a monster of a man. He fights other dogs until he meets his match in a bulldog and is saved only by a man named Scott.
Scott tames White Fang and takes him back to California with him. There White Fang learns to love his master and his master's family and even saves Scott's father from a criminal that escaped from the nearby prison. White Fang has puppies with Collie, one of the master's dogs, and lives a happy life.
| 1894 Japanese forces sink the British steamer Kowshing
which was bringing Chinese reinforcements to Korea.
1871 Carrousel patented by Wilhelm Schneider, Davenport, Iowa.
1868 US President Andrew Johnson signs an act of Congress creating the territory of Wyoming.
1866 Ulysses S. Grant is named General of the Army, the first to hold the rank. Born on 27 April 1822, he had been commander of the Union armies during the late years (1864–65) of the US Civil War, and would become the 18th president of the United States (1869–77). GRANT ONLINE: Personal Memoirs of US Grant volume 1, volume 2 (After retiring from the Presidency in 1877, Grant became a partner in a financial firm, which went bankrupt. About that time he learned that he had cancer of the throat. He started writing his recollections to pay off his debts and provide for his family, racing against death to produce a memoir that ultimately earned nearly $450'000. Soon after completing the last page, on 23 July 1885, he died).
1863 Major General George McClellan appointed first commander of the force later designated the Army of the Potomac
1861 The Crittenden Resolution, calling for the American Civil War to be fought to preserve the Union and not for slavery, is passed by Congress.
1850 Gold is discovered in the Rogue River in Oregon, extending the quest for gold up the Pacific coast.
1845 China grants Belgium equal trading rights with Britain, France and the United States.
1845 Canadian-born Catholic missionary François Blanchet is consecrated bishop of the Pacific Northwest. He devoted 45 years to planting churches, and is remembered today as the 'Apostle of Oregon.'
1834 Se decreta la exclusión de la sucesión a la Corona de España del pretendiente carlista Carlos María Isidro de Borbón.
1814 Battle of Niagara Falls (Lundy's Lane); British and American forces fight each other to a stand off, in some of the fiercest fighting in the War of 1812.
1805 Aaron Burr visits New Orleans with plans to establish a new country, with New Orleans as the capital city.
1799 Battle of Abukir. French-Egyptian forces under Napolean I, on his way back from Syria, beat Turks
1798 Napoleón entra triunfante en El Cairo.
1797 Fuerzas tinerfeñas rechazan victoriosamente el ataque de una potente flota inglesa mandada por Nelson, que pretendía apoderarse de Santa Cruz de Tenerife.
1775 Maryland issues currency depicting George III trampling Magna Carta
1759 British capture Fort Niagara from French (7 Years' War)
1729 North Carolina becomes royal colony
1670 Jews are expelled from Vienna Austria
1593 France's Protestant King Henri IV converts to Roman Catholic (Paris vaut bien une messe.) Enrique IV de Francia decide abjurar del protestantismo para lograr el trono, convencido con la frase París bien vale una misa.
1587 Japanese Chief Imperial Minister Toyotomi Hideyoshi, 51, bans Kirishitan (Christianity) in Japan and orders all Christians to leave. He believed that the missionaries were spies, but refrained from slaying the Christians. The Catholic missionaries hid themselves and remained, and within ten years they baptized 65'000 persons (1587-97), making a total of 300'000 faithful, and 134 religious.
1582 El marqués de Santa Cruz obtiene para España la resonante victoria naval de la isla Terceira sobre las tropas de don Antonio, autoproclamado rey de Portugal en contra de Felipe II.
1581 Felipe II de España entra solemnemente en Lisboa y es coronado rey de Portugal.
1564 Maximillian II becomes emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
1554 Marie Tudor épouse Philippe II d'Espagne. Cette reine d'Angleterre, fille du roi Henri VIII, sera le farouche soutien de l'Église catholique dans son pays. Son mariage la rendra très impopulaire : l'Angleterre se verra entraînée par Philippe II dans sa guerre contre la France. Elle y perdra Calais qu'elle occupait depuis deux siècles. La reina inglesa María Tudor se casa con el futuro rey de España Felipe II, en la catedral de Winchester.
1394 Charles VI of France issues a decree for the general expulsion of Jews from France.
1360 Jews are expelled from Breslau Silesia
0326 Constantine refuses to carry out the traditional pagan sacrifices.
0325 The Council of Nicaea closes. Regarded as the first 'ecumenical council,' its 300 attending bishops drafted the Nicene Creed and fixed the formula for Easter Sunday.
which occurred on a 25 July:
2003 Mahmoud Qabha, 5, by bullets from a machine gun atop an Israeli armored personnel carrier which fires “due to a malfunction” at the jeep in which Mahmoud was, waiting peacefully behind two other cars to enter the village Barta'a, along the Green Line to the north of Baka al-Garbiyeh, in the northern West Bank. One of Mahmoud's sisters is shot in the hand and another sister is wounded also. His mother and grandfather, also in the car, are unharmed physically.
2002 Elimelech Shapira, 43 [photo >], Jewish rabbi settler, after being shot in ambush at 04:00 as he was in car traveling near Qalqilyah, West Bank, between the enclave settlements Alei Zahav and Peduel, this one Shapira's home. Another man in the car is wounded.
2002 Dmitri Pundikov, 33, Israeli from Bat-Yam, from injuries suffered on 17 July in double suicide bombing in Tel Aviv, which caused 5 immediate and 2 delayed deaths, including this one.
2001 Phoolan Devi, 38, India's Bandit Queen M.P., murdered. ^top^
Three masked gunmen fired on Devi as she stepped from her car when she returned home for lunch from a session of the lower house of Parliament. Her security guard was wounded.
Devi the daughter of a low-caste family in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh never went to school and, like most women in India, remained illiterate all her life. She was sold into marriage at age 11, fled her brutal husband and fell in love with a highway robber. Her lover was killed by upper-caste men from the village of Behmai who took her prisoner and raped her repeatedly.
She escaped, formed her own gang and in 1981 returned to the village for revenge. On her orders, gang members mowed down 22 upper-caste men with machine-gun fire.
Devi portrayed the 10-year rebellion that followed as a caste struggle in one of India's most backward regions, where upper-caste Hindus routinely preyed on members of the lower castes.
[< 28 April 1998 photo of Devi. Click to zoom in]
Devi was idolized by India's poor as a horseback-riding heroine who roamed the countryside, her hallmark red bandanna tied around her head, a rifle slung across her back, exacting retribution from wealthy upper-caste landowners.
She was jailed in 1983 for the slaughter of the villagers, though she denied the charges and was never tried. The Supreme Court freed her 11 years later. At least 70 cases of murder, kidnapping and extortion are still pending against her.
After her release, Devi sought to take her fight for justice for the poor into government. She became a member of Parliament in 1996, winning with a wide margin, thanks mostly to the support of women and the poor.
Devi was the subject of a number of books and an award-winning 1994 film, "The Bandit Queen."
Members of her Samajwadi Party said that the government has recently reduced the number of guards assigned to Devi and that might have prompted her old enemies to strike.
"I see a political conspiracy in Phoolan's killing. I have no doubt it's linked to the U.P. elections," said Amar Singh, Samajwadi Party leader. Crucial elections are due in Uttar Pradesh is 2002
2001 Seven persons executed in cold blood by Kenyan police..
An elite squad of the Kenyan Police Force surrounds a bus on the Mombasa Road, forces all the passengers out and detains eight persons. The other passengers are then allowed to continue with their journey. Seven of the detainees are ordered to lie on the ground, and then shot in the back by police officers. The eighth person is put into the trunk of one of the police vehicles. The police attempts a coverup, saying that the victims were robbers who died in a shootout. On 27 July Amnesty International protests.
2001 Saleh Darwazeh, by missiles from a hilltop Israeli army base, as he was driving his Volkswagen on a West Bank road near Nablus. He was a prominent member of the political wing of Hamas. [photo >]
On 2 August 2001 a Palestinian military court would sentence to death Ahmed Abu Issah, 50, who confessed giving the Israelis information on the movements of Darwazeh, receiving about $45 each time.
1972 Américo Castro, historiador español.
1969 Otto Dix, German Expressionist painter born in 1891. MORE ON DIX AT ART 4 JULY LINKS Self-Portrait With Easel Self~Portrait With Palette Kupplerin Dr. Koch Suburban Scene
1959 Dr Isaac Halevi Herzog, 71, chief rabbi of Israel (1936-59)
1957 Ricardo Rojas, escritor argentino.
|1956 Fifty-two persons in sinking
of Andrea Doria ^top^
One hour before midnight on 25 July 1956, the Swedish ocean liner Stockholm collides with the Italian liner Andrea Doria off the coast of Nantucket. Both ships are equipped with radar and authorities would be puzzled as to the cause of the accident that left fifty-two people dead. Although the Stockholm makes it back to port, the Andrea Doria sinks.
At 23:10, 70 km south of Nantucket Island, the Italian ocean liner Andrea Doria and the Swedish ocean liner Stockholm collide in a heavy Atlantic fog. Fifty-one passengers and crew were killed in the collision, which ripped a great hole in the broad side of the Italian vessel. Miraculously, all 1660 survivors on the Andrea Doria were rescued from the severely listing ship before it sunk late the next morning. Both ships were equipped with sophisticated radar systems, and authorities were puzzled as to the cause of the accident.
In the mid-1950s, more than 50 passenger liners steamed between Europe and America, exploiting a postwar boom in transatlantic ocean travel. The lavishly appointed Andrea Doria, put to sea in 1953, was the pride of the Italian line. It was built for luxury, not speed, and boasted extensive safety precautions, such as state-of-the-art radar systems and 11 watertight compartments in its hull. The Stockholm, which went into service in 1948, was a more modest ocean liner, less than half the tonnage and carrying 747 passengers and crew on its fateful voyage. The Andrea Doria held 1706 passengers and crew in its final journey.
On the night of 25 July 1956, the Stockholm was just beginning its journey home to Sweden from New York, while the Andrea Doria was steaming in the opposite direction. The Italian liner had been in an intermittent fog since midafternoon, but Captain Piero Calami only slightly reduced his speed, relying on his ship's radar to get him to his destination safely and on schedule. The Stockholm, meanwhile, was directed north of its recommended route by Captain H. Gunnar Nordenson, who risked encountering westbound vessels in the name of reducing travel time. The Stockholm also had radar and expected no difficulty in navigating past approaching vessels. It failed to anticipate, however, that a ship like the Andrea Doria could be hidden until the last few minutes by a fogbank.
At 22:45, the Stockholm showed up on the Doria's radar screens, at a distance of about 17 nautical miles (31 km). Soon after, the Italian ship showed up on the Stockholm's radar, about 12 miles away (22 km). What happened next has been subject to dispute, but it's likely that the crews of both ships misread their radar sets. Captain Calami then exacerbated a dangerous situation by making a turn to port for an unconventional starboard-to-starboard passing, which he wrongly thought the other ship was attempting. About two miles (4 km) away from each other, the ship's lights came into view of each other. Third Officer Johan-Ernst Bogislaus Carstens, commanding the bridge of the Stockholm, then made a conventional turn to starboard.
Less than a mile (more than 1 km) away, Captain Calami realized he was on a collision course with the Stockholm and turned hard to the left, hoping to race past the bow of the Swedish ship. Both ships were too large and moving too fast to make a quick turn. At 23:10, the Stockholm's sharply angled bow, reinforced for breaking ice, smashed 10 meters into the starboard side of the Andrea Doria. For a moment, the smaller ship was lodged there like a cork in a bottle, but then the opposite momentum of the two ships pulled them apart, and the Stockholm's smashed bow screeched down the side of the Doria, showering sparks into the air.
Five crewmen of the Stockholm were killed in the collision. On the Andrea Doria, the carnage was much worse. The bow of the Swedish ship crashed through passenger cabins, and 46 passengers and crew were killed. One man watched as his wife was dragged away forever by the retreating bow of the Stockholm. Fourteen-year-old Linda Morgan was asleep on the Doria when the impact somehow catapulted her out of bed and onto the Stockholm's crushed bow. She was later dubbed "the miracle girl" by the press.
With seven of its 10 decks open to the Atlantic waters, the Andrea Doria listed more than 20 degrees to port in minutes, and its watertight compartments were compromised. A lifeboat evacuation began on the doomed ship. The evacuation initially went far from smoothly. The port side could not be used because the ship was listing too much, which left 1044 lifeboat seats for the 1706 on board. Passengers in the lower cabins fought their way through darkened hallways filling up with ocean water and leaking oil. The first lifeboat was not deployed until an hour after the collision, and it held more crew than passengers.
Fortunately, the Stockholm, which had suffered a nonfatal blow, was able to lend its lifeboats to the evacuation effort. Several ships heard the Doria's mayday and came to assist. At 02:00 on July 26, the Ile de France, another great ocean liner, arrived and took charge of the rescue effort. It was the greatest civilian maritime rescue in history, and 1660 lives were saved. The Stockholm limped back to New York.
At 10:09 on 26 July, the Andrea Doria sank into the Atlantic. Almost immediately, the wreck, located at a depth of 75 m, became a popular scuba diving destination. However, because of the extreme depth, the presence of sharks, and unpredictable currents, the Doria is known as the "Mount Everest" of diving locations.
George Dorsey, 28; his wife Mae Murray Dorsey,
23; his sister Dorothy (Dorsey) Malcolm, 20; and her husband
Roger Malcolm, 24; Blacks, shot with shotguns and pistols more
than 60 times by 12 to 15 White men at the Moore's Ford bridge over the
Apalachee River, 100 km east of Atlanta, Georgia. This enraged US President
Harry Truman and led to anti-lynching legislation and to the desegregation
of the US military. But no one was ever brought to justice for this the
last mass lynching in the US. While drunk, Roger Malcolm [photo >]
had on 14 July 1946 stabbed his White landlord's son, Barnette Hester, 29,
been jailed in Monroe and then, became clear that Hester would survive the
seemingly fatal wound, freed on bond on 25 July to await trial; the four
were driving home when they were assaulted. George Dorsey was a World War
II veteran, who had returned to civilian life nine months earlier.
1934 Engelbert Dollfuss Austrian chancellor assassinated by Nazis
1918: 3 Blacks and 2 Whites, in race riot in Chester Pennsylvania.
1918 Carlos Guido Spano, poeta argentino.
1909 Frans Lebret (or Lebrett, Dutch artist born on 07 November 1820.
1863 Karl-Gottfried-Traugott Faber, German artist born on 10 November 1785 or 1786.
1861 Clara Sockl (or Soterius) von Sachsenheim, Austrian artist born on 05 November 1822.
1736 Jean-Baptiste Joseph Pater, French painter born on 29 December 1695. MORE ON PATER AT ART 4 JULY LINKS The Offer of Flowers (Springtime) The Chinese Hunt Fête Champêtre another Fête Champêtre Concert Champêtre
Bonaventura Peeters I, Flemish marine painter and satirical
poet, born on 23 July 1614.
[Please, without panting or petering, repeat as quickly as possible to all who will listen:
Painter Peeters did not paint on paper a poster of a pretty peck of pickled peppers. A poster of a peck of pretty pickled peppers painter Peeters painted not. If you say that Peter Piper picked the peck of pickled pretty peppers painter Peeters painted on paper, where is the pretty poster of a peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked and painter Peeters painted on paper?]
| [Oh!... excuse me... are you saying that it is
not painter Peeters but painter Pater who painted on paper a poster of the
peck of pretty pickled peppers that Peter Piper picked? Well, I remain
convinced that neither painter Pater nor painter Peeters painted a poster
of a pretty peck of pickled peppers on paper. A poster of a peck of pickled
pretty peppers painter Pater and painter Peeters painted not. If you say
that Peter Piper picked the pretty peck of pickled peppers painter Pater
painted on paper, where is the poster of a peck of pretty pickled peppers
Peter Piper picked, painter Pater painted on paper, and painter Peeters
[Note: the poster of a peck of pickled peppers that was never painted was not pretty... it was beautiful!]
| 1630 Jan Tilens, Flemish artist born on 06 April 1589.
| Births which
occurred on a 25 July:
2001 María de Jesús and María Teresa Quiej Alvarez, born to Leticia Alba Alvarez, in Mazatenango, departamento de Suchitepéquez, Guatemala, conjoined at the top of their heads which face in different directions (craniopagus twins). Sponsored by Healing the Children, they would arrive at UCLA's Mattel Children's Hospital in Los Angeles on 07 June 2002 and be surgically separated on 06 August 2002 after a 23-hour operation. María Teresa would need several follow-up operations, including some to place a valve in her skull to relieve pressure of fluid on her brain. As late as 15 April 2003 the latest valve would have to be removed because it had become infected, and on 02 May 2003 it would be replaced by a new one in a 3-hour operation in Guatemala City. The twins are the first children born to Wenceslao Quiej and Alba Leticia Alvarez. Their mother indicates that she experienced a normal pregnancy, but, as many women in rural areas, did not receive any prenatal care. During her eight days of labor, Mrs. Alvarez was initially attended at home by a midwife, but when the midwife realized it was a complicated delivery, she referred the family to a private clinic in their area. When clinic staff realized the mother was having twins, they performed a C-section. Much to everyone’s surprise, they saw that the babies were fused at the top of their heads. At birth, the twins weighed 2 kg. Because of the babies’ condition, the clinic transferred them to Guatemala’s Social Security hospital. The girls lived there until they were brought to UCLA. Healing The Children, a nonprofit group that helps find medical care for children in underdeveloped countries, approached Dr. Jorge Lazareff, one of its volunteer neurosurgeons, for help in accepting the twins’ cases. Led by Lazareff and UCLA plastic-reconstructive surgeon Dr. Henry Kawamoto Jr., a UCLA physician team is donating its services to the twins’ care. Still, nursing, hospitalization and additional medical expenses are expected to cost the hospital upwards of $1.5 million.
1978 Louise Joy Brown, the first "test-tube baby," in Oldham, England; she'd been conceived through the technique of in-vitro fertilization.
1957 Ray Billingsley, cartoonist ("Curtis").
1924 Luis Suárez Fernández, historiador español.
1906 Manuel Diez Alegría, militar español.
1905 Elías Canetti, escritor búlgaro, nacionalizado británico.
1902 Eric Hoffer longshoreman, philosopher, author (True Believer, In Our Time)
1889 Ubaldo Oppi, Italian artist who died in 1946.
1880 Morris Raphel Cohen, American philosopher and mathematician.
1874 Joaquín Torres-García, Uruguayan painter and sculptor who died on 08 August 1949. LINKS
1871 Arturo Tosi, Italian artist who died on 03 January 1956. [¿Tosi Catarro?]
1870 Maxfield Parrish, US Golden Age illustrator who died in 1966. He studied under the great Brandywine illustrator Howard Pyle. MORE ON PARRISH AT ART 4 JULY LINKS Man with Apple (cover design for Collier's Weekly, 01 April 1911) The Arithmetic Lesson (cover design for Collier's Weekly, 30 Sep 1911) The Idiot (Cover design for Collier's Weekly, 24 Sep 1910) From the Story of Snow White
1857 Francis Coates Jones, US painter who died in 1932. Woman in White Woman Reading (Morning)
1848 Arthur James Balfour, prime Minister of Great Britain, 1902-1905 Arthur Balfour, estadista conservador inglés.
1844 Thomas Couperthwaite Eakins, in Philadelphia. Philadelphia Realist painter, photographer, teacher. MORE ON EAKINS AT ART 4 JULY LINKS Walt Whitman Self~Portrait The Gross Clinic Starting Out After Rail Baby at Play Concert Singer The Pathetic Song Max Schmidt in a Single Scull The Swimming Hole Miss Van Buren Study "Negress" Frank Jay St. John Professor William Woolsey Johnson The Courtship
1822 Santiago Arcos Arlegui, político chileno.
1808 Listing, mathematician who wrote one of the earliest texts on Topology.
1781 Merry-Joseph Blondel, French painter who died on 12 June 1853. — more LINKS La Mort de Louis XII Surnommé le Père du Peuple [ce que l'histoire ne dit pas c'est combien de Mères du Peuple ont collaboré à lui mériter ce surnom. En tout cas, ni elle(s) ni le peuple ne sont présents dans ce tableau.]
1752 Alexandre Jean Noël, French artist who died in January 1834.
1628 Nicolas-Claes-Franszoon Hals, Dutch artist who died on 17 July 1686.
1512 Diego de Covarrubias, teólogo español.