| On a July 27:
2001 The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory retracts the announcement of the discovery of elements 116 and 118, which it had made on 07 June 1999. On 15 July 2002, news media would report that one of a 15-member team, physicist Victor Ninov [< photo], had falsified results and was fired late in 2001.
1998 A US federal appeals court overturns a $293'000 jury verdict against Digital. That verdict had found that a former hospital clerk had suffered repetitive stress injury using a Digital keyboard.
1993 Israeli guns and aircraft pound southern Lebanon in reprisal for rocket attacks by Hezbollah guerrillas.
1991 Fighting escalated in the breakaway republic of Croatia, as a Yugoslav air force jet fired on Croatian forces and ground fighting erupted into clashes with federal tanks and troops.
1989 El Parlamento soviético aprueba provisionalmente la autonomía financiera de las repúblicas bálticas.
1987 John Demjanjuk, accused Nazi "Ivan the Terrible" testifies in Israel
1985 El general Olara Okello derroca a Milton Obote y asume la presidencia de Uganda.
1978 El Congreso de los Diputados español aprueba las leyes antiterrorista y de la Policía.
1976 El ex primer ministro japonés Kakuei Tanaka es detenido por su presunta implicación en el escándalo Lockheed.
1974 Watergate: House Judiciary Committee passes the first of three articles of impeachment, charging obstruction of justice. The vote is 27 to 11 to recommend President Nixon's impeachment on a charge that he had personally engaged in a "course of conduct" designed to obstruct justice in the Watergate case.
1962 Martin Luther King Jr jailed in Albany Georgia
1960 VP Richard Nixon is nominated for president at the Republican national convention in Chicago.
1958 Creación de la NASA por Ley firmada por el presidente estadounidense Eisenhower.
1955 Austria regains full independence after 4-power occupation
1954 Por el acuerdo firmado entre Reino Unido y Egipto, los británicos se retiran de la zona del Canal.
| 1946 El Kuomintang rechaza la oferta comunista para
poner fin a la guerra civil en China.
1944 1st British jet fighter used in combat (Gloster Meteor)
1944 US troops complete the liberation of Guam.
1941 Los japoneses ocupan Phnom Penh, en Camboya.
1939 La comisión permanente de las Cortes de la República Española decide disolver el Gobierno en el exilio.
1934 Los partidos socialista y comunista de Francia firman en París un pacto de unidad de acción contra el fascismo.
1933 El Gobierno de la República española reconoce a la Unión Soviética. (Segunda República Española)
| 1916 I Guerra Mundial: Los rusos invaden Turquía Oriental
y ocupan Erzincan.
1914 British troops invade the streets of Dublin, Ireland, and begin to disarm Irish rebels.
1909 Guerra de Marruecos: jornada aciaga para las tropas españolas, denominada Desastre del Barranco del Lobo.
1890 Feeling that he is a burden on his brother Théo and others, Vincent Van Gogh (evidencing that there is PAIN in PAINting) shoots himself in the chest. He would die two days later. Web reproductions of Van Gogh paintings: LINKS The most complete Van Gogh web site.
1880 Battle of Maiwand, at which Dr. Watson was wounded.
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues.
1861 Lincoln replaces General Irwin McDowell with General George B. McClellan in command of the Army of the Potomac.
1861 Major Isaac Lynde surrenders his command to Confederates at San Augustine Springs, New Mexico Territory.
1844 Fire destroys the US mint at Charlotte, NC.
1837 US Mint opens in Charlotte, NC.
1830 Jornadas revolucionarias en París, de donde huye el rey Carlos X.
1816 Fort Blount on Apalachicola Bay Fla, attacked by US troops.
1809 Wellington, à la tête d'une armée anglaise venue au secours de l'Espagne envahie par Napoléon remporte la Victoire de Talavera. L'intervention de Wellington sera décisive et les armées de Napoléon devront finalement abandonner l'Espagne. A sa mort, en 1852, Welligton fut inhumé dans la cathédrale Saint Paul, à Londres. Se produce la batalla de Talavera, combate librado durante la Guerra de Independencia española de resultado incierto, pues los franceses han de retirarse hacia Madrid y Wellington se ve obligado a replegarse sobre Badajoz.
|1794 9 thermidor an II
contre Robespierre ^top^
Depuis la veille un complot contre Robespierre est ourdit par Billaud-Varenne, Collot d’Herbois, Barère, Tallien et d’anciens Dantonistes. Billaud-Varenne s’exclame à la Convention: "nous mourrons tous ou le tyran mourra". Robespierre n’a pas la possibilité de se défendre; un décret d’accusation est voté contre lui ainsi que contre son frère Augustin Robespierre, Saint-Just, Couthon et Lebas.
Maximilien Robespierre, the architect of the French Revolution's Reign of Terror, is overthrown and arrested by the National Convention. As the leading member of the Committee of Public Safety from 1793, Robespierre encouraged the execution, mostly by guillotine, of more than 17'000 enemies of the Revolution. The day after his arrest, Robespierre and 21 of his followers were guillotined before a cheering mob in the Place de la Révolution in Paris.
[< Robespierre portrait by Adélaïde Labille~Guiard]
Maximilien Robespierre was born in Arras, France, in 1758. He studied law through a scholarship and in 1789 was elected to be a representative of the Arras commoners in the Estates General. After the Third Estate, which represented commoners and the lower clergy, declared itself the National Assembly, Robespierre became a prominent member of the Revolutionary body. He took a radical, democratic stance and was known as "the Incorruptible" for his dedication to civic morality. In April 1790, he presided over the Jacobins, a powerful political club that promoted the ideas of the French Revolution.
He called for King Louis XVI to be put on trial for treason and won many enemies, but the people of Paris consistently came to his defense. In 1791, he excluded himself from the new Legislative Assembly but continued to be politically active as a member of the Jacobin Club. In 1792, he opposed the war proposal of the Girondins moderate leaders in the Legislative Assembly and lost some popularity. However, after the people of Paris rose up against the king in August 1792, Robespierre was elected to the insurrectionary Commune of Paris. He then was elected to head the Paris delegation to the new National Convention. In the National Convention, he emerged as the leader of the Mountain, as the Jacobin faction was known, and opposed the Girondins. In December 1792, he successfully argued in favor of Louis XVI's execution, and in May 1793 he encouraged the people to rise up in insurrection over military defeats and a food shortage. The uprising gave him an opportunity to finally purge the Girondins.
On 27 July 1793, Robespierre was elected to the Committee of Public Safety, which was formed in April to protect France against its enemies, foreign and domestic, and to oversee the government. Under his leadership, the committee came to exercise virtual dictatorial control over the French government. Faced with the threat of civil war and foreign invasion, the Revolutionary government inaugurated the Reign of Terror in September. In less than a year, 300'000 suspected enemies of the Revolution were arrested; at least 10'000 died in prison, and 17'000 were officially executed, many by guillotine in the Place de la Révolution. In the orgy of bloodshed, Robespierre succeeded in purging many of his political opponents.
On 04 June 1794, Robespierre was almost unanimously elected president of the National Convention. Six days later, a law was passed that suspended a suspect's right to public trial and to legal assistance. In just a month, 1400 enemies of the Revolution were guillotined. The Terror was being escalated just when foreign invasion no longer threatened the republic, and an awkward coalition of the right and the left formed to oppose Robespierre and his followers.
On 27 July 1794 (9 Thermidor in the Revolutionary calendar), Robespierre and his allies are placed under arrest by the National Assembly. Robespierre is taken to the Luxembourg prison in Paris, but the warden refuses to jail him, and he flees to the Hôtel de Ville. Armed supporters arrive to aid him, but he refuses to lead a new insurrection. When he receives word that the National Convention has declared him an outlaw, he shoots himself in the head but only succeeds in wounding his jaw. Shortly thereafter, troops of the National Convention attack the Hôtel de Ville and seize Robespierre and his allies. The next evening 28 July Robespierre and 21 others would be guillotined without a trial in the Place de la Révolution. During the next few days, another 82 Robespierre followers would be executed. The Reign of Terror is at an end.
In the aftermath of the coup, the Committee of Public Safety lost its authority, the prisons were emptied, and the French Revolution became decidedly less radical. The Directory that followed saw a return to bourgeois values, corruption, and military failure. In 1799, the Directory was overthrown in a military coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte, who wielded dictatorial powers in France as first consul and, after 1804, as French emperor.
| 1793 In France, Robespierre becomes a member of the
Committee of Public Safety.
1778 First Battle of Ushant: British and French fleets fight to a standoff.
1777 The marquis of Lafayette arrives in New England to help the rebellious colonists fight the British.
1663 British Parliament passes a second Navigation Act, requiring all goods bound for the colonies be sent in British ships from British ports.
1661 British Parliament confirms the Navigation Act
1586 Sir Walter Raleigh brings 1st tobacco to England from Virginia
1245 Already excommunicated, Emperor Frederick II is deposed by pope Innocent IV and the First Council of Lyons, which found Frederick guilty of sacrilege. The deposition never really took effect. Frederick II died on 13 December 1250, undeposed and unrepentant.
1214 Battle of Bouvines in France: decisive victory of Philip II Augustus of France over an international coalition of the Holy Roman emperor Otto IV, King John of England, and the French vassals Ferdinand (Ferrand) of Portugal, count of Flanders, and Renaud (Raynald) of Dammartin, count of Boulogne. The victory enhances the power and the prestige of the French monarchy in France and in the rest of Europe.
which occurred on a July 27:
2002:: 83 persons at an air show in Lviv, Ukraine, as a Su-27 fighter plane crashes into the crowd of spectators, apparently due to engine failure, 2 minutes after take-off, and explodes into a ball of fire. 23 of the dead are children. The two airmen aboard the plane eject and survive. Some 125 persons are injured.
2002 At least 50 persons on boat which capsizes on lake Vembanad, Kerala, India, early in the morning. It was carrying about 400 passengers from Muhama to Kumarakom.
1999 Aleksandr Danilovich Aleksandrov, Russian mathematician and physicist born on 04 Aug 1912.
1994 Rosa Chacel, escritora española.
1990: 42 militares en Nigeria, fusilados por intento de golpe de Estado.
| 1976 Ray Brennan becomes 1st to die of "Legionnaire's
1976 Some 240'000 Chinese in 8.2 Tangshan earthquake.
1976 Ray Brennan, US Air Force veteran, became the first person to die of what came to be known as Legionnaire's Disease following an American Legion convention in Philadelphia.
1972 Se confirma la muerte del dirigente chino Lin Piao, en accidente de avión según fuentes oficiales.
1970 Antonio Oliveira Salazar, estadista portugués.
1946 Gertrude Stein, escritora estadounidense.
1945 Juan Antonio Ríos, político y presidente de Chile.
1931 Jacques Herbrand, French mathematician born on 12 February 1908. Herbrand's theorem establishes a link between quantification theory and sentential logic.
1925 Léon Augustin L'hermitte (or Lhermitte), French Realist draftsman, printmaker, painter, and illustrator, born on 31 July 1844. MORE ON L'HERMITTE AT ART 4 JULY LINKS Le Lavoir près de la Ferme d'Erlan (Pas-de-Calais) Harvesters' Country Supper at Emmaus A la Fontaine Harvesters' Country La Famille La Fenaison La Leçon de Lecture La Leçon de Claude Bernard La Moisson près de la Marne Le Marché de Chateau-Thierry Maternité ou L'Heureuse Famille
1870 Pierre-Joseph-Étienne Finck, French mathematician born on 15 October 1797.
1759 Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis, French mathematician and physicist born on 28 September 1698. He is most famous for formulating the principle of least action. — [Lazy people of the world, unite in praise of Maupertuis!]
which occurred on a July 27:
1951 Joseba Irazu Garmendia, escritor vasco, máximo exponente de la narrativa en euskera
1951 Alfredo Pérez Rubalcaba, político español.
1939 Manuel Vázquez Montalban, escritor español.
1929 Jean Baudrillard, sociólogo y escritor francés.
— R.J. Building — Acrobats — Last Supper #7 — Arch Park with Nationwide 2 — Blue Vertical Buildings — Franklin County Hall Justice (1983) — Columbus Buildings — Robotech A-Team Collage — Rearing Stud Horse — Ohio State University Stadium
1877 Ernst (Ernst von) Dohnányi Hungary, composer (Msg to Posterity)
1871 Ernst Friedrich Ferdinand Zermelo, German mathematician who died on 21 May 1953. In 1908 Zermelo published his axiomatic system of set theory despite his failure to prove consistency. He gave seven axioms : Axiom of extensionality, Axiom of elementary sets, Axiom of separation, Power set axiom, Union axiom, Axiom of choice and Axiom of infinity.
1874 Francis Luis Mora, Uruguayan US painter who died in 1940. MORE ON MORA AT ART 4 JULY LINKS Flowers of the Field [2 girls with flowers] — Five Kids Arriving at School in the Snow — Food for France, a World War I poster _ detail, image without the words _ detail, half-length of armless French soldier and ragged girl spoon-feeding him hot soup. — Don't Let Up, Keep On Saving Food, a World War I lithograph poster — The Artist’s Studio — Private Recital (sketch)
1867 Enrique Granados Lérida Spain, composer (Maria del Carmen) Enrique Granados, compositor y músico español.
1857 José Celso Barbosa Puerto Rico, would found Federalist Party in 1900.
1856 Arturo Faldi, Italian artist who died on 30 May 1911.
1852 George Foster Peabody, philanthropist and namesake of the Peabody awards for excellence in broadcasting
1848 Lóránd baron von Eötvös, Budapest mathematician who died on 08 April 1919.
1835 Giosuè Carducci Italy, poet (Nobel 1906) CARDUCCI ONLINE: (both zipped) Odi Barbare Rime e Ritmi
1826 Gerardina Jacoba Sande van Bakhuyzen, Dutch artist who died on 19 September 1895.
1809 Gottfried Johan Pulian, German artist who died on 04 March 1875.
1801 George Biddell Airy. He was Lucasian professor at Cambridge and Astronomer Royal. He made many major contributions to mathematics and astronomy. He died on 02 January 1892.
1789 The US Department of Foreign Affairs, forerunner of the Department of State, is establisged by Congress..
1694 Bank of England chartered.
1683 Jan-Peter van Bredael II, Flemish artist who died in 1735.
1667 Johann Bernoulli Among the topics Johann Bernoulli studied: reflection and refraction of light, orthogonal trajectories of families of curves, quadrature of areas by series and the brachystochrone. He died on 01 January 1748. He was the brother of Jacob Bernoulli [27 Dec 1654 – 16 Aug 1705] and father of Johann II Bernoulli [28 May 1710 – 17 Jul 1748] and of Daniel Bernoulli [08 Feb 1700 – 17 Mar 1782].
1451 Hernán Pérez del Pulgar, militar e historiador español. [NO lo llamen Pulgarcito]