• US recognizes Russian government... • Teapot Dome trial... • Naval hero dies in duel... • The Arab League... • Studebaker Avanti... • Equal Rights amendment... • Jamestown massacre... • Louis L'Amour is born... • Loyalty checks for US federal employees... • Pre~school teachers indicted... • Jack London asks for payment advice... • La République Helvétique... • ENIAC pioneers quit... • Novell buys WordPerfect and Quattro Pro... • Intel ships Pentium processors... • Change of US commanders in Vietnam... • US provided war gas to South Vietnam... • Improving the lot of mine workers... • Stamp Act irks colonies… • Inadequate UK offer to Gandhi to support war... • Rwanda's President resigns...
|On a March
2003 The commanders and some 1500 soldiers of the Iraqi 51st division, which had 8000 soldiers and 200 tanks, surrenders to British and US Marines attacking Basra. The rest breaks up and disappears, mostly unarmed.
The Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories B'Tselem publishes Tacit Consent, a report on settler violence against Palestinians and the lack of law enforcement by Israeli authorities. // View Summary Law Enforcement Statistics Download the Report: 448 KB Word 97 format 733 KB Zipped RTF format
2001 El presidente macedonio, Boris Trajkovski, anuncia el objetivo de su Gobierno de "neutralizar y eliminar a los extremistas albaneses" que, semanas atrás, habían iniciado una ofensiva contra el ejército del país y amenazaban con desatar un nuevo conflicto bélico en los Balcanes.
2000 Some 1100 women denied jobs with the now-defunct US Information Agency and its broadcast branch, the Voice of America, won $508 million from the government in the largest-ever settlement of a federal sex discrimination case.
|1999 El secretario general de la OTAN, Javier Solana
Madariaga, recibe plenos poderes de la Alianza para intervenir militarmente
en Belgrado si el presidente serbio Slobodan Milosevic rechaza el plan de
paz de Rambouillet.
1998 La provincia serbia de Kosovo celebra elecciones de forma no autorizada, con una presencia masiva de votantes (85%). Obtiene la victoria la independentista Liga Democrática Kosovar (LDK), liderada por Ibrahim Rugova.
1997 El Parlamento polaco aprueba por mayoría la primera Constitución democrática desde que el país inició su proceso de transformaciones políticas y económicas hace siete años.
1996 Schwab starts its online stock trading system, eSchwab.
1989 Más de cien mil personas abandonan Beirut, ciudad sometida a continuos bombardeos por parte del Ejército sirio y sus aliados de las facciones musulmanas drusas, en lucha con las fuerzas cristianas del general Michel Aoun.
1987 A garbage barge, carrying 32'000 tons of garbage, leaves Islip, N.Y., on a six-month journey in search of a place to unload. The barge would be turned away by several states and three countries until space is found back in Islip.
1984 Se restablece el estado de emergencia en Chile como consecuencia de los disturbios populares.
| 1983 Chaim Herzog elected Israeli (ceremonial) president
Es nombrado presidente de Israel el laborista Haim Herzog.
1981 US first class postage raised to 18 cents from 15 cents
1979 Israeli parliament approves peace treaty with Egypt
1977 Indira Gandhi resigns as PM of India
Idea for Avanti car is sketched. ^top^
Iindustrial designer Raymond Loewy made this sketch of a futuristic sports car at the request of Sherwood Egbert, the recently appointed president of the ailing Studebaker Corporation. Egbert charged Loewy to design a new car bold enough to capture the popular imagination and boost the company's sagging fortunes. Loewy and his team of designers produced a prototype in record time, and the Avanti debuted in the spring of 1962 to rave reviews.
| 1957 Republic of India adopts Saka calendar along with
1946 first US rocket to leave the Earth's atmosphere (80 km up)
| 1945 Constituída la Liga de los Estados Arabes, en El
Cairo, tras una Conferencia en la que se redactó el llamado Pacto de la
Liga Árabe, que firmaron Arabia Saudita, Egipto, Irak, Transjordania (actual
Jordania), Líbano, Siria y Yemen.
1928 España se reincorpora a la Sociedad de Naciones.
1919 Proclamación de la República soviética de Hungría.
1913 Jack London
writes authors asking for payment advice.
Author Jack London, 37, writes letters to H.G. Wells, George Bernard Shaw, and Winston Churchill, asking how much they are paid for their writing.
Born John Griffith Chaney, on 12 January 1876 in San Francisco, he was the child of an unmarried mother who had come from a once wealthy family that had fallen on hard times. It is believed that his father was William Chaney, an itinerant journalist and lawyer whose main claim to fame was his role in popularizing the American study of astrology. However, Jack took the name of John London, a partially disabled Civil War veteran his mother married in 1876, the year Jack was born. Growing up in poverty, London nonetheless had a colorful adolescence filled with adventure and excitement.
From an early age, London struggled to make a living, working in a cannery and as a sailor, oyster pirate, and fish patroller. He also spent time as a hobo, riding trains. During the national economic crisis of 1893, he joined a march of unemployed workers and later spent a month in jail for vagrancy. After his prison term, the 17-year-old London resolved to further his education. He completed an entire high school equivalency course in one year and enrolled at the University of California at Berkeley, where he read voraciously for a year. He dropped out to join the 1897 gold rush in the Alaskan Klondike. While in Alaska, London began writing stories about the region. In 1900, his first collection of stories, The Son of the Wolf, was published. Three years later, his story The Call of the Wild made him famous around the country. London continued to write stories of adventure amid the harsh natural elements. During his 17-year career, he wrote 50 fiction and nonfiction books. He settled in Northern California about 1911, having already written most of his best work.
Before he reached the age of 19, London sailed the Pacific on a whaling boat, hoboed around the countryside, and joined Kelly's Army of unemployed protestors against American economic inequality. When he was 19, he crammed a four-year high school course into one year of intensive studies and enrolled at the University of California at Berkeley. He quit college after only one year to join the Klondike gold rush, but remained a voracious reader and student throughout his life.
Although his lasting claim to fame came from his stories of the Alaskan gold frontier, London only spent a brief time in the Klondike in the winter of 1897 searching for his fortune. Like most gold seekers, London's prospecting efforts failed. However, he returned to California with a trove of stories and tall tales that eventually proved even more valuable. London published his first stories of the Alaskan frontier in 1899, and he eventually produced over 50 volumes of short stories, novels, and political essays. His 1903 novel about a domestic dog who joins an Alaskan wolf pack, The Call of the Wild, brought him lasting fame and reflected his beliefs in Social Darwinism. Interestingly, despite his identification with rugged individualism and fierce competition, London was a committed socialist and supporter of the American labor movement. Although his writing was lucrative, London spent piles of money on an enormous house and ranching operation in California; to pay for these, he wrote throughout his life. Plagued by illnesses from an early age, London developed a kidney disease of unknown origin and died on 22 November 1916 at only 40 years old. Recent scholarship has discredited claims made by earlier biographers that London was an alcoholic womanizer who took his own life.
Jack London's father, an astrologer surnamed Chaney, abandoned the family, and his unwed mother, a spiritualist and music teacher, married a Mr. London, whose last name. Jack assumed. From the age of 14, London dropped out of school and struggled to make a living, working in a cannery and as a sailor, oyster pirate, and fish patroller.
During the national economic crisis of 1893, he joined a march of unemployed workers. He was jailed for vagrancy for a month, during which time he decided to go to college. The 17-year-old London completed a high school equivalency course and enrolled at the University of California at Berkeley, where he read voraciously for a year. However, he dropped out to join the 1897 gold rush.
While in the Klondike, London began submitting stories to magazines. In 1900, his first collection of stories, The Son of the Wolf, was published. Three years later, his story The Call of the Wild made him famous around the country. London continued to write stories of adventure amid the harsh natural elements. He sailed a ketch to the South Pacific, telling of his adventures in The Cruise of the Snark (1911). During his 17-year career, he wrote 50 fiction and nonfiction books. He settled in northern California about 1911, having already written most of his best work.
The optimism and energy with which he attacked his task are best conveyed in his autobiographical novel Martin Eden (1909), perhaps his most enduring work. He wrote two other autobiographical novels of considerable interest: The Road (1907) and John Barleycorn (1913).
Although Jack London became the highest-paid writer in the United States, his earnings never matched his expenditures, so that his hastily written output is of uneven quality. His Alaskan stories The Call of the Wild (1903), White Fang (1906), and Burning Daylight (1910), in which he dramatized in turn atavism, adaptability, and the appeal of the wilderness, are outstanding. Other important works are The Sea-Wolf (1904), which features a Nietzschean superman hero, and The Iron Heel (1907), a fantasy of the future that is a terrifying anticipation of fascism.
| JACK LONDON ONLINE:
|| DUPLICATE SITES:
| White Fang
Two men are out in the wild of the north. Their dogs disappear as they are lured by a she-wolf and eaten by the pack. They only have three bullets left and Bill, one of the men, uses them to try to save one of their dogs; he misses and is eaten with the dog. Only Henry and two dogs are left; he makes a fire, trying to drive away the wolves. They draw in close and he is almost eaten, saved only by a company of men who were traveling nearby.
The wolves are in the midst of a famine. They continue on, lead by several wolves alongside the she-wolf, and when they finally find food the pack starts to split up. The she-wolf mates with one of the wolves and has a litter of pups. Only one survives after several more famines, and he grows strong and is a feisty pup.
They come to an Indian village where the she-wolf's (who is actually half-wolf, half-dog) master is. He catches her again and White Fang, her pup, stays nearby. Soon, she is sold to another Indian, while White Fang stays with Gray Beaver, her master. The other dogs of the village terrorize White Fang, especially one named Lip-lip.
White Fang becomes more and more vicious, encouraged by his master. He kills other dogs. Gray Beaver goes to Fort Yukon to trade and discovers whiskey. White Fang is passed into the hands of Beauty Smith, a monster of a man. He fights other dogs until he meets his match in a bulldog and is saved only by a man named Scott.
Scott tames White Fang and takes him back to California with him. There White Fang learns to love his master and his master's family and even saves Scott's father from a criminal that escaped from the nearby prison. White Fang has puppies with Collie, one of the master's dogs, and lives a happy life.
| 1904 El periódico estadounidense Daily
Ilustrated Mirror publica por primera vez en la historia una fotografía
1882 US Congress outlaws polygamy (again); bad news for Mormons (but they will eventually get a convenient concurring divine revelation)..
1873 Slavery is abolished in Puerto Rico.
1864 US Civil War fighting at Bald Spring Cañon on Eel River, California.
1862 San Marino and Italy conclude treaty of friendship and cooperation.
1832 Aparición del cólera en París, que ocasionó un gran número de víctimas.
1778 Capt Cook sights Cape Flattery, in Washington state
1621 In colonial Massachusetts, the Plymouth Colony (Pilgrims) makes with the neighboring Indians led by Massasoit a treaty which both sides keep for fifty years.
1618 El papa Paulo V concede el capelo cardenalicio a Francisco Sandoval y Rojas duque de Lerma, que lo había solicitado como protección ante el juicio por el asesinato de Francisco Juara por Rodrigo Calderón, confidente de Lerma.
1594 París, baluarte de la Liga Católica y ocupada dos años antes por las tropas españolas, se entrega y Henri IV hace su entrada triunfal.
1518 El navegante portugués Fernando Magallanes firma unas capitulaciones en Valladolid por las que es nombrado capitán general de la Armada y gobernador de las tierras que se descubran.
1508 Fernando el Católico nombra a Américo Vespucio piloto mayor de Castilla.
1312 The dissolution of the Order of Knights Templars, founded in 1118, is decreed by Pope Clement V [1264 – 20 Apr 1314], under pressure from king Philippe le Bel of France [1268 – 29 Nov 1314] who, wanting to take for himself the wealth of the Order, had all its members in France arrested on 13 October 1307 and then tortured (or threatened with torture) until they confessed to fabricated crimes, such as spitting upon the Cross, denying Christ, permitting sodomy, worshipping an idol (some died under torture). When the Grand Master Jacques de Molai [1244 – 18 Mar 1314] and 38 other Templars later recanted their false confessions, Philip le Bel declared them relapsed heretics and had them burned at the stake.
which occurred on a 22 March:
2004 Two Iraqi civilians and a suicide car bomber, near Balad, Iraq. 25 Iraqi civilians and 8 members of the US-trained Iraqi Civil Defense Corps are wounded.
2004 Seppo Haapanen, and Jorma Toronen, Finnish businessmen shot near a highway underpass in west Baghdad, Iraq, as they were being driven to the Ministry of Electricity to make business contacts. Their Iraqi driver is unhurt. Haapanen, an employee of Entso, a Finnish company that specializes in electricity and power networks; and Toronen, of Air-Ix, which builds railways, were part of a nine-person Finnish technological delegation visiting Baghdad.
2004 A Palestinian man, 34, in Hebron, West Bank, shot by Israeli troops as he is throwing stones while participating in a demonstration protesting the assassination of sheik Yassin.
2004 Three Palestinians, including a 13-year-old boy, as Israeli soldiers at a roadblock, near the Neveh Dekalim enclave settlement, west of the Khan Yunis refugee camp in the Gaza Strip, fire at hundreds of demonstrators, mostly schoolchildren, protesting the assassination of sheik Yassin, some of them throwing stones.
2004 Mohammed Abu Khalimi, 22, reporter for Al Najah University radio, shot by Israeli troops entering the Balata refugee camp in Nablus, West Bank, just after he broadcast a report about them. He was standing near a group youths protesting the assassination of sheik Yassin, some of them throwing stones. The Israelis claim that Abu Khalimi was a Hamas militant and was firing at them. Palestinians say that he was an unarmed non-violent Hamas supporter.
2004 sheik Ahmed Yassin, 68, and 9 others, including his son-in-law and some bodyguards, at 05:00 (03:00 UT) as Israeli helicopters fire three missiles at the car in which they are leaving a mosque near his house in Gaza City. Two of Yassin's sons and 15 other persons are wounded. Wheelchair-bound, quadriplegic (since age 12) Yassin [11 Jan 2004 photo >] was the spiritual leader of Hamas (an acronym for Harakat al-Muqawamah al-Islamiyya = Islamic Resistance Movement). In 1983, Yassin was arrested by the Israeli occupation forces in Gaza and was sentenced to 13 years in prison for forming (in 1979) the underground organization Majd al-Mujahidin and possessing weapons. He was released two years later as part of a prisoner swap. In 1987, he founded Hamas; he was at the time the Gaza-based leader of the Muslim Brotherhood. He was again arrested and sentenced to 40 years in prison in 1989, this time charged with inciting violence and ordering the killing of an Israeli soldier. But Israel released him in 1997 as a goodwill gesture to Jordan's King Hussein after a failed Israeli attempt to assassinate Hamas leader Khaled Mashal in Amman. On 06 September 2003, an Israeli F-16 fighter jet fired several missiles at a home in Gaza city where Yassin and other Hamas leaders were meeting, but Yassin escaped with just a small wound to his hand. Anticipating but also aggravating Palestinian angry vengefulness, Israel closes to Palestinians all border crossings and increases its heavy-handed interdiction of movement within the Palestinian territory. The regime of criminal Israeli Prime Minister Sharon (mis)calculates (against the advice of Shin Bet chief Avi Dichter) that the beheading of Hamas is well worth the increased risk of terrorism. Yassin had said in an interview: “If I am killed there will arise a thousand like me.”
2004 Bassem Kadih, 38, and Sanaa Kadih, 33, his wife, by an explosion as they flee from Israeli troops who shoot at them, in Abassan, near Khan Younis, Gaza Strip, which the Israelis attacked at 03:00 (01:00 UT) with tanks, armored vehicles and bulldozers. The Israelis say that the explosion may have been that of an explosive belt that Bassem Kadih, a Hamas fighter, was most likely wearing. The couple's seven children lose not only their parents, but also their home which the Israelis destroy, as well as a metal workshop in the backyard which the Israelis say was used to make weapons.
2004 Abdel Rahman al-Dardisi, 25, Thaer Kadih, 23, and Rafet Abu-Toameh, 20, Palestinians shot before 03:00 in the Gaza Strip near the Kissufim crossing point at the Israeli border by Israeli troops on their way to attack the town Abassan. Al-Dardisi and Kadih were armed Hamas fighters. Abu-Toameh was an innocent woman bystander.
2003 Henry Robinson, 56, by 16 shots from two rifles by his son, Adrian O'Neill Robinson, 25 [< photo], who had accused him of sexually assaulting him. The murder takes place in their home in Hamilton, Georgia. Then Adrian walks 5 km to a church and breaks into the mobile home of two Sisters of the Franciscan Missionaries of Mary, Lucie Kristofik, 72, and Philomena Fogarty, 64, who are not there. When they return on 23 March, he takes $900, binds and gags them, puts them in their car and drives to Norfolk, Virginia, to a hotel, where, on 25 March he leaves Sister Lucie, unharmed, while he takes Sister Philomena, kills her, cuts off her head, hands, and feet, and dumps her body in an office parking lot in Virginia Beach. Police find the car early on 26 March, but Adrian flees on foot and is arrested 22 hours later after a Burger King worker recognizes him. Adrian Robinson was wanted in Norfolk on a 1998 forgery charge.
2003 Lt. Thomas Mullen Adams, USN, 27, and British Lieutenants Philip Green, Marc Lawrence, Antony King, Philip West, Andrew Wilson, and James Williams, in the collision and crash of two British Navy helicopters over the northern Persian Gulf, near Iraq.
2003 US Army Reserve Spc. Brandon S. Tobler, 19, in a vehicle accident ; and Marine Lance Cpl. Eric J. Orlowski, 26, in a machine gun accident; die in Iraq during the US-lead attack.
2003 Nayef Shedakh, a senior member of the Iraqi Ba'ath Party, in fighting between Iraqi and US-led troops near Najaf, Iraq.
2003 At least 28 of the 87 miners working underground in the Mengnanzhuang Coal Mine in Xiaoyi city, Shanxi province, China, when there is a gas explosion.
1987 Guinand, mathematician.
1984 El Diario de Barcelona, decano de la prensa diaria española, deja de editarse.
1978 Jesús Haddad, director general de prisiones de España, asesinado en Madrid por tres jóvenes terroristas de los GRAPO (Grupos de Resistencia Antifascista Primero de Octubre).
1978 Karl Wallenda, 73, patriarch of "The Flying Wallendas" high-wire act, by fall while walking on a cable strung between two hotels in San Juan, Puerto Rico.
1973 Hilda Geiringer, mathematician.
1934 Some 1500 in fire which destroys Hakodate, Japan. 1000 are injured.
1926 Neuberg, mathematician.
1923 Benjamin “Williams Leader”, British painter born on 12 March 1831. MORE ON LEADER AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1918 Spencer Evans, Black, lynched in Taliaferro County, Georgia, accused of the rape of a White woman.
1912 Elizabeth Adela (Amstrong, Stanhope, Alexander) Forbes, British artist born on 29 December 1859. — more with links to images.
1890 Sim Martin, Black, lynched in Johnson County, Georgia, accused of the murder of a White.
1878 George Clarkson Stanfield, British artist born on 01 May 1828.
1840 Bobillier, mathematician.
with Com James Barron, near Washington, DC
1349 Townspeople of Fulda Germany massacre Jews (blamed for black death)
1282 San Bienvenido, religioso italiano.
0337 Constantine, 47, Emperor of Rome.
occurred on a March 22:
1945 Arab League forms, by the adoption of a charter, in Cairo, Egypt.
1930 Pat Robertson televangelist (R-Pres candidate-1989)
1934 Orrin Hatch (Sen-R-Ut)
1923 Marcel Marceau (Mangel) (mime: famous quote from Marceau "!"; spoke in Silent Movie the only speaking part in the film) (Barbarella)
1917 Irving Kaplansky, mathematician.
1891 Swain, mathematician.
1887 Chico Marx [Leonard Martin] NYC, comedian (the Marx Brother who wore the hat: Animal Crackers, A Day at the Races, Duck Soup)
1882 El Espectador, diario colombiano, se funda. EL ESPECTADOR ONLINE
1880 (or 28 Mar) Abraham Walkowitz, US painter who died in 1965. — more with links to images.
1875 Richard Emil Miller, US Impressionist painter who died in 1943. MORE ON MILLER AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1869 Paul Michel Dupuy, French artist who died on 02 November 1949.
1868 Robert A. Millikan, US physicist (photoelectric effect; Nobel 1923). He died on 19 December 1953.
1846 Randolph Caldecott, England, illustrator (Caldecott Medal namesake)
1835 Don Álvaro o la fuerza del sino, del Duque de Rivas, se estrena en el Teatro del Príncipe en Madrid, lo que supuso el triunfo definitivo del Romanticismo.
1819 Gourlay Steell, Scottish artist who died on 31 January 1894.
1816 Pieter Lodewijk Franciscus Kluyver, Dutch artist who died on 04 January 1900.
1814 Thomas Crawford, US sculptor of Armed Freedom figure on top of the Capitol dome. He died on 10 October 1857. — more with image and link to images.
1803 Antonie Waldorp, Dutch painter who died on 12 October 1866. — link to an image.
1797 Kaiser Wilhelm I German emperor (1871-88)
1790 Jan-Baptist van der Hulst, Belgian artist who died on 16 May 1862.
1732 Claude-Joseph Fraichot II, French artist who died in 1803.
1728 Anton Raphaël Mengs, greatest early German Neoclassical painter, specialized in Portraits who died on 29 June 1779. MORE ON MENGS AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1709 Giuseppe Zais, Italian artist who died in 1784.
1684 William Pulteney Bath, English Whig politician; opposed Sir Robert Walpole. Bath died on 07 July 1764.
1599 Anton van Dyck, Flemish painter specialized in portraits, who died on 09 December 1641. MORE ON VAN DYCK AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1459 Maximilian I, Austrian archduke, German king and Holy Roman emperor (1493-1519). He died on 12 January 1519.