a 13 September:
2002 Not too good Toogood: a surveillance camera in the parking lot of a Kohl's department store in Mishawaka, Indiana, catches Madelyne Gorman Toogood, 25, losing her temper and, as she places her daughter Martha Toogood, 4, in the back seat of her SUV, beating her violently for some 25 seconds [image >]. Something similar probably happens thousands of times every day, but is not filmed and shown on national TV. Authorities seem to overeact. They arrest Madelyne's sister Margaret Daley, who was standing by during the incident, for not reporting child abuse and for assisting a criminal. They institute a high-profile manhunt for Mrs. Toogood. When she surrenders to police on 21 September, charged with battery to a child (3 year in prison maximum penalty), they take Martha away from her and place the child in temporary foster care with strangers, instead of entrusting her to her father or other relatives. They have little Martha examined in a hospital and it turns out that she is fine. Mrs. Toogood also has two sons. Prosecutor Christopher Toth had says that he will not offer agree to a plea bargain with Toogood, but he would lose his re-election bid in November.
— On 14 February 2003, under a plea agreement, Mrs. Toogood would plead guilty to a felony battery and be given her a one-year suspended prison sentence, with a year on probation and a $500 fine. As part of the plea agreement, prosecutors drop charges of battery of a child and of giving police officers a false address. Mrs. Toogood must undergo counseling and to take classes in parenting and rage control. By then Martha Toogood is living with her maternal grandmother.
|2002:: 209 illegal immigrants coming from Belize, are
captured at Kilometer 28 of the road to Santa Elena, by the police of San
Benito, departamento del Petén, Guatemala, who also arrest Moisés
Morataya Noriego, driver of the pickup in which he was bringing the 209
chicken without the Health Department documents required (to prevent an
avian flu epidemic).
2001 The Xinhua news agency reports that farmers in Gulao, near Chongqing, have appealed for 5000 snakes, 20'000 sparrows and 200'000 frogs to fight swarms of locusts without resorting to environmentally unfriendly pesticides.
2001 With a life expectancy of mere days, Tom Christerson, 70, becomes the second person to have his diseased heart removed and replaced by an AbioCor artificial heart. He would be able to leave the hospital and go home in April 2002, and, by the time of his 07 February 2003 death, have become the longest survivor among AbioCor recipient.
2000 With the US government dropping over fifty counts against him, former Los Alamos scientist Wen Ho Lee pleaded guilty in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to a single count of mishandling nuclear secrets; he was then set free with an apology from US District Judge James Parker, who said the government's actions had "embarrassed our entire nation."
|1998 The NY Times web site is hacked
The New York Times Web site closed down for more than nine hours following a hacker attack. Users trying to view the Starr report online at The New York Times Web site instead saw a manifesto supporting convicted hacker Kevin Mitnick and insulting Times reporters. The company shut down the site and reported the incident to the FBI.
|1996 Gillette Duracell merger
The Gillette Company announces its merger with battery giant Duracell. Starting in the mid-'80s, Gillette had gone vertical, snapping up major players in the toothbrush and writing instrument industries. Not only did the merger with Duracell jive with Gillette's business philosophy, it made good fiscal sense: with sales of $2.3 billion, Duracell's batteries became Gillette's second best-selling product line. And the transaction, valued at roughly $7 billion in stock, didn't exactly hurt Duracell, which had failed to meet earnings estimates in recent months. Not only would it provide a quick return for shareholders, but the merger gave Duracell access to Gillette's mighty global distribution capabilities. After suffering a post-announcement dip, Gillette's stock eventually rebounded to post a gain for the day.
| 1996 Wall Street sees the news that sales and prices
were flat in August of 1996 as clear signs that inflation is in check. The
Dow-Jones Industrial Average closes at a record 5838.52.
|1993 Israel PLO agreement
The first major agreement between Israel and Palestine was signed during a ceremony at the White House in Washington, D.C. With US President Bill Clinton presiding, Israeli prime minister Yitzhak Rabin and Israeli foreign minister Shimon Peres shook hands with Yasser Arafat, chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), after signing the accord which granted Palestine limited self-government in the Gaza Strip and in Jericho on the occupied West Bank. The historic agreement was hammered out during secret talks in Oslo, Norway, between representatives of Israel and the PLO. In 1995, Arafat, Rabin, and Peres shared the Nobel Peace Prize for their peace efforts.
After decades of bloody animosity, representatives of Israel and Palestine meet on the South Lawn of the White House and sign a framework for peace. The "Declaration of Principles" was the first agreement between the Israelis and Palestinians towards ending their conflict and sharing the holy land between the River Jordan and the Mediterranean Sea that they both claim as their homeland.
Fighting between Jews and Arabs in Palestine dates back to the 1920s when both groups laid claim to the British-controlled territory. The Jews were Zionists, recent emigrants from Europe and Russia who came to the ancient homeland of the Jews to establish a Jewish national state. The native Arabs (they did not yet call themselves Palestinians) sought to stem Jewish immigration and set up a secular Palestinian state.
In May 1948, the State of Israel was proclaimed, and five Arab nations attacked in support of the Palestinian Arabs. The outnumbered Israelis fought off the Arab armies and seized substantial territory originally allocated to the Arabs in the 1947 United Nations partition of Palestine. In 1949, U.N.-brokered cease-fires left the State of Israel in permanent control of this conquered territory. The departure of hundreds of thousands of Palestinian Arabs from Israel during the war left the country with a substantial Jewish majority. Israel restricted the rights of the Arabs who remained. Most Palestinian Arabs who left Israeli territory retreated to the West Bank, then controlled by Transjordan, and others to the Gaza Strip, controlled by Egypt. Hundreds of thousands of exiled Palestinians moved permanently into refugee camps.
By the early 1960s, the Palestinian Arab diaspora had formed a cohesive national identity. In 1964, the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) was formed as a political umbrella organization of several Palestinian groups and meant to represent all the Palestinian people. The PLO called for the destruction of the State of Israel and the establishment of an independent Palestinian state.
In the Six-Day War of 1967, Israel seized control of the West Bank, East Jerusalem, the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, and the Golan Heights. Israel permanently annexed East Jerusalem and set up military administrations in the occupied territories. Israel let it be known that Gaza, the West Bank, the Golan Heights, and the Sinai might be returned in exchange for Arab recognition of the right of Israel to exist and guarantees against future attack. The Sinai was returned to Egypt in 1979 as part of an Israeli-Egyptian peace agreement, but the rest of the occupied territories remained under Israeli control. A faction of Israelis called for permanent annexation of these regions, and in the late 1970s nationalist Jewish settlers moved into the territories as a means of accomplishing this aim.
After the 1967 war, the PLO was recognized as the symbol of the Palestinian national movement, and PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat organized guerrilla attacks on Israel from the PLO's bases in Jordan and, after 1971, from Lebanon. The PLO also coordinated terrorist attacks against Israelis at home and abroad. The Palestinian guerrilla and terrorist activity provoked heavy reprisals from Israel's armed forces and intelligence services. By the late 1970s, Arafat had won international acceptance of the PLO as the legitimate representative of the Palestinian people.
Violence mounted in the 1980s, with Palestinians clashing with Jewish settlers in the occupied territories. In 1982, Israel invaded Lebanon to dislodge the PLO. In 1987, Palestinian residents of Gaza and the West Bank launched a series of violent demonstrations against Israeli authorities known as the intifada, or the "shaking off." Shortly after, Jordan's King Hussein renounced all administrative responsibility for the West Bank, thereby strengthening the PLO's influence there. As the intifada raged on, Yasser Arafat proclaimed an independent Palestinian state in the West Bank and Gaza Strip in November 1988. One month later, he denounced terrorism, recognized the State of Israel's right to exist, and authorized the beginning of "land-for-peace" negotiations with Israel.
Israel refused to open direct talks with the PLO, but in 1991 Israeli diplomats met with a joint Jordanian-Palestinian delegation at the Madrid peace conference. In 1992, Labor Party leader Yitzhak Rabin became Israeli prime minister, and he vowed to move quickly on the peace process. He froze new Israeli settlements in the occupied territory and in January 1993 authorized secret negotiations between Israel and the PLO in Oslo, Norway.
These talks resulted in several important agreements and led to the historic peace accord of 13 September 1993. On the South Lawn of the White House that day, Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres and PLO foreign policy official Mahmoud Abbas signed the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements. The accord called for the withdrawal of Israeli troops from the Gaza Strip and the West Bank town of Jericho and the establishment of a Palestinian government that would eventually be granted authority over much of the West Bank. President Bill Clinton presided over the ceremony, and more than 3000 onlookers, including former presidents George Bush and Jimmy Carter, watched in amazement as Arafat and Rabin sealed the agreement with a handshake. The old bitter enemies had met for the first time at a White House reception that morning.
Rabin, a former top-ranking Israeli army general, told the crowd: "We the soldiers who have returned from the battle stained with blood; we who have seen our relatives and friends killed before our eyes; we who have fought against you, the Palestinians; we say to you today in a loud and clear voice: Enough of blood and tears. Enough!" And Arafat, the guerrilla leader who for decades was targeted for assassination by Israeli agents, declared that "The battle for peace is the most difficult battle of our lives. It deserves our utmost efforts because the land of peace yearns for a just and comprehensive peace."
Despite attempts by extremists on both sides to sabotage the peace process with violence, the Israelis completed their withdrawal from the Gaza Strip and Jericho in May 1994. In July, Arafat entered Jericho amid much Palestinian jubilation and set up his government the Palestinian Authority. In October 1994, Arafat, Yitzhak Rabin, and Shimon Peres were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts at reconciliation.
In September 1995, Rabin, Arafat, and Peres signed a peace agreement providing for the expansion of Palestinian self-rule in the West Bank and for democratic elections to determine the leadership of the Palestinian Authority. Just over a month later, on November 4, 1995, Rabin was assassinated by a Jewish extremist at a peace rally in Tel Aviv. Peres became prime minister and pledged to continue the peace process. However, terrorist attacks by Palestinian extremists in early 1996 swayed Israeli public opinion, and in May Benjamin Netanyahu of the right-wing Likud Party was elected prime minister. Netanyahu insisted that Palestinian Authority Chairman Arafat meet his obligation to end terrorism by Palestinian extremists, but sporadic attacks continued and the peace process stalled. In May 1999, Ehud Barak of the Labor Party defeated Netanyahu in national elections and pledged to take "bold steps" to forge a comprehensive peace in the Middle East. However, extended negotiations with the PLO ended in failure in July 2000, when Barak and Arafat failed to reach an agreement at a summit at Camp David, Maryland. In September 2000, the worst violence since the intifada broke out between Israelis and Palestinians after Likud leader Ariel Sharon visited the Temple Mount, the holiest Islamic site in Jerusalem. Seeking a strong leader to suppress the bloodshed, Israelis elected Sharon prime minister in February 2001. A permanent cease-fire and return to the peace process remain elusive.
| 1991 The Soviet Union and the United States agree to
cut off arms supplies to the warring sides in Afghanistan.
1990 Iraqi troops storm the residence of French ambassador in Kuwait
1987 La milicia shií Amal y los guerrilleros palestinos acuerdan poner fin a la guerra de los campos libaneses, que costó 3500 muertos en los tres últimos años.
1984 Formación del Gobierno israelí de unión nacional, entre laboristas y conservadores, que preside Simón Peres.
1983 US mint strikes 1st gold coin in 50 years (Olympic Eagle)
1979 South Africa declares Venda independent. (Not recognized out of S Afr)
1976 The United States announces it will veto Vietnam's UN bid. America is not alone. The Vietnamese people are pressuring Hanoi to account for their 300'000 MIAs, as well.
1970 IBM announces System 370 computer
| 1955 The Soviet Union and West Germany agree to establish
1949 ONU acuerda poner bajo su control la ciudad de Jerusalén.
1948 Republican Margaret Chase Smith of Maine is elected to the US Senate, becoming the first woman to serve in both houses of the US Congress.
1945 Iran demands the withdrawal of Allied forces.
1943 Chiang Kai-shek becomes president of China.
| 1939 Cabinet de guerre Daladier
1923 Se produce un golpe de Estado en España, comandado por el General Miguel Primo de Rivera, que contaba con el beneplácito de la monarquía y de la burguesía catalana.
1922 58ºC, El Aziziyah, Libya, in shade (world record)
1918 US and French forces take St. Mihiel, France in America's first action as a standing army.
1905 US warships head to Nicaragua on behalf of American William Albers, who was accused of evading tobacco taxes.
1882 Britain invades Egypt
1868 Una rebelión en España hace que la reina Isabel II huya a Francia.
1867 Gen E R S Canby orders SC courts to impanel blacks jurors
1863 The Loudoun County Rangers route a company of Confederate cavalry at Catoctin Mountain in Virginia.
1861 Siege of Lexington, Missouri continues
1802 Disgrâce de Fouché. Il a trop poussé les surveillances des hauts dignitaires de l'Empire. Talleyrand, Joseph et Lucien Bonaparte, sont las d'être espionnés sans cesse par les hommes de la police de Fouché. Ils obtiennent de Bonaparte sa disgrâce. L'empereur supprime le ministère de la Police.
1791 Luis XVI sanciona la primera Constitución francesa.
1789 First loan to US Govt (from NYC banks)
1782 Gibraltar: the British fortress comes under attack by French and Spanish forces.
1774 Turgot, the new controller of finances, urges the king of France to restore the free circulation of grain in the kingdom. La guerre des farines Turgot, contrôleur général des Finances du roi Louis XVI, publie un édit par lequel il établit la liberté du commerce des grains à l'intérieur du royaume. Contrairement à ses espoirs, loin de favoriser les paysans auxquels il voulait donner accès à de nouveaux marchés car les récoltes des années précédentes avaient été fort mauvaises, et en particulier celle qui a eu lieu quelques mois plus tôt, la spéculation l'emporte et provoque une flambée des prix du pain. Celle-ci provoque les émeutes que l'on nomme la guerre des farines.
1635 The Massachusetts General Court banishes Separatist preacher Roger Williams, 32, for criticizing the Massachusetts Bay Company charter and for perpetually advocating a separation of church and state. Williams went on to found Rhode Island and the first Baptist church in the American colonies.
1625 Rabbi Isiah Horowith and 15 other rabbis arrested in Jerusalem
1564 On the verge of attacking Pedro Menendez's Spanish settlement at San Agustín, Florida, Jean Ribault's French fleet is scattered by a devastating storm.
1549 Council of Bologna's first session closed by Pope Paul III.
1541 Calvin receives an uproarious welcome as he returns to Geneva, at the request of city authorities who banished him three years earlier. He will spend the rest of his life there, trying to establish a theocratic society
1376 Pope Gregory XI steps over his father to return the papacy to Rome.
0604 Sabinian begins his reign as Pope.
0122 Building begins on Hadrian's Wall.
which occurred on a 13 September: |
2002 Curtis Cuffie, 47, of a heart attack, New York street sculptor of trash.
2002 Miguel Angel Orozco Díaz, agente de la Policía Nacional Civil de Guatemala, lapidado y quemado vivo por un grupo de pobladores, por haber, en estado de ebriedad disparado su arma y una bala perdida mató a la señora Delia López, en Coatepeque, departamento de Quetzaltenango.
2002 Delia López, en Coatepeque, Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, por una bala perdida cuando Miguel Angel Orozco Díaz, agente de la Policía Nacional Civil, borracho, disparó su arma.
2002 Salomón Jiménez Castro, Honduran lawyer and politician born on 22 October 1910. During the Julio Lozano Díaz presidency, he had been president of Congress, and then ambassador to Nicaragua. He had been ministro de Gobernación y Justicia in the military government of general Juan Alberto Melgar Castro, and again (1990-1994) in the government of Rafael Leonardo Callejas.
2001 Balqis Alarda, 14, killed by Israelis, in Araba near Jenin. Her brother Sofian Alarda is wounded, Israeli troops arrest him and prevent Palestinian paramedics from helping him for three hours before taking him to an unknown destination. The next day he is announced dead in the Israeli hospital of Afula north of Jenin.
1980 José María Gil Robles y Quiñones, político español.
1975 Shiko Munakata, Japanese printmaker born on 05 September 1903. — MORE ON MUNAKATA AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER with Barahi no Saku — Snow in the Mountains — Woman with Hawk — Fox and Wolf — Monjû Bosatsu
1974 Once personas por la explosión de una bomba en una cafetería frecuentada por policías nacionales en la calle del Correo, Madrid.
1951 Korean Police Action: The first of 3700 US casualties of the month-long US Army assault on Heartbreak Ridge, as it begins.
1912 Joseph Furphy, author. FURPHY ONLINE: Such is Life: Being Certain Extracts from the Diary of Tom Collins (that's the author's pseudonym)
1907 Emilio Sánchez Perrier, Spanish artist born on 15 October 1855.
1903 Karl Schuch, Austrian artist born on 30 September 1846.
1885 Henri Charles Antoine Baron, French artist born on 23 June 1816. — more
1877 Alexandre Herculano de Carvalho Araújo, narrador, historiador y político portugués.
1873 Eduardo Rosales y Martínez, Spanish realist painter, born in 1836. MORE ON ROSALES AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER Queen Isabella's will Presentación de don Juan de Austria a Carlos V en Yuste.
1872 Feuerbach, an atheist philospher of religion.
1847 Prosper Georges Antoine Marilhat, French Academic painter specialized in portraits and orientalism, born on 20 March 1811. LINKS Au bord du Nil Palm Trees The Erechtheum, Athens Beni Suef on the Nile
1806 Charles James Fox, author. FOX ONLINE: The American Text Book of Practical and Scientific Agriculture
1803 Commodore John Barry, in Philadelphia, considered by many the father of the American Navy..
1789 Some 90 bakery looters shot by guardsmen in Orléans, France.
1677 André Simon Bernard de Saint, French artist born in 1613 or 1614.
1625 Tommaso (Mao) Salini, Italian artist born in 1575.
1598 Felipe II, 71, King of Spain (1556-98)
1592 Seigneur Michel Eyquem de Montaigne, French philosopher and essayist born on 28 February 1533. MONTAIGNE ONLINE: (en français) Essais , Essais, Essais (1588) (in English translation): Essays, Essays
1321 Dante Alighieri, author of the Divine Comedy (in the night of 13 to 14 Sep) [covered in History for 14 September]
which occurred on a 13 September:
1941 Óscar Arias Sánchez, president of Costa Rica (1986-1990), of moderate socialist Partido de Liberación Nacional. (Peace Nobel 1987 for his Central American peace plan).
1928 Robert Clark Indiana, US pop artist. MORE ON INDIANA AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER LINKS Sex anyone? (red lips) Americans in Paris (big 4, words) Untitled (1964, 45x41 cm, eternal hexagon) untitled, plate on pp. 140-41 in the book 1¢ Life (curved arrows)
1918 Rosemary Kennedy, born 15 months afer her brother John F. who would be US president. She was mentally retarded, subjected to a lobotomy (a later discredited operation, which, of course, was a failure) and was institutionalized in 1941. She inspired the Kennedy family to charitable work on behalf of the mentally impaired.
1886 Alain Locke, writer and first African-American Rhodes scholar.
1885 Blaschke, mathematician
1876 Sherwood Anderson Winesburg, Ohio, author/publisher. ANDERSON ONLINE: Winesburg, Ohio, Winesburg, Ohio: A Group of Tales of Ohio Small Town Life
1874 Arnold Schonberg Vienna Austria, composer (Second Quartet)
1873 Constantin Carathéodory, mathematician
1863 Arthur Henderson Britain, socialist/disarmament worker (Nobel 1934)
1863 Franz von Hipper, German naval commander at the Battle of Jutland in World War I.
1861 Frederick Judd Waugh, US painter specialized in Maritime Scenes, who died in 1940. — Photo of Waugh MORE ON WAUGH AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER LINKS The Knight of the Holy Grail Late Afternoon Breakers at Floodtide
1860 General John J. Blackjack" Pershing who led the campaign against Pancho Villa in Mexico and Commanded the American Expeditionary Force in France during World War I.
1857 Milton Snavely Hershey , American manufacturer and philanthropist who founded the Hershey Chocolate Corporation and was instrumental in popularizing chocolate candy throughout much of the world. He died on 10 (13?) October 1945, in Hershey, PA.
1851 Walter Reed, in Gloucester County, Virginia, US Army Surgeon, proved mosquitoes transmit yellow fever. He died on 23 November 1902.
1842 Guglielmo Ciardi, Italian artist who died in 1917.
1838 Anton Mauve, Dutch painter specialized in landscapes. He died on 05 February 1888. LINKS Morning Ride on the Beach Riders in the Snow of the Woods at The Hague In the Pasture
1830 Cristino Martos, político y jurista español.
1829 Henry Stacy Marks, British painter who died on 09 January 1898. — more LINKS Science is Measurement — A Select Committee of eight parrots. — Bardolph
1819 Clara Schumann (née Wieck) Leipzig, Germany, pianist/composer
1755 Oliver Evans pioneered high-pressure steam engine
1601 Jan Brueghel Jr., Flemish painter who died on 01 September 1678. MORE ON BRUEGHEL AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER LINKS Paradise Christ in the House of Martha and Mary — Landscape with Allegories of the Four Elements — Landscape with Ceres (Allegory of Earth)
1436 Benvenuto di Giovanni di Meo del Guasto (or di Giovanni Guasta), Italian painter who died in 1518. LINKS The Annunciation, (detail: the angel)