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Events, deaths, births, of JUN 06
[For events of Jun 06  Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Jun 161700s: Jun 171800s: Jun 181900~2099: Jun 19]
• Turmoil in China after TienAnMen massacre... • D~Day !... • Robert Kennedy dies... • Patrick Henry dies... • 2nd day of 6~Day War... • Les juifs persecutés en Espagne... • Indian army massacres Sikhs... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Orwell's 1984... • Thomas Mann is born... • BenefitsCheckUp... • SEC... • 1st movie drive~in... • Battle of Belleau Wood... • 58¢ theft could cost taxpayers $300'000... • 1st museum... • First US President to ride a train...
On a June 06:
2012 Transit of Venus (between Earth and Sun)
2003 Representatives of five of the main Palestinian terrorist-resistance organizations — Hamas, the Islamic Jihad, Fatah, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) and the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP) — meet in Gaza City. They denounce what US-imposed Palestinian Premier Mahmmoud Abbas said (that he will put a stop to their terrorism) and didn't say (refugees' right of return, etc.) when meeting in Aqaba on 04 June with his Israeli counterpart war-criminal Ariel Sharon and US usurper-President “Dubya” Bush. The terrorist organizations vow to pursue their “resistance” against the Israeli occupation as a legitimate right for the Palestinians.

PCSA price chart 2002 Wireless telephone stocks crash.
      Shares of wireless telephone companies plunge after AirGate PCS Inc. (PCSA) cut its subscriber growth forecast for the current quarter. AirGate shares fall from the previous close of $8.40 to and intraday low of $2.67 and close at $2.75 on the NASDAQ. The shares had started trading at $26.81 on 27 September 1999, reached $112.25 on 03 April 2000, and traded at $58.20 as recently as 26 November 2001. Today is their all-time low. [PCSA 3-year price chart >]
     AirGate is a provider of wireless Personal Communications Services exclusively licensed to use the Sprint PCS brand name in 21 markets located in the southeastern US.
      AirGate said late the previous day that it expects to add between 22'000 and 27'000 net new subscribers in its fiscal third quarter ending on 30 June 2002, instead of the 35'000 to 40'000 it forecast earlier. It blamed a greater-than-expected decline in new customers after it instituted a deposit requirement for Clear Pay, a plan with a spending limit designed for customers with poor credit. AirGate also warned that it may fail to meet minimum customer requirements under a senior credit agreement.
      Following the news, brokerage firms lowered they investment ratings for PCSA: J.P. Morgan and Bank of America (Buy to Mkt Perform),
Raymond James (Strong Buy to Mkt Perform), Robert W. Baird (Mkt Outperform to Mkt Perform), Thomas Weisel (Buy to Underperform), Credit Lyonnais (Add to Reduce), Morgan Stanley (Equal Weight to Underweight), Merrill Lynch (Near Term Neutral to NT Reduce/Sell), Legg Mason (Hold to Sell).
     Late Thursday, credit rating agency Standard & Poor's threatened to cut AirGate's "B-minus" credit rating, its sixth highest "junk" grade.
      Some brokerages also cut their ratings on other Sprint PCS affiliates, including Alamosa Holdings Inc. and UbiquiTel Inc., due to concerns that they may be affected by Clear Pay as well. Sprint PCS dictates pricing plans for services, including Clear Pay. When Clear Pay was first rolled out last year, it required no deposit, but Sprint PCS affiliates began requiring deposits this year after the plan started attracting a disproportionate number of customers with bad credit.
APS price chart      On the New York Stock Exchange the stock of Alamosa Holdings Inc. (APS) is the top percentage loser. It drops from the previous close of $3.65 to an intraday low of $1.93 and closes at $2.49. It started trading on 15 March 1999 at $6.00, reached an all-time high of $39.88 on 27 March 2000, traded at $20.00 on 16 August 2001. Today's low is its all-time low. The stock had just been downgraded from “Buy” to “LT Buy” by JP Morgan, and from “Market Outperform” to “Market Perform” by Robert W. Baird. Alamosa Holdings is a provider of wireless personal communications services and a network operator of Sprint PCS, with the exclusive right to provide services under the Sprint PCS brand name. It spends more money than it earns. [APS 3-year price chart >]
     Shares of US Unwired Inc. (UNWR) closed off $1.05, at $3.90. UbiquiTel Inc. (UPCS) closed off 48 cents, at 91 cents on NASDAQ. Both hit all-time lows earlier in the day. Shares of Sprint PCS, the nation's No. 4 wireless operator, closed at $7.99, off $1.79, even though it requires no deposits for Clear Pay and should not see similar declines in new customers with poor credit histories.
      Sprint PCS' parent, Sprint Corp. (FON), fell $1.43, to close at $15.15. Investors are becoming convinced that the business model for Sprint PCS affiliates is not working.
      Other wireless stocks were also hurt. Shares of AT&T Wireless Services Inc. (AWE) hit an all-time low of $7.25 before closing off 58 cents, at $7.40 on the New York Stock Exchange. Shares of Nextel Communications Inc. (NXTL) fell 46 cents, to close at $3.95, and shares of Triton PCS Holdings Inc. (TPC) fell $1.91, to close at $8.20.
      The Philadelphia wireless telecommunications index (YLS) fell 6.3%. It has fallen 67% in the first 5 months of 2002 as investors have abandoned wireless stocks, spurred by fears of a slowdown in growth and bad news in the broader telecommunications sector.
2001 For the first time in history, the majority in the US Senate changes without an election. With 50 Republicans and 50 Democrats, the Republicans had the majority by the tie-breaking vote of the Republican Vice-President. But this day the switch of Vermont Senator James Jeffords from Republican to Independent becomes effective, giving the Democrats a 50-49 majority.
2001 Manhattan's Jewish Museum discovers that one of the more than 50 pre-1921 paintings by Chagall (07 Jul 1887 – 28 Mar 1985)on temporary exhibition has been stolen. The 1914 painting, 20x25cm, is Study for 'Over Vitebsk (Chagall's hometown, now in Belarus), valued at $1 million. It shows an old man wearing a cap, carrying a walking stick and beggar's sack, and floating in the sky above the village. A typewritten, one-page letter claiming responsibility for the theft, postmarked in the Bronx on 12 June 2001, says that the painting will be returned when peace has been achieved between Israel and Palestine. On 23 January 2002 the US postal service in Kansas opens an undeliverable parcel and finds inside a painting believed to be the stolen Chagall.
2000 Unilever agrees to buy Bestfoods for $20.3 billion in a deal creating the world's biggest food company.
1999: 58¢ theft may cost taxpayers hundreds of thousands of dollars.       ^top^
     It is not the crime of the century when a man allegedly steal 58 cents from a car in rural New Jersey, but his trial and incarceration could end up costing taxpayers hundreds of thousands of dollars.
      In 2001, over protests from a taxpayers' advocacy group and civil libertarians, prosecutors would press for a prison sentence of between five and 10 years for a drifter accused of stealing the money in Greenwich, New Jersey, in 1999. In drifter Michael Monroe's defense, his attorney said he slid his hand through a slightly open window of the car to give more air to a Rottweiler dog that had been left inside by its owner. It had already cost taxpayers $16'000 to keep Monroe in prison before his trial started on 26 March 2001 in Warren County Superior Court, local officials said.
      "That's a waste of taxpayers' money for a crime that wasn't life-threatening," said Sam Perelli, state chairman of United Taxpayers of New Jersey. "For 58 cents it seems kind of crazy to prosecute him and use this kind of massive expenditure to incarcerate this man."
      If he receives the maximum prison sentence, local officials said the tab for his confinement would be about $270'000. "Ten years is a long time to put a man in prison for a burglary that only got him 58 cents," said Deborah Jacobs, executive director of the New Jersey chapter of the American Civil Liberties Union.
      Prosecutors alleged Monroe, 50, stole the money by sliding his hand through a slightly open window of the car while it was parked in a supermarket lot. Car owner David Laman said he left the window open to let in air for his dog. When Laman returned to the lot, he said he saw Monroe in the front seat. Monroe then got out and drove away in his own car.
1997 Objectionable web site's author on trial
The trial of a German politician for publishing objectionable content on the Web began on 06 June, 1997: Angela Marquardt of Berlin was sued for maintaining a Web site with links to a banned magazine. The trial occurred at a time when German authorities were campaigning to keep banned material off the Internet.
1997 Java proposal rejected
      Sun Microsystems proposed giving control of its Java programming language to an international standards group. The move would allow the firm to bypass US standards bodies without forfeiting its intellectual property rights. However, the proposal was rejected by a technical committee on 06 June, 1997.
1997 Caoimhghin O Caolain won a seat in Ireland's election becoming the first member of Sinn Fein, political wing of the IRA, to enter Ireland's parliament.
1996 The US Senate narrowly rejected a balanced budget amendment to the Constitution as outgoing Majority Leader Bob Dole and the Democrats clashed over deficit reduction.
1996 A family of four becomes the first persons to leave the Freemen ranch in Montana since April.
1995 The Constitutional Court of South Africa abolishes the death penalty.
1995 Taligent releases software       ^top^
      Taligent, a joint venture of IBM, Apple Computer, and Hewlett-Packard, announced the release of its first product, an application to run on operating systems made by its three parent companies. The three companies created Taligent in 1991 in an attempt to beat back Microsoft's unrelenting dominance in operating systems. The companies hoped Taligent would create a separate operating system but quickly learned that customers did not actually want another operating system. Instead of launching a revolutionary new system, Taligent focused on creating object-oriented technology to be embedded in existing operating systems, making them easier to develop and modify programs.
1994 Sudáfrica ingresa en la Organización para la Unidad Africana, como miembro número 53.
1993 En España el Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE) gana las elecciones legislativas por cuarta vez consecutiva, pero pierde la mayoría absoluta. Importante avance del Partido Popular (PP).
1991 NATO issued a statement saying it would not accept any "coercion or intimidation" against the emerging democracies of Eastern Europe.
1989 Violent repression continues in China two days after the bloody clearing of Tienanmen Square.       ^top^
China Seen on the Verge of Civil War — Protests Continue in the Provinces
BEIJING - China teetered this morning on the edge of civil war, with troops presumed loyal to hard-line President Yang Shangkun in control of central Beijing but positioned defensively at strategic points in apparent anticipation of attack by rival forces. Troops and armored vehicles were reported moving toward Beijing from the east, according to Western diplomats. A military attache in the British colony of Hong Kong, reached by telephone this morning, said that infantry units of the air force landed at the Nanyuan military airport south of the capital Monday night and engaged in skirmishes with other military units at or near the airport.
      Other small-scale duels broke out between rival troops Monday, according to Western witnesses, only about one mile west of Tian An Men Square.
      At about 19:00 Monday, tanks accompanied by armored personnel carriers and truckloads of troops fanned out to points along the Second Ring Road that loops around the main part of the city.
      About 20 tanks continued to stand guard this morning at the Jianguomen bridge on the eastern side of the city, about half facing east in defensive positions. The others faced north, south and west to control access to the strategically important bridge, which crosses the Second Ring Road.
      About 100 military vehicles, including armored personnel carriers and troop trucks, were abandoned by soldiers on the west side of the city during the predawn hours Monday and later set afire by residents. Crowds around the charred vehicles reported that the soldiers who had left them and taken refuge at a nearby museum compound had said they were unwilling to fire on unarmed crowds.
      Closer to the city center, shooting broke out between two groups of troops near the Minzu Hotel, a couple of kilometers west of Tian An Men Square.
      Western diplomats said that later in the day they saw two armored personnel carriers engage in a machine-gun duel at the same location, sending bullets through fifth-floor windows of the tourist hotel.
      Throughout many parts of the city, citizens erected barricades of buses, trucks, metal-and-concrete street dividers and vegetable market stalls. Citizens stood guard at intersections, many of which were virtually impassable.
      The lack of transportation and an eerie tension on the streets kept most workers at home away from their jobs Monday and today. Most stores remained closed and there was worry that food shortages may soon crop up. Relatively few Beijing residents keep stores of food on hand because of a lack of refrigerators. Panic buying of food supplies began to break out. "We have dried noodles, but that is about all. And we're almost out of cooking oil," complained a homemaker standing in a long line at a vegetable stand near the Temple of the Sun park.
      In the old neighborhoods near Tien An Men Square, soldiers were seen Monday running into alleyways and shooting at fleeing residents. One witness said that a teen-age girl was shot in the chest near Tian An Men. Rifle shots could be heard from the direction of the square in the evening, and a building was set afire on Xidan street and Changan Avenue to the west of the huge central open space.
      Reports from other areas of China on Monday indicated that the situation was chaotic in many other cities outside Beijing. Posters in Shanghai carried the message "The Blood Has Been Shed," referring to the weekend violence in Beijing. Protesters blocked traffic virtually throughout the city, an official at the US Consulate said. The Shanghai municipal government warned that it would take "strong measures" unless the streets were cleared. The situation in Shanghai further deteriorated in the evening, with authorities warning that they were about to move against the throngs of residents in the streets.
      In Chengdu in Sichuan province, a diplomat reported that cars of Chinese officials were being overturned.
      In Hangzhou and Wuhan, protesters sat on rail lines, blocking trains to Shanghai and a main north-south line.
      According to reports, demonstrations of varying scale have been held in Tianjin, Qingdao, Nanjing, Xian, Changsha and Canton. Worker and shopkeeper strikes are brewing in some cities.
1985 Authorities in Brazil exhume a body later identified as the remains of Dr. Josef Mengele, the notorious "Angel of Death" of the Holocaust.
1982 30'000 Israeli troops invade southern Lebanon to drive out 1982, Israeli forces invaded Lebanon to drive oun Palestine Liberation Organization guerrillas (The Israelis withdrew in June 1985.)
1980 For the second time in a week, US nuclear forces go on red alert following a computer error warning of a Soviet attack.
1978 California voters overwhelmingly approve Proposition 13, a primary ballot initiative which cuts California property taxes 57%
1977 Supreme Court tossed out automatic death penalty laws.
1977 Joseph Lason is installed as Bishop of Biloxi, Mississippi, becoming the first US Black Roman Catholic bishop consecrated since the 19th century.
1977 Vance affirms Carter's interest in human rights       ^top^
      In the face of recent Soviet crackdowns on human rights activists, Secretary of State Cyrus Vance assures skeptics in the United States that the administration of President Jimmy Carter will hold the Soviet Union accountable for its actions. On June 1, 1977 the Soviets charged Anatoly Shcharansky, a computer expert and leader of the human rights movement in Russia, with treason and arrested him. Shcharansky was a leading member of the so-called "Helsinki group" in the Soviet Union, a collection of dissidents whose goal was to monitor the Soviet government's compliance with the 1975 Helsinki accords between the United States and Russia. One part of those accords had been a statement that recognized the right of all people to enjoy basic human rights. Shcharansky and other Soviet dissidents, as well as international human rights groups such as Amnesty International, argued that the Soviets had never complied with this part of the accords. When Jimmy Carter entered the presidency in 1977, he stressed his commitment to human rights and particularly condemned the Soviet Union for its refusal to allow Russian Jews to emigrate. Many in the West saw Shcharansky's arrest as a direct challenge to Carter's emphasis on human rights. Just a few days after Shcharansky was charged with treason, Secretary of State Vance met with members of the US commission on human rights, headed by Representative Dante Fascell. They were skeptical of the Carter administration's commitment to pushing the issue of human rights with the Soviets, particularly in the face of the recent crackdowns on dissent in Russia. A recently released report prepared by the Carter White House indicated that the Soviets were not complying with the human rights sections of the Helsinki accords. Vance assured the commission that "The United States will not back down with respect to its position on human rights." The Carter record on this matter, however, remained mixed. While the president publicly condemned Russia's human rights policies, and sometimes even instigated sanctions (such as a halt on the sale of computer equipment to the Soviet Union), he was never as aggressive with the Soviets as he was with smaller and less powerful nations, such as Guatemala and El Salvador.
1975 British voters decide to remain in Common Market
1975 Provisional Revolutionary Government of South Vietnam established
1972 South Vietnamese forces clear Kontum of Communist troops       ^top^
      South Vietnamese forces drive out all but a few of the communist troops remaining in Kontum. Over 200 North Vietnamese had been killed in six battles in and around the city. The city had come under attack in April when the North Vietnamese had launched their Nguyen Hue Offensive (later called the Easter Offensive), a massive invasion by North Vietnamese forces designed to strike the blow that would win them the war. The attacking force included 14 infantry divisions and 26 separate regiments, with more than 120,000 troops and approximately 1200 tanks and other armored vehicles. In addition to Kontum, the other main North Vietnamese objectives were Quang Tri in the north and An Loc farther to the south. Initially, the South Vietnamese defenders were almost overwhelmed, particularly in the northernmost provinces, where they abandoned their positions in Quang Tri and fled south in the face of the enemy onslaught. At Kontum and An Loc, the South Vietnamese were more successful in defending against the attacks, but only after weeks of bitter fighting. Although the defenders suffered heavy casualties, they managed to hold their own with the aid of US advisors and American airpower. Fighting continued all over South Vietnam into the summer months, but eventually the South Vietnamese forces prevailed against the invaders and retook Quang Tri in September. With the communist invasion blunted, President Nixon declared that the South Vietnamese victory proved the viability of his Vietnamization program, which he had instituted in 1969 to increase the combat capability of the South Vietnamese armed forces so that US troops could be withdrawn.
1972 Gold hits record $60 an ounce in London
1969 El Gobierno español acuerda el cierre total de la frontera con Gibraltar.
1967 Second day of the Six-Day War       ^top^
      On June 5, 1967, responding to the Egyptian reoccupation of Gaza and the closure of the Gulf of Aqaba to Israeli shipping, Israel launched simultaneous military offensives against Egypt and Syria. Jordan subsequently entered the fray, but the Arab coalition was no match for Israel’s well-supplied and famously proficient armed forces.
      In six days, Israel occupied the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt, the Golan Heights of Syria, and the West Bank and Arab sector of East Jerusalem, both previously under Jordanian rule.
      The so-called Six-Day War gave Israel control of territory three times its original size, and Jerusalem was unified under Jewish rule, despite a UN resolution calling for the preservation of the holy city’s Arab sector.
      Arab leaders, forced to accept a UN cease-fire, met at Khartoum in the Sudan in August to discuss the future of Israel in the Middle East. They decided upon a policy of no peace, no negotiations, and no recognition of Israel, and also made plans to zealously defend the rights of Palestinian Arabs in the territories occupied by Israel.
1966 Black activist James Meredith is shot and wounded as he walked along a Mississippi highway to encourage black voter registration.
1964 US reconnaissance jets shot down over Laos       ^top^
      Two US Navy jets flying low-altitude target reconnaissance missions over Laos are shot down by communist Pathet Lao ground fire. Washington immediately ordered armed jets to escort the reconnaissance flights, and, by 09 June, escort jets were attacking Pathet Lao headquarters. The downing of the two reconnaissance aircraft and the retaliatory strikes were made public, but the full extent of the US involvement in Laos was not. In fact, the US fighter-bombers were flying combat missions in support of Royal Lao forces in their war against the communist Pathet Lao and would continue to do so until 1973.
les Boches aux Champs-Elysées1954 Aparece el enlace europeo de las televisiones de ocho países occidentales, bajo los auspicios de Eurovisión.
1942 Japanese navy retreats, ending Battle of Midway
1942 Nazis burn village of Lidice Bohemia, as reprisal of killing Heydrich.
1940 Rupture du front de la Somme — Raid isolé du Farman 224 "Jules Verne" sur Berlin
1940 Avec une impressionnante offensive militaire, le 10 mai 1940, l’armée allemande, avec ses vagues d’avions, son déferlement de blindés et sa ruée d’infanterie, avait fini par vaincre la résistance tardive des généraux français : c’est la débâcle française. Le 10 juin, la Wehrmacht défilait sur les Champs-Elysées [photo >]. La France était occupée ! L’image reste aujourd’hui encore insoutenable pour les Français.
1938 El pintor español Ignacio Zuloaga y Zabaleta obtiene el premio de honor en la Exposición de Venecia.
1936 Aviation gasoline first produced commercially, Paulsboro NJ
1932 Gasoline tax
      The first gasoline tax levied by Congress was enacted on this day as a part of the Revenue Act of 1932. The act mandated a series of excise taxes on a wide variety of consumer goods. Congress placed a tax of one cent per gallon of gasoline and other motor fuel sold.
1918 Battle of Belleau Wood begins       ^top^
      The first large-scale battle fought by American soldiers in World War I begins in Belleau Wood, northwest of the Paris to Metz road.
      In late May 1918, the third German offensive of the year penetrated the Western Front to within forty-five miles of Paris. US forces under General John J. Pershing had helped halt the German advance, and on 06 June, Pershing ordered a counter-offensive to drive the Germans out of Belleau Wood. US Marines under General James Harbord led the attack against the four German divisions positioned in the woods, and by the end of the first day had suffered over one thousand casualties.
      For the next three weeks, the Marines, backed by US Army artillery, launched attack after attack into the forested area, but German General Erich Ludendorff was determined to deny the Americans a victory. Ludendorff continually brought up reinforcements from the rear, and the Germans attacked the US forces with machine guns, artillery, and gas. Finally, on 26 June, the US troops prevailed, but at the cost of nearly 10'000 dead, wounded, or missing in action.
1914 first air flight out of the sight of land (Scotland to Norway)
1911 Nicaragua signs treaty turning over customs to US (not ratified)
1896 George Samuelson leaves NY harbor to row across the Atlantic.
1874 Harper's Weekly features a cartoon about the decimation of the bison in the US West.
1869 Se promulga en España una nueva Constitución.
1864 Engagement at Lake Chicot (Dutch Bayou), Arkansas
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1862 Battle of Memphis — the city is surrendered
1854 Se funda en Estados Unidos el Partido Republicano, que se declara contrario a la esclavitud.
1833 US President Jackson's train ride       ^top^
      In Ellicotts Mills, Maryland, President Andrew Jackson boarded a Baltimore & Ohio Railroad train for a pleasure trip to Baltimore. Jackson, who had never been on a train before, was also the first president to take a ride on the "Iron Horse."
      The steam locomotive was first pioneered in England at the beginning of the nineteenth century by Richard Trevithick and George Stephenson. The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad began operation in 1828 with horse-draw cars, but after the successful run of the Tom Thumb, a steam train that out-raced a horse in a public demonstration in 1830, steam power was added.
      By 1831, the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad had completed a line from Baltimore and Frederick, Maryland, and two years later, Andrew Jackson gave railroad travel its presidential christening. The acceptance of railroads came quickly in the 1830s, and by 1840, the nation had almost 5000 km of railway, for greater then the combined European total of only 2900 km. The railroad network expanded quickly in the years before the Civil War, and by 1860, the American railroad system had become a national network of some 50'000 km. Nine years later, transcontinental railroad service became possible for the first time.
1816 10" snowfall in New England, the "year without a summer" (Krakatoa)
1813 US invasion of Canada halted at Stoney Creek (Ont)
1808 José Bonaparte, hermano de Napoleón, es proclamado rey de España, en Bayona.
1801 The war between Spain and Portugal, known as the War of the Oranges, ends with the Treaty of Badajoz being signed.
1794 (18 prairial an II) BERNARD, fils, graveur, domicilié à Salins, canton d'Arbois (Jura), est coondamné à mort par contumace, comme fabricateur de faux assignats, par le tribunal criminel du département du Gard.
1794 (18 prairial an II) LECLER Victoire, veuve Labatty, 34 ans, née à Compiègne, domiciliée à Vitry-sur-Marne, est coondamnée à mort par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme conspiratrice; il a été sursis à son exécution, s'étant déclarée enceinte; elle fut transférée à la maison dé l'Evêché, d'où elle a été mise en liberté après le 9 thermidor.
1660 the Peace of Copenhagen is signed, ending the war between Sweden and Denmark.
1622 Gregory XV publishes the bull 'Inscrutabili Divinae,' which reminded the Church of its mission to the newly discovered native populations in the recently discovered Americas.
1523 Gustavus I becomes king of Sweden (Swedish National Day)
1513 Swiss papal forces defeated the French at the Battle of Novara in Italy during the War of the Holy League.
1391 Synagogues espagnoles converties en églises.       ^top^
      A Séville, deux synagogues sont converties en églises. L'affaire s'accompagne de nombreux meurtres et de rapines contre la communauté juive de la ville. Les violences s'étendent au reste du pays malgré l'opposition des souverains. L'Espagne catholique découvre l'intolérance alors même qu'elle triomphe des envahisseurs musulmans qui ont conquis la péninsule 700 ans plus tôt. Le peuple s'échauffe contre les juifs et, plus encore, contre les conversos, musulmans ou juifs convertis au catholicisme. Il les soupçonne, non sans raison, d'être restés fidèles à leur première croyance et de corrompre la foi chrétienne. Les conversos juifs sont surnommés marranes (d'un mot arabe qui signifie impur et désigne les porcs). Ceux qui refusent de se rallier à la foi catholique sont condamnés au bûcher par l'Inquisition. Les Espagnols veulent ainsi préserver la «limpieza de la sangre» (la pureté du sang). Insensiblement, le pays glisse vers l'antisémitisme moderne.
      Les chrétiens du Moyen Age persécutaient les juifs car ils leur reprochaient d'appartenir au «peuple déicide». Mais ils leur permettaient de se convertir pour échapper à leur sort. En entrant dans la Renaissance, les Espagnols se représentent les Juifs comme une race à part et considèrent que la conversion ne les exempte pas des persécutions. Le racisme fait son entrée dans l'histoire européenne en 1535, quand les chanoines de la cathédrale de Cordoue refusent l'accès au chapitre à de bons catholiques qui ne pourraient attester de la «limpieza de la sangre» depuis au moins quatre générations!
Moja LemsipDeaths which occurred on a June 06:
2003 Hayden Fish, 7 months, in Las Vegas, Nevada, from being baked the previous day in the back seat of his family's van where his father, Centennial High School teacher David Fish, forgot him for eight hours, instead of dropping him off at day care. The infant's temperature was 43ºC when he was finally taken to a hospital. David Fish would not be charged with any crime, alledgedly because of a gap in Nevada laws that leaves unpunished unintentional neglect of a child, even if it results in its death.
2002 Erez Rund, 18, Israeli, a few hours after being hit at 16:20 by a Kalashnikov shot from the direction of the Palestinian village of Sinjil, as he was riding in a car from the enclave settlement of Eli to his home settlement of Ofra.
2002 Osama Shabit, 19, Palestinian, by Israeli artillery fire in the east of Gaza City.
2002 Muhammad Abu Amra, 23, Palestinian from Deir Albalah, of head wound sustained towards the end of May 2002 from machinegun fire from an Israeli tank, stationed at Abu Holey Passage.
2002 Moja Lemsip, 29 [photo >], in the morning, of complications from an abdominal hernia, at Central Washington University's Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute. Moja (= “first” it Swahili) was born in captivity, on 18 November 1972, at the Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Surgery in Primates (LEMSIP) in Tuxedo NY. She was raised by Drs. Beatrix and R. Allen Gardner. Moja joined Washoe, Loulis, and the rest of the wards of Roger and Deborah Fouts at the University of Oklahoma in 1979, and accompanied them to CWU in 1980. Free-living chimpanzee life expectancy can reach into the late 40s. In captivity chimps can live to be more than 60 years old, though most die between 10 and 15 years of age. Moja was the first chimpanzee of second sign language project, and is the first chimp to die at CHCI, a sanctuary for adult chimpanzees who communicate with humans and each other using American Sign Language. where she is survived by Washoe Pan Satyrus, Loulis Yerkes , Dar es Salaam, and Tatu Oklahoma (Tatu signed HURT and CRY to her human friends and Dar has been signing CRY as well. Washoe has seemed very introspective and sat looking into the night enclosure area for a long time).The mission of CHCI is to protect and care for these chimpanzees, educate the public on the endangered status of wild chimps, help improve the lives of all captive chimpanzees through ongoing research and serve as a humane research facility for students. — CHCI chimpcam (M-F 09:00-12:00 and 13:00-15:30 — Sa 09:00-12:00 — Su 12:00-15:30 Pacific Time)
1995 Ollie Brown, 3, Jennifer Brewer, 6, and their mother Valarie Brewer, shot, in Dallas. Toronto Patterson, 17 at the time of the murders (in which he denied participating), their cousin, would be convicted in November 1995 and executed on 28 August 2002.
1991 Sylvia Porter, 77, economist/author
1990 Aurora de Albornoz, escritora española.
1984 Jorge Guillén, poeta español.
click to zoom in1984 Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale, Sikh leader, hundreds of armed followers, hundreds of peaceful Sikhs, over 100 Indian soldiers, as Indian Army storms the Golden Temple.       ^top^
      As part of Operation Blue Star, a massive offensive undertaken by India against militant Sikh nationalists, the Indian army storms the Golden Temple in Amritsar, killing an estimated one thousand Sikhs.
      In 1982, Sikh militants had begun a terrorism campaign intended to pressure the Indian government to create an autonomous Sikh republic in the state of Punjab. Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi responded with force, and in June 1984, she ordered the largest counter-terrorism military action ever taken by a democratic government. On 06 June, Indian forces launched a major assault against the Golden Temple, the Sikh religion’s holiest shrine and the center of the independence movement.
      Hundreds of armed militants under Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale had holed-up in the temple to escape the Indian army occupying Amritsar, but they were no match for the Indian artillery, tank, and troop attack. Bhindranwale and his followers were killed, over one hundred Indian troops lost their lives, and scores of non-belligerent Sikhs were massacred in the fighting. Over the next few months, government suppression of the Sikhs continued, and thousands of suspected nationalists were arrested or killed. On 31 October 1984, as reprisal for the attack on the Golden Temple, Indira Gandhi was shot to death while walking in the garden of her New Delhi home by Sikh members of her security guard.
      In a bloody climax to two years of fighting between the Indian government and Sikh separatists, Indian army troops fight their way into the besieged Golden Temple compound in Amritsar — the holiest shrine of Sikhism — and kill at least 500 Sikh rebels. More than 100 Indian soldiers and scores of nonbelligerent Sikhs also perished in the ferocious gun and artillery battle, which was launched in the early morning hours of 06 June. The army also attacked Sikh guerrillas besieged in three dozen other temples and religious shrines throughout the state of Punjab. Indian officials hailed the operation as a success and said it "broke the back" of the Sikh terrorist movement. The Sikh religion, which was founded in the late 15th century by Guru Nanak, combines elements of Hinduism and Islam, the two major religions of India. The religion is centered on the Indian state of Punjab in northern India, where Sikhs comprise a majority and speak Punjabi. In the 1970s, agricultural advances made Punjab one of India's most prosperous states, and Sikh leaders began calling for greater autonomy from the central government. This movement was largely peaceful until 1982, when the Sikh fundamentalist Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his followers launched a separatist campaign in Punjab. Employing terrorism and assassination, Bhindranwale and his guerrillas killed scores of political opponents and Hindu civilians in the name of establishing an autonomous Sikh Khalistan, or "Land of the Pure." Most Sikhs did not support Bhindranwale's violent campaign, in which the extremists also assassinated several Sikhs who spoke out against the creation of Khalistan. To appease the Sikhs, Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi nominated Zail Singh to be the first Sikh president of India in 1982, a significant choice because the Sikhs comprise a small percentage of India's overall population. Most Sikhs distrusted Singh, however, because as Indian head of state he generally supported Gandhi's policies. Meanwhile, the separatists occupied the Golden Temple and other Sikh holy sites and turned them into armed bases. The Golden Temple, known as the Harimandir in India, was built in 1604 by Guru Arjun. It was destroyed several times by Afghan invaders and rebuilt in the early 19th century in marble and copper overlaid with gold foil. The temple occupies a small island in the center of a pool. There are a number of other important buildings in the 29-hectare temple compound, including the Akal Takht, which is the repository for Sikhism's Holy Book of scriptures and the headquarters of the religion.
      To suppress the separatist revolt, which had claimed more than 400 Hindu and Sikh lives and virtually shut down Punjab, Prime Minister Gandhi ordered Indian troops to seize control of the Sikh bases by force in June 1984. On 01 June, army soldiers surrounded the Golden Temple and exchanged gunfire with the rebels, who were heavily armed and commanded by a high-ranking army defector. The Sikhs refused to surrender, and in the early morning of 06 June army forces launched an assault on the temple compound. By daylight, the Sikhs were defeated. Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale, the rebel leader, perished in the attack, allegedly by his own hand. The Indian government announced that 492 Sikh militants were killed, but the Sikhs put the number at more than 1000. More than 100 army soldiers were killed and several hundred wounded. More than 1500 Sikhs were arrested in the operation. The Golden Temple itself suffered only minor damage, but the Akal Takht, a scene of heavy fighting, was heavily damaged. In the aftermath of the bloody confrontation, Sikhs rioted across India, and more people were killed. Some 1000 Sikh soldiers in the Indian army mutinied, but these defectors were suppressed, and rebel leaders still at large were captured or killed.
      On 31 October Indira Gandhi was shot to death in her garden by two Sikh members of her own bodyguard. This act only led to further violence, and thousands of Sikhs were massacred by angry Hindus in Delhi before Gandhi's son and successor, Rajiv Gandhi, called out the army to end the orgy of violence. Punjab's political status remains a divisive issue in India, and disorder and violence has persisted in the state.
1981 At least 800 persons in the world's worst rail disaster, seven coaches of an overcrowded passenger train were blown off the tracks into the River Kosi, in Bihar, India.
1977 Stefan Bergman, Jewish Polish US mathematician born on 05 May 1895.
1976 J. Paul Getty, 83, of heart failure, in London, multi-billionaire (“remember, a billion dollars isn't worth what it used to be.” he said in 1957) oil magnate, president and majority owner of Getty Oil Company, owner of controling interest in some 200 other companies, born on 15 December 1892 (“In building a large fortune, it pays to be born at the right time. If I had been born earlier or later, I would have missed the great business opportunities that existed in World War I and later.”). Five divorces. Author of History of the Oil Business of George Franklin Getty and J. Paul Getty, 1903-39 — The Joys of Collecting (1965), and Europe in the Eighteenth Century (1949).
1972: 427 in explosion at world's largest coal mine (Wankie, Rhodesia)
1972 Abraham Adrian Albert, Chicago mathematician born on 09 November 1905.
1968 Robert F. Kennedy       ^top^
      At 12:50 a.m. PST early the previous day, Senator Robert F. Kennedy, a presidential candidate, had just completed a speech celebrating his victory in the California Primary, and was making his way out of the ballroom of the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, when he was shot three times in a hail of gunfire. Five others were wounded. The apparent shooter, Palestinian Sirhan Sirhan, had a smoking .22 revolver wrested from his grip and was promptly arrested. Kennedy, critically wounded, was rushed to the hospital where he fought for his life for the next thirty-two hours. On the morning of 06 June, he died, and two days later was buried at Arlington National Cemetery, the final resting place of his assassinated older brother, President John F. Kennedy.
      Robert Kennedy, born on 20 November 1925, a legal counsel for various Senate subcommittees during the 1950s, served as the manager of his brother’s successful presidential campaign in 1960. Appointed attorney general by President Kennedy, he proved a vigorous member of the cabinet, zealously prosecuting cases relating to civil rights while closely advising the president on various domestic and foreign issues.
      After Kennedy’s assassination in 1963, he joined President Lyndon B. Johnson’s administration, but resigned in 1964 to run successfully in New York for a Senate seat. Known in Congress as an advocate of social reform and defender of the rights of minorities, he also voiced criticism of the war in Vietnam. In 1968, he was urged by many of his supporters to run for president as an anti-war and socially progressive Democratic. Hesitant until he saw positive primary returns for fellow anti-war candidate Eugene McCarthy, he announced his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination on 16 March 1968.
      Fifteen days later, President Johnson announced that he would not seek reelection, and Vice President Hubert Humphrey became the key Democratic hopeful, with McCarthy and Kennedy trailing closely behind. However, Kennedy conducted an energetic campaign, and on 04 June 1968, he won a major victory in the California primary. In the early hours of the next morning, he gave a victory speech to his supporters in the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, and then, while making his way to a press conference by a side exit, he was fatally wounded by Palestinian Sirhan Sirhan. Sirhan was arrested at the scene, indicted for first degree murder, convicted, and, on 23 April 1969, sentenced to die. However, his death sentence was commuted to life imprisonment in 1972 when the California Supreme Court abolished the death penalty.
      Although Sirhan’s motives were not entirely clear, the 05 June attack did come on the first anniversary of the Israeli invasion of his homeland in the Six-Day War, and he may have been retaliating against America’s historic support of Israel. Others have alleged that Sirhan was part of a larger assassination conspiracy, reportedly brought on by Kennedy’s promise to end the Vietnam War if elected president. These conspiracists cite forensic evidence and witness testimony that they say proves the existence of additional shooters who were not detained.
1962 Yves Klein, French Conceptual painter, sculptor, performance artist, and writer, born on 28 April 1928. — LINKSmore
1961 Dr Carl Gustav Jung, Swiss psychatrist born on 26 July 1875..
1944 The fallen soldiers of D-Day:       ^top^
      Supreme Allied Commander General Dwight D. Eisenhower gives the go-ahead for largest amphibious military operation in history: Operation Overlord, code named D-Day, the Allied invasion of northern France. By daybreak, 18'000 British and American parachutists are already on the ground. At 06:30, American troops came ashore at Utah and Omaha beaches. At Omaha, the US First Division battles high seas, mist, mines, burning vehicles — and German coastal batteries, including an elite infantry division, which spew heavy fire. Many wounded Americans ultimately drown in the high tide.
      British divisions, which land at Gold, Juno, and Sword beaches, and Canadian troops also meet with heavy German fire, but by the end of the day they are able to push inland. Despite the German resistance, Allied casualties overall are relatively light. The United States and Britain each lose about 1000 men, and Canada 355. Before the day is over, 155'000 Allied troops are in Normandy.
      However, the United States manages to get on shore only half of the 14'000 vehicles and a quarter of the 14'500 tons of supplies they intended.
      Three factors are decisive in the success of the Allied invasion.
      First, German counterattacks, though firm, are sparse, enabling the Allies to create a broad bridgehead, or advanced position, from which they are able to build up enormous troop strength.
     Second, Allied air cover, which destroyed bridges over the Seine, forces the Germans to suffer long detours, and naval gunfire proves decisive in protecting the invasion troops.
      And third, division and confusion within the German ranks as to where the invasion would start and how best to defend their position helps the Allies. (Hitler, convinced another invasion is coming the next day east of the Seine River, refuses to allow reserves to be pulled from that area.)
      Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery, commander of Britain's Twenty-first Army Group (but under the overall command of General Eisenhower, for whom Montgomery, and his ego, proved a perennial thorn in the side), often claimed later that the invasion had come off exactly as planned. That was a boast, as evidenced by the failure to take Caen on the first day, as scheduled.
      While the operation is a decided success, considering the number of troops put ashore and light casualties, improvisation by courageous and quick-witted commanders also play an enormous role.
      The D-Day invasion has been the basis for several movies, from The Longest Day (1962), which boasted an all-star cast that included Richard Burton, Sean Connery, John Wayne, Robert Mitchum-and Fabian, to Saving Private Ryan (1998), which includes some of the most grippingly realistic war scenes ever filmed, captured in the style of the famous Robert Capa still photos of the actual invasion.
: le 6 juin 1944 fut certainement celui qui libéra le monde de l’emprise de Hitler. Les Alliés avaient décidé cette opération pour entrer dans la France occupée par les Allemands et en chasser les nazis, ce qui leur ouvrirait les portes de la contre-offensive. Opération délicate, conduite par les Américains avec, à leur tête, le mythique général Eisenhower. Le 6 juin à l’aube, 850'000 soldats alliés, dont 90'000 Américains débarqueront sur les plages de Normandie avec d’imposants moyens militaires. Les troupes étaient transportées par 1200 bâtiments de guerre. Le Mur de l’Atlantique, édifié par Hitler, est pris d’assaut. La riposte allemande tua des milliers de soldats alliés dans la matinée même. Mais les Alliés réussirent à mettre les pieds sur le sol français. Et livrer bataille aux nazis jusqu’à leur abdication.
1944 (D-day) Ker-Xavier Roussel, French Nabi painter, printmaker, and decorative artist, born on 10 December 1867.— LINKSmore
1943 Guido Fubini, Jewish Italian mathematician born on 19 January 1879, son of a mathematics teacher. He took refuge in the US in 1939.
1928 Luigi Bianchi, Italian mathematician born on 18 January 1856. He made important contributions to differential geometry. He discovered all the geometries of Riemann that allow a continuous group of transformations. His work on non-Euclidean geometries was used by Einstein in his general theory of relativity. Author of Lectures on differential geometry (1894), Lectures on the theory of groups of substitutions (1900), Lectures on the theory of continuous groups (1918), Lectures on the theory of functions of a complex variable (1901), Lectures on the theory of algebraic numbers (1923).
1914 Gabriel Joseph Marie Augustin Férier, French artist born on 27 September 1847.
1882 Some 100'000 are drowned by a cyclone in Arabian Sea (Bombay, India).
1862 General Turner Ashby, killed near Harrisonburg, VA
1861 Camilo Benso conte di Cavour, político italiano.
1846 Adèle Romany, French artist born on 07 December 1769.
Patrick Henry's Address, by Chappel1799 Patrick Henry, in Charlotte County, Virginia.   ^top^
      US independence Patriot, born on 29 May (17 May Julian) 1736, who on 23 March 1775, before the second Virginia Convention, would voice American opposition to the increasingly oppressive British rule over the American colonies with his “...give me liberty, or give me death!” speech. [There seems to be more people who say: "Give me liberty or give me wealth!". What I would say is: "Give me liberty or give me freedom!"]. He dies on the 44th birthday of Nathan Hale (another Patriot, whom the British hung when he was 21)
     Already, on 29 May 1765, his twenty-ninth birthday, nine days a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses, Patrick Henry had presented a series of resolutions opposing the British Stamp Act. He concluded his introduction of the Virginia Resolutions with the fiery words “Caesar had his Brutus, Charles the First his Cromwell, and George the Third — ” when, it is reported, voices cried out, "Treason! treason!" He continued, " — and George the Third may profit by their example! If this be treason make the most of it."
      Following the signing of the US Declaration of Independence on 04 July 1776, Patrick Henry was appointed governor of Virginia by the Continental Congress. The first major American opposition to British policy came in 1765 after Parliament passed the Stamp Act, a taxation measure to raise revenues for a standing British army in America. Under the banner of "no taxation without representation," colonists convened the Stamp Act Congress in October 1765 to vocalize their opposition to the tax. With its enactment on 01 November 1765, most colonists called for a boycott of British goods and some organized attacks on the customhouses and homes of tax collectors. After months of protest, Parliament voted to repeal the Stamp Act in March 1765, and most colonists quietly accepted British rule until Parliament’s enactment of the Tea Act in 1773, which granted the East India Company a monopoly on the American tea trade. Viewing this as another example of taxation without representation, militant Patriots in Massachusetts organized the "Boston Tea Party," which saw British tea valued at some ten thousand pounds dumped into Boston harbor.
      Parliament, outraged by the Boston Tea Party and other blatant destruction of British property, enacted the Coercive Acts, also known as the Intolerable Acts, in the following year. The colonists subsequently called the first Continental Congress to consider a united American resistance against the British. With the other colonies watching intently, Massachusetts led the resistance to the British, forming a shadow revolutionary government and establishing militias to resist the increasing British military presence across the colony. In April 1775, Thomas Gage, the British governor of Massachusetts, ordered British troops to march to Concord, Massachusetts, where a Patriot arsenal was known to exist. On 19 April 1775, the British regulars encountered a group of American militiamen at Lexington and the first volleys of the American Revolutionary War were fired.
Introductory Note: In March of 1770, the English, had, in fact, abolished all the duties it had imposed, except that on tea. Quite aside from the rumblings coming from the colonies, these duties were being felt at home. The Townsend duties had an impact on the British commercial classes, for, there was a decline in exports. Even the tax on tea was reduced so as to cure the smuggling problem. At these lower rates, this tea tax would likely have been tolerable in the colonies, except for this: in May of 1773 the East India Company had been given authority to sell its tea free of duty except that which was to be sold in North America. In December of 1773, there then occurred the Boston Tea Party. In response, England, in 1774, passed a number of acts including The Boston Port Act, The Quartering Act and The Massachusetts Government Act. The effect of these acts was to close Boston to foreign traffic, change the government and the courts of justice of Massachusetts and to legalized the quartering of British troops in colonial homes. The aim of these measures was to curb rebellion. In return the civilian leaders of the colonies met at Philadelphia, on September 5th, 1774: The first Continental Congress. It passed five measures affecting the relations of the colonies with the mother-country. It forbade the import of English wares and ordered the cessation of all exports to Great Britain, unless they were to be given redress of the colonial grievances prior. Further, it approved of the opposition offered to the late acts of Parliament by the people of Massachusetts Bay. It then issued proclamations to the colonies, both north and south, which called for their support. Thus, it was, that on March 23rd, 1775, at Virginia, the largest colony in America, and with the greatest ties and more English-like then any of the other colonies, a meeting of its delegates took place in St. John's church in Richmond. A number of the delegates were abhorred by the notion that they should take steps which might lead to war with the mother-country. The resolution was presented by Patrick Henry. Before the vote was taken, he delivered a speech in support. He stood; silent at first, then spoke quietly and proceeded gradually to increase his speech in force and in loudness reaching at the end a crescendo that still echoes and will likely always echo in the hearts of men.

     No man thinks more highly than I do of the patriotism, as well as abilities, of the very worthy gentlemen who have just addressed the House. But different men often see the same subject in different lights; and, therefore, I hope that it will not be thought disrespectful to those gentlemen, if, entertaining as I do opinions of a character very opposite to theirs, I shall speak forth my sentiments freely and without reserve.
      This is no time for ceremony. The question before the House is one of awful moment to this country. For my own part I consider it as nothing less than a question of freedom or slavery; and in proportion to the magnitude of the subject ought to be the freedom of the debate. It is only in this way that we can hope to arrive at truth, and fulfill the great responsibility which we hold to God and our country. Should I keep back my opinions at such a time, through fear of giving offense, I should consider myself as guilty of treason towards my country, and of an act of disloyalty towards the majesty of heaven, which I revere above all earthly kings.
      Mr. President, it is natural to man to indulge in the illusions of hope. We are apt to shut our eyes against a painful truth, and listen to the song of that siren, till she transforms us into beasts. Is this the part of wise men, engaged in a great and arduous struggle for liberty? Are we disposed to be of the number of those who, having eyes, see not, and having ears, hear not, the things which so nearly concern their temporal salvation?
      For my part, whatever anguish of spirit it may cost, I am willing to know the whole truth — to know the worst and to provide for it. I have but one lamp by which my feet are guided; and that is the lamp of experience. I know of no way of judging of the future but by the past. And judging by the past, I wish to know what there has been in the conduct of the British ministry for the last ten years, to justify those hopes with which gentlemen have been pleased to solace themselves and the House?
      Is it that insidious smile with which our petition has been lately received? Trust it not, sir; it will prove a snare to your feet. Suffer not yourselves to be betrayed with a kiss. Ask yourselves how this gracious reception of our petition comports with these warlike preparations which cover our waters and darken our land. Are fleets and armies necessary to a work of love and reconciliation? Have we shown ourselves so unwilling to be reconciled that force must be called in to win back our love? Let us not deceive ourselves, sir. These are the implements of war and subjugation — the last arguments to which kings resort. I ask gentlemen, sir, what means this martial array, if its purpose be not to force us to submission? Can gentlemen assign any other possible motives for it? Has Great Britain any enemy, in this quarter of the world, to call for all this accumulation of navies and armies?
      No, sir, she has none. They are meant for us; they can be meant for no other. They are sent over to bind and rivet upon us those chains which the British ministry have been so long forging. And what have we to oppose to them? Shall we try argument? Sir, we have been trying that for the last ten years. Have we anything new to offer on the subject? Nothing.
      We have held the subject up in every light of which it is capable; but it has been all in vain. Shall we resort to entreaty and humble supplication? What terms shall we find which have not been already exhausted? Let us not, I beseech you, sir, deceive ourselves longer.
      Sir, we have done everything that could be done to avert the storm which is now coming on. We have petitioned; we have remonstrated; we have supplicated; we have prostrated ourselves before the throne, and have implored its interposition to arrest the tyrannical hands of the ministry and Parliament.
      Our petitions have been slighted; our remonstrances have produced additional violence and insult; our supplications have been disregarded; and we have been spurned, with contempt, from the foot of the throne. In vain, after these things, may we indulge the fond hope of peace and reconciliation. There is no longer any room for hope.
      If we wish to be free — if we mean to preserve inviolate those inestimable privileges for which we have been so long contending — if we mean not basely to abandon the noble struggle in which we have been so long engaged, and which we have pledged ourselves never to abandon until the glorious object of our contest shall be obtained, we must fight! I repeat it, sir, we must fight! An appeal to arms and to the God of Hosts is all that is left us!
      They tell us, sir, that we are weak — unable to cope with so formidable an adversary. But when shall we be stronger? Will it be the next week, or the next year? Will it be when we are totally disarmed, and when a British guard shall be stationed in every house? Shall we gather strength by irresolution and inaction? Shall we acquire the means of effectual resistance, by lying supinely on our backs, and hugging the delusive phantom of hope, until our enemies shall have bound us hand and foot?
      Sir, we are not weak, if we make a proper use of the means which the God of nature hath placed in our power. Three millions of people, armed in the holy cause of liberty, and in such a country as that which we possess, are invincible by any force which our enemy can send against us. Besides, sir, we shall not fight our battles alone. There is a just God who presides over the destinies of nations, and who will raise up friends to fight our battles for us.
      The battle, sir, is not to the strong alone; it is to the vigilant, the active, the brave. Besides, sir, we have no election. If we were base enough to desire it, it is now too late to retire from the contest. There is no retreat but in submission and slavery! Our chains are forged! Their clanking may be heard on the plains of Boston! The war is inevitable — and let it come! I repeat it, sir, let it come!
      It is in vain, sir, to extenuate the matter. Gentlemen may cry, "Peace! Peace!" — but there is no peace. The war is actually begun! The next gale that sweeps from the north will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms! Our brethren are already in the field! Why stand we here idle? What is it that gentlemen wish? What would they have? Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty, or give me death!
The vote of the Virginia delegates barely passed, but it passed; and the movement we have come to know as the American Revolution was to receive the support which it needed. Fighting erupted on April 19, 1775, at Lexington and Concord, and was followed that year by the capture of Fort Ticonderoga from the British, the battle of Bunker Hill (June), and the unsuccessful colonial assault on Quebec.

Condamnés à mort par la Révolution: ^top^
1795 (18 prairial an III):
LAIE Jean Baptiste Pierre, graveur. domicilié à Paris, par le conseil militaire établi à Paris, comme convaincu d'avoir marché contre la convention, à la tête des séditieux, dont il se disait commandant provisoire, dans la révolte des 3 et 4 prairial an 3.
MAUGER René, perruquier, domicilié à Paris, par la commission militaire établi à Paris, comme convaincu d'avoir porté au bout de sa pique la tête du représentant du peuple Ferraud sur la place du Carrouzel, et d'avoir été fauteur de la conspiration contre la Convention nationale, les 3 et 4 prairial an 3.
1794 (18 prairial an II):
AUCHU François, marchand chapelier, domicilié à Lyon (Rhône), comme contre-révolutionnaire, par la commission révolutionnaire de Lyon.

DUIORE René, laboureur, domicilié à la Chap. Roinsin (Mayenne et Loire), comme brigand de la Vendée, par la commission révolutionnaire séante à Laval.
HUBERT René, maréchal, domicilié à Bozangers (Mayenne), par la commission militaire séante à Mayenne, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
FERRAND Joseph, cordonnier domicilier à Carpentras (Vaucluse), par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme émigré.
Par la commission militaire séante à Bordeaux:
GIMET Marie, 32 ans, empeseure, née et domicilié à Bordeaux (Gironde),pour avoir recelé trois prêtres réfractaires, nommés Molinier, Joury (Soury?), Devillefumade.
     ... comme prêtres réfractaires à la loi:
DEVIELLEFUMADE Jean, 30 ans, prêtre, natif de Ribeirac (Dordogne).
MOLINIER Jean, 27 ans, se disant prêtre, natif de Queilus (Lot), domicilié à Bordeaux (Gironde).
SOURY (JOURY?) Louis, 29 ans, ci-devant prêtre, curé, natif de Rochechouart (Haute Vienne), domicilié à Bordeaux.
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
FOIRET J. 27 ans, né et domicilié à Bruges, écrivain, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
     ... comme conspirateurs:
ROLLAND Jean, terrassier, 40 ans, né et domicilié à Lamotte (Aube), ... ayant cherché conjointement avec la femme Roussar, à corrompre les autorités constituées pour procurer la liberté à son mari.
ROUSSAT Thomas, cultivateur, ex garde de bois de Terray, 57 ans, né et Domicilié à Lamotte (Aube), ... ayant dit lors de la première réquisition qu’il était fâché du départ de son fils, parce qu’il allait soutenir des foutus gueux, et que cela ne lui ferait pas tant de peine, si ce même fils partait pour servir dans les armées royales comme autrefois.
ABOULIN Joseph, lieutenant au 18e régiment de dragon, domicilié à Cassade, ant. De Montauban (Lot).
CALLEVANT Antoine, 28 ans, né et demeurant à Buges, charpentier.
DAUPHIN Jacques, (dit Chadébaud), 43 ans, natif de Lapeyre, manœuvrier, domicilié à Chasseneuille (Charente).
FORRET Joseph, 17 ans, né à Bruges en Autriche [sic], y demeurant, ... voyageant sans passe-port.
FOURNIER Joseph, ex curé et instituteur, 31 ans, domicilié à Parelhem (Dordogne).
GROSMAIRE J. F. notaire 56 ans, né et domicilié à Chimay (Ardennes), ex administrateur dudit département.
MARCHAIS Denise Elisabeth, femme de Vial, 52 ans, née à Paris, domiciliée à Charenton, (Seine).
MERCIER Charles François (dit Daubeville), 69 ans, président de l'élection de pithiviers, domicilié à Pithiviers (Loiret).
           ... domiciliés à Paris:
CABARET Albert, charpentier.
COUSIN Guillaume Jacques, 45 ans, né à Rouen, secrétaire du procureur général au ci-devant parlement de Rouen, tenant hôtel garni,.
DELAINEY Thomas, irlandais, 17 ans, déserteur du 9ème régiment.
FORCEVILLE Elisabeth Françoise, ex noble, 42 ans, née à Forceville (Somme).
JACQUEMONT Angélique, veuve Padel, ouvrière en linge, 49 ans, née à St Bris (Yonne).
LAVALETTE François Joseph Elisabeth Th., ex vicomte, officier des gardes françaises, 39 ans, né à Paris.
MORDOLE Jacques, perruquier, ci-devant, valet de chambre de Montmorin, 29 ans, né à Edimbourg,.
RODEN Patrice, tisserand, déserteur du régiment de Berne, pour servir en France, natif de Quené en Angleterre.
VAUDIER-RINDON Jean, serrurier et déserteur autrichien, 25 ans, natif de Bruges, ... ayant entonné dans un cabaret une chanson en l’honneur de Comptines, disant que c’était à tort qu’il avait été guillotiné.

1731 Giovanni Odazzi, Roman painter born on 25 March 1663.
1704 Andrea Scacciati, Italian artist born in 1642.
1678 Pieter Janszoon van Asch, Dutch painter born in 1603. — LINKS
1676 Jan Olis, Dutch artist born in 1610.
1217 Enrique I, rey de Castilla.
Births which occurred on a June 06:
2001 BenefitsCheckUp website is started.       ^top^
      The site, started by the US National Council on the Aging, includes a database of about a thousand federal and state programs for the elderly. Visitors fill out a confidential questionnaire, and find out what they're qualified for and how to apply. To protect the user's privacy, the site does not collect a social security number, name, address, or any other personally identifiable information. It does require a ZIP code to determine local benefits. The database lists all types of assistance, including supplemental income to free home energy credits for lower heating and cooling costs, legal services and prescription drug benefits.
     Three million eligible elderly US residents don't receive Medicaid, and another 3.7 million are eligible for food stamps but don't get them. According to the 2000 Census, 12.4% of the people in the US are 65 or older.
2000 Betriz Araujo, in Manaus, Brazil. The 23rd child of Maria Deia Araujo, 40, who works as a maid and decided she could not support the child, and so promptly "sold" her to a friend for a piece of beef and 200 reais ($110). When the authorities found out a few days later, they placed the baby temporarily in the SOS Criança child refuge.
1949 Nineteen Eighty-four , by George Orwell, is published       ^top^
      The novel's all-seeing leader, known as "Big Brother," becomes a universal symbol for intrusive government and oppressive bureaucracy.
      George Orwell was the nom de plume of Eric Blair, who was born in India. The son of a British civil servant, Orwell attended school in London and won a scholarship to the elite prep school Eton, where most students came from wealthy upper-class backgrounds, unlike Orwell. Rather than going to college like most of his classmates, Orwell joined the Indian Imperial Police and went to work in Burma in 1922. During his five years there, he developed a severe sense of class guilt; finally in 1927, he chose not to return to Burma while on holiday in England.
      Orwell, choosing to immerse himself in the experiences of the urban poor, went to Paris, where he worked menial jobs, and later spent time in England as a tramp. He wrote Down and Out in Paris and London in 1933, based on his observation of the poorer classes, and in 1937 his Road to Wigan Pier documented the life of the unemployed in northern England. Meanwhile, he had published his first novel, Burmese Days, in 1934.
      Orwell became increasingly left wing in his views, although he never committed himself to any specific political party. He went to Spain during the Spanish Civil War to fight with the Republicans, but later fled as communism gained an upper hand in the struggle on the left. His barnyard fable, Animal Farm (1945), shows how the noble ideals of egalitarian economies can easily be distorted. The book brought him his first taste of critical and financial success. Orwell's last novel, Nineteen Eighty-four, brought him lasting fame with its grim vision of a future where all citizens are watched constantly and language is twisted to aid in oppression. Orwell died of tuberculosis in 1950
1944 Phillip Allen Sharp, químico e investigador estadounidense.
1935 Tensing Gyatso, Dalai Lama (Nobel Peace Prize winner: Tibetan spiritual leader)
1934 The Securities Exchange Commission       ^top^
      The New Deal sweeps through Wall Street, as President Franklin Roosevelt signs the Securities Exchange Act, a set of regulations designed to rein in the stock swapping shenanigans and duplicitous sales tactics that had riddled the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and helped spark the Great Crash of 1929. Along with imposing registration requirements for all exchanges and curbing stock purchases by cash-strapped traders, the legislation creates the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC). The SEC is charged with nothing less than reviving the public's tattered faith in the stock market, and is thus given the lead to monitor both brokerage houses and investment banks.
      Few pieces of New Deal legislation played well on Wall Street; the Securities Exchange Act — along with the adjoining Exchange Act passed in 1933 — was particularly loathed by traders and investment leaders. Whatever the fiscal and moral impact of the Great Crash, Wall Street had operated almost entirely unfettered since the late eighteenth century and was hardly ready to submit to government control. However, the relative restraint of the Securities Exchange Act, which, despite its regulatory bent, left traders a fair amount of latitude, and ensuing appointment of Joeseph P. Kennedy, a business-friendly industrialist, to head the SEC eased Wall Street's fears.
1934 Roy Innis, civil rights activist
1934 Albert II, roi des Belges.
1933 First drive-in movie theater       ^top^
      Richard Hollingshead opens the first drive-in movie theater in Camden, New Jersey. Hollingshead was the sales manager for Whiz Auto Products in Camden when he came up with the idea for the drive-in. He acted on the notion that few persons in the US at that time would give up the pleasure of going to the movies had they the chance. In 1933, though, movie-going wasn’t a family event, as few couples felt comfortable bringing their children to the theater. Going to the movies involved getting dressed up, finding a babysitter, and driving down to a crowded Main Street to look for parking.
      Hollingshead believed that the drive-in would solve these problems: movie-goers didn’t have to park their cars or dress up, and the kids could join their parents. Hollingshead began to experiment in his driveway at home. He mounted a 1928 Kodak film projector on the hood of his car and projected onto a screen he had nailed to two trees in his backyard. He placed a radio behind the screen for sound. He even ran tests in simulated rainy conditions by running his sprinkler on his car while watching films. He also planned the cars’ spacing by using his friends’ cars to simulate a crowded theater. By using risers he found he could afford all cars a view. He went to the patent office on 06 August 1932, and, on 16 May, he received exclusive rights for his idea with US patent #1'909'537. The patent was later overturned in 1950 by a Delaware court, but not before the inventor got his due. Hollingshead spent $30,000 on his first drive-in on Crescent Boulevard in Camden. The admission price was 25 cents per car plus 25 cents per person, with a maximum of one dollar per car.
1925 Chrysler Corporation is founded by Walter Percy Chrysler (Iacocca is 8 months old)
1925 José María Rodríguez Méndez, dramaturgo español.
1906 Max August Zorn, mathematician who died on 09 March 1993. He is best known for Zorn's Lemma, equivalent to the Axiom of Choice .
1903 Aram Khachaturian Tiflis Georgia, Russia, musician/composer — notably of the ballet Gayane which includes the "Sabre Dance" (Spartacus)
1901 Sukarno Java, leader of the Indonesian independence movement and the country's first president from 1949-65.
1897 (or any year until 1900) Ismaël Gonzalez de La Serna, Spanish artist who died on 20 November 1968.
1896 Henri-Victor Wolvens, Belgian artist who died on 31 January 1977.
1896 Robert Sheriff playwright (Journey's End)
1890 Dorothy Heyward NYC, playwright (Porgy)
1886 Paul Dudley White heart specialist.
1884 Gino Rossi, Italian painter, draftsman, and printmaker, who died on 16 (01?) December 1947.
1882 Electric iron patented by Henry W. Seely, NYC
1875 Thomas Mann.       ^top^
      Mann was born in Germany, the second son of a grain merchant who expected Thomas to take over the business. His father died when Mann was 15, and his mother moved the family to Munich. Mann worked as a clerk at an insurance company and studied to become a journalist. In 1898, he published his first collection of stories, followed by his first novel, Buddenbrooks (1901), the saga of a family's decline from wealth. He published two more novellas, Tonio Kröger and Tristan, in 1903.
      Mann married in 1905 and later fathered six children. In 1912, his novella Der Tod in Venedig was published. The story of a revered German writer who chooses to stay in cholera-stricken Venice to gaze on a beautiful young man he's never met, the book considers the dilemma of the artist's position in society. Mann published numerous essays about great thinkers like Freud, Goethe, and Nietzsche and continued to write novels. In 1924, he published his acclaimed book The Magic Mountain, the story of a young man who visits a tuberculosis sanitorium and finds a microcosm of society.
      Five years later, Mann won the Nobel Prize. When Hitler came to power, Mann moved to Switzerland, then to the US in 1938. Mann lived in Santa Monica, California, from 1941 to 1953. His later work includes Joseph and His Brothers (1934) and Doctor Faustus (1947). Mann died in Switzerland in 1955.
     Other works of Thomas Mann: Königliche Hoheit, Betrachtungen eines Unpolitischen (1918, Reflections of an Unpolitical Man, essays) — Der Zauberberg (1924, The Magic Mountain, a novel, which won him the Nobel Prize in 1929) — Mario und der Zauberer (1930, Mario and the Magician) — Lotte in Weimar (1939, a novel) — Appel an die Vermunft (1930, Appeal to Reason, an essay) — Achtung Europa! and Deutsche Hörer (1945, collections of his anti-Hitler broadcasts to Germany) — Leiden und Gröbe der Meister (1933, The Sufferings and Greatness of the Masters, literary essays) — The Beloved Returns (a novel) — Die vertauschten Köpfe (1940, The Transposed Heads, a short novel) — Joseph and his Brothers (a tetralogy of novels) — Doktor Faustus (1947, a novel) — Der Erwählte (1951) — Die Betrogene (1953) — Bekenntnisse des Hochstapler's Felix Krull, Part I (1954, Confessions of Felix Krull, Confidence Man, Mann's only comic novel. It shares themes with his serious work, but surrounds them with mockery. The effect is wonderfully enlivening - like chatting with a brainy friend after he has had a few drinks. Mann kept it by him for years, adding to it from time to time, but never finished it. That is no surprise. It is a novel you never want to stop reading, so stopping writing it would surely have been a wrench.) — Last Essay — Sketch of My Life.
"Gustav von Aschenbach war etwas unter Mittelgröße, brünett, rasiert. Sein Kopf erschien ein wenig zu groß im Verhältnis zu der fast zierlichen Gestalt. Sein rückwärts gebürstetes Haar, am Scheitel gelichtet, an den Schläfen sehr voll und stark ergraut, umrahmte eine hohe, zerklüftete und gleichsam narbige Stirn. Der Bügel einer Goldbrille mit randlosen Gläsern schnitt in die Wurzel der gedrungenen, edel gebogenen Nase ein. Der Mund war groß, oft schlaff, oft plötzlich schmal und gespannt; die Wangenpartie mager und gefurcht, das wohlausgebildete Kinn weich gespalten. Bedeutende Schicksale schienen über dies meist leidend seitwärts geneigte Haupt hinweggegangen zu sein, und doch war die Kunst es gewesen, die hier jene physiognomische Durchbildung übernommen hatte, welche sonst das Werk eines schweren bewegten Lebens ist. ... Sie beglückt tiefer, sie verzehrt rascher. Sie gräbt in das Antlitz ihres Dieners die Spuren imaginärer und geistiger Abenteuer, und sie erzeugt, selbst bei klösterlicher Stille des äußeren Daseins, auf die Dauer eine Verwöhntheit, Überfeinerung, Müdigkeit und Neugier der Nerven, wie ein Leben voll ausschweifender Leidenschaften und Genüsse sie kaum hervorzubringen vermag."
— Thomas Mann: Der Tod in Venedig, Zweites Kapitel
1875 Walter Percy Chrysler founded Chrysler Corp (1925)
1868 Robert Falcon Scott, British naval officer and Antarctic explorer in the ill-fated 1912 expedition to the South Pole.
1857 Aleksandr Mikhailovich Lyapunov, Russian mathematician who died on 03 November 1918.
1849 Emilie Preyer, German still-life painter who died on 23 September 1930.
1844 Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) founded in London
1799 (26 April Julian) Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin, Russian poet, novelist, dramatist, and short-story writer; he has often been considered his country's greatest poet and the founder of modern Russian literature. He died on 10 February (29 January Julian) 1837. PUSHKIN ONLINE (English translations): 9 sample poems24 poems — (Bilingual Russian - English) Yevgeny Onegin — (Russian) Eugene Onegin
1756 John Trumbull, son of colonial Connecticut governor, US painter specialized in Historical Subjects. (US War of Independence), who died on 10 November 1843. — MORE ON  TRUMBULL AT ART “4” JUNE LINKS The Death of General Warren at the Battle of Bunker Hill on 17 June 1775William PinkneyCapt. Thomas Youngs SeymourMrs. William Pinkney (Ann Maria Rodgers) _ detailMrs. Rufus (Mary Alsop) King _ detailPhilip Church at age about 5 — George WashingtonThe Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776
1755 Nathan Hale gets the life that he will regret is only one to lose for his country, as the British, without a trial, hang the US patriot and War of Independence military officer on 22 September 1776, the day after he was captured.
1702 Joseph Francis (Corneille François) Nollekens, “Old Nollekens” Flemish English painter, specialized in conversation pieces and genre scenes, who died on 21 January 1748. — more
1683 World’s first public museum opens       ^top^
      The Ashmolean, the world’s first museum of science, opens in Oxford, England. At the time of the English Restoration, Oxford was the center of scientific activity in England. In 1677, English archaeologist Elias Ashmole donated his collection of curiosities to Oxford University, and the school’s directors planned the construction of a building to permanently display the items. Acclaimed English architect Sir Christopher Wren was commissioned for the job, and on 06 June, 1683, the Ashmolean was opened.
      The world’s first modern museum, the Ashmolean was designed to display its collections, organized so that Oxford University could use it for teaching purposes, and was regularly opened to the public. In 1845, architect Charles R. Cockerell completed the construction of a new home for the museum’s rapidly growing collection on Oxford’s Beaumont Street. Today, the collection at the Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology ranges in time from the earliest implements of man, made about five hundred thousand years ago, to twentieth century works of art. Among the collection of antiquities and art work are curiosities like Guy Fawkes’s lantern, and relics like the Alfred Jewel.
1638 Gerrit Berckheyde, Dutch architectural painter who died on 10 (14?) June 1698. — more
1606 Pierre Corneille, in Rouen.    ^top^
    Corneille, Pierre French poet and dramatist, considered the creator of French classical tragedy. His chief works include Le Cid (1637), Horace (1640), Cinna (1641), and Polyeucte (1643). He would die on 1 October 1684. 


  • Agésilas
  • Andromède
  • Attila
  • Cinna
  • Clitandre
  • Don Sanche d'Aragon : comédie héroïque
  • Heraclius, empereur d'Orient : tragédie
  • Horace : tragédie
  • L'illusion comique : comédie
  • La galerie du palais ou L'amie rivale : comédie
  • La mort de Pompée : tragédie
  • La place royalle ou L'amoureux extravagant : comédie
  • La suite du menteur : comédie
  • La suivante : comédie
  • La toison d'or : tragédie
  • La veuve : comédie
  • Le Cid : tragi-comédie
  • Le menteur : comédie
  • Médée
  • Nicomède : tragédie
  • Oedipe : tragédie
  • Othon : tragédie
  • Pertharite, roy des Lombards : tragédie
  • Polyeucte martyr : tragédie
  • Psyché : tragi-comédie en 5 actes
  • Pulchérie : comédie héroïque
  • Rodogune, princesse des Parthes : tragédie
  • Sertorius : tragédie
  • Sophonisbe : tragédie
  • Surena, général des Parthes : tragédie
  • Théodore, vierge et martyre : tragédie chrestienne
  • Tite et Bérénice : comédie héroïque

  • Théâtre complet . Tome premier

  • Théâtre complet . Tome II


  • Polyeucte
  • Polyeucte
  • Agésilas : tragédie en vers libres rimez
  • Andromède : tragédie
  • Cinna, ou la Clémence d'Auguste : tragédie
  • Clitandre ou L'innocence délivrée : tragi-comédie
  • D. Sanche d'Arragon : comédie héroïque
  • Héraclius, empereur d'Orient : tragédie
  • L'illusion comique : comédie
  • La galerie du Palais, ou l'Amie rivale : comédie
  • La mort de Pompée : tragédie
  • La place royalle, ou l'Amoureux extravagant : comédie
  • La suite du menteur : comédie
  • La suivante : comédie
  • La toison d'or : tragédie en machines..., représentée sur le téâtre royal des seuls comédiens du roy...
  • La toison d'or : tragédie représentée par la troupe royale du Marests, chez M. le marquis de Sourdéac, en son chasteau de Neufbourg, pour réjouissance publique du mariage du roy et de la paix avec l'Espagne, et en suite sur le théâtre royal du Marests
  • La vefve ou Le traistre trahy : comédie
  • Le Cid : tragi-comédie
  • Le menteur : comédie
  • Médée : tragédie
  • Mélite, ou les Fausses lettres : pièce comique
  • Nicomède : tragédie
  • Oedipe : tragédie
  • Oeuvres complètes de P. Corneille. Tome I, Théâtre
  • Oeuvres complètes de P. Corneille. Tome II, Théâtre
  • Othon : tragédie
  • Psiché : tragédie ballet
  • Pulchérie : comédie héroïque
  • Rodogune : princesse des Parthes : tragédie
  • Sertorius : tragédie
  • Sophonisbe : tragédie
  • Suréna, général des Parthes : tragédie
  • Théodore, vierge et martyre
  • Tite et Bérénice : comédie héroïque
  • Lexique de la langue de P. Corneille. Tome premier
  • Lexique de la langue de P. Corneille. Tome second
  • Oeuvres de P. Corneille. Tome deuxième
  • Oeuvres de P. Corneille. Tome troisième
  • Oeuvres de P. Corneille. Tome quatrième
  • Oeuvres de P. Corneille. Tome cinquième
  • Oeuvres de P. Corneille. Tome sixième
  • Oeuvres de P. Corneille. Tome septième
  • Oeuvres de P. Corneille. Tome huitième
  • Oeuvres de P. Corneille. Tome dixième
  • 1599 (infant baptism) Diego Rodriguez de Silva y Velázquez, Spain's greatest Baroque era painter, who died on 06 August 1660.
    MORE ON  VELAZQUEZ AT ART “4” JUNE LINKS Self~Portrait Self-portrait (1640) — Self Portrait (1643)
    Christ on the Cross _ Christ on the Cross Christ in the House of Martha and MaryChrist in the House of Mary and MarthaLas Meninas _ (ZOOM it) — Philip IV in Army Dress _ Philip IV in Army Dress (The portrait of Fraga) — The Surrender of Breda _ detail 1 _ detail 2 _ detail 3 _ The Surrender of Breda _ The Surrender of Breda (Las Lanzas) — Doña Mariana of Austria, Queen of Hungary _ Doña Maria de Austria, Queen of HungaryMort de St. JosephEl Dios MarteReunión De Bebedores.— Retrato De un AncianoEl Niño De Vallecas _ The Dwarf Francisco Lezcano, Called "El Niño de Vallecas"Esopo.Retrato de un Viejo DescamisadoLa FamiliaRetrato de un Enano de FelipeThe Infanta Doña Margarita de Austria — a different The Infanta MargaritaInfante Philip Prosper _ detail (dog) — Philip IV in Brown and Silver (1653) — Philip IV (1660) — Equestrian Portrait of Philip IV King Philip IV as a HuntsmanCardinale Infante Ferdinand of Austria as HunterPrince Baltasar Carlos as HunterPrince Baltasar Carlos on HorsebackEl Almuerzo version 1 _ version 2The Immaculate ConceptionAdoration by the Magi _ The Adoration by the Magi _ The Adoration by the MagiThe Coronation of the VirginAbbess Jerónima de la Fuente _ Mother Jerónima de la FuenteThe Supper at EmmausPhilip IVThe Drinkers (The Rule of Bacchus) _ Bacchus or The DrinkersJoseph's Bloody Coat Brought to Jacob _ Joseph’s Bloody Coat Brought to JacobThe Forge of Vulcan _ The Forge of VulcanSibylThe Count-Duke of Olivares on HorsebackJuan Martínez MontáñezBuffoon BarbarrojaThe Dwarf Don Juan Calabazas, called Calabacillas — Court Dwarf Don Antonio El InglésThe Dwarf Sebastian de MorraDiego de Acedo (El Primo)AesopMenippusPortrait of a ManPope Innocent X —— Pope Innocent XJuan de ParejaLas HilanderasVenus at her Mirror (The Rokeby Venus)Venus at her MirrorView of ZaragozaThe Pavilion Ariadné in the Médici Gardens in Rome “Sunshine” — The Entrance to the Grotta in the Médici Gardens in Rome “Noon” — Water Seller of Seville _ Water Seller of Seville _ The Waterseller in SevilleSaints Anthony and PaulJuan de ParejaOld Woman Frying EggsThree Men at TableFable of Arachne _ The Fable of Arachne //— Velázquez commemorative postal stamps.
    1436 Johann Müller “Regiomontanus”, German Catholic priest, mathematician, astronomer, who died on 08 July 1476. In January 1472 he made observations of a comet which would be called Halley's Comet 210 years later. He observed eclipses of the Moon, a total eclipses on 03 September 1457 and on 22 June 1461, a partial eclipse on 03 July 1460. Author of De triangulis omnimodis (1464) — Scipta — Kalendarium — De Reformatione Kalendarii.
    Holidays Malaysia : King's Birthday / South Korea : Memorial Day / Sweden : Constitution Day/Flag Day/National Day (1523, 1809)

    Religious Observances RC : St Norbert, bishop of Magdeburg, confessor (opt) / Santos Norberto, Felipe, Claudio, Alejandro y Cándida. / Saint Norbert: Chapelain de l'empereur d'Allemagne, au XIIe siècle, Norbert mène une vie dissipée avant de soudainement se convertir. Il devient prêtre et parcourt les villes en prêchant l'Evangile. C'est ainsi qu'à Prémontré, dans la forêt de Laon, il fonde une communauté religieuse en s'inspirant de l'exemple de son contemporain, Saint Bernard de Citeaux. La vie de Norbert est exemplaire du renouveau religieux de cette époque qui voit fleurir églises et abbayes.

    Thought for the day: “A husband is the medicine that cures all the ills of girlhood.”
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