a 21 June:
2003 In Peekskill NY, late in the day, Willie Williams barges into his ex-mate's 7th-story apartment intending to persuade her to get back together with him. They argue and Williams dangles their 10-month-old baby daughter out a window. The mother calls 911 and Williams drops the girl. “Oh, my God!” the mother tells the 911 operator, “He killed my baby.” The infant survives the 24-meter fall, crashing through several tree branches before landing on the ground with only cuts and bruises. Williams then leaves the apartment, picks up the baby and drives her to a nearby hospital. Williams would be arrested on 23 June 2003, charged with attempted murder, assault, and unlawful imprisonment.
2002 The stock of computer software and programming company Amdocs Limited (DOX) is downgraded by Merrill Lynch from Long Term Buy to Long Term Neutral, by JP Morgan from Long Term Buy to Market Perform, by Robertson Stephens and by Deutsche Securities from Buy to Market Perform, by USB Piper Jaffray from Outperform to Market Perform, by Legg Mason from Buy to Hold, by Salomon Smith Barney from Buy to Neutral, by Janney Montgomery Scott from Buy to Sell, by CSFB from Strong Buy to Buy. From the previous close of $14.56 DOX drops to an intraday low of $8.50 and closes at $8.76. Its previous all-time low was $8.50 on 31 Aug 1998, not long after its start on 22 June 1998 at $14. But then it had surged to $89.75 by 20 March 2000. [4-year price chart >]
2001 Total solar eclipse of 4m57s visible first in South Atlantic, then it hits land in Angola at 12:38 UT, and travels across Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and Madagascar, getting shorter along the way.
2000 North Korea promised to refrain from long-range missile tests after the United States lifted some economic sanctions against it.
1997 Free speech protected on Web
Judges in New York and Georgia overturn state laws banning indecent and anonymous speech online. The cases foreshadow the pending Supreme Court case that challenges the constitutionality of the Communications Decency Act, which made it a crime to provide pornography to minors on the Web.
1996 European leaders agreed to gradually lift a global ban on British beef exports imposed nearly three months earlier following a scare over "mad cow" disease.
1992 Primeras elecciones generales democráticas en Etiopía, en las que 33 millones de ciudadanos votaron un Gobierno de corte federal.
1991 Narasimha Rao, investido primer ministro de India, forma un Gobierno de catorce ministros.
1989 The US Supreme Court rules that burning the US flag as a form of political protest is protected by the First Amendment to the Constitution.
1985 American, Brazilian and West German forensic pathologists confirm that skeletal remains exhumed in Brazil were Nazi Dr Josef Mengele
1983 España ingresa en el Centro Europeo de Investigación Nuclear.
| 1981 12-bottle case of 1979 Napamedoc Cabernet wine
auctioned for $24'000
1978 Comienza en Madrid el primer congreso de Comisiones Obreras.
1977 Former White House chief of staff HR Haldeman enters prison.
1977 Menachem Begin (Likud), becomes Israel's 6th PM
1973 The US Supreme Court ruled that states may ban materials found to be obscene according to local standards.
1969 Pompidou président Après son élection facile (presque 58 % contre un peu plus de 42 % à Alain Poher), Georges Pompidou entre en fonction.
1968 Supreme Court Chief Justice Earl Warren resigns
|1964 Civil rights
activists disappear in Mississippi.
In Neshoba County in central Mississippi, three civil rights field workers disappear after investigating the burning of an Black church by the Ku Klux Klan. Michael Schwerner and Andrew Goodman, both white New Yorkers, had traveled to heavily segregated Mississippi in 1964 to help organize civil rights efforts on behalf of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). The third man, James Chaney, was a local Black man who had joined CORE in 1963. The disappearance of the three young men garnered national attention and led to a massive FBI investigation that was code-named MIBURN, for "Mississippi Burning." Michael Schwerner, who arrived in Mississippi as a CORE field worker in January 1964, aroused the animosity of white supremacists after he organized a successful black boycott of a variety store in the city of Meridian and led voting registration efforts for Blacks. In May, Sam Bowers, the Imperial Wizard of the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi, sent word that the 24-year-old Schwerner, nicknamed "Goatee" and "Jew-Boy" by the KKK, was to be eliminated. On the evening of 16 June two dozen armed Klansmen descended on Mt. Zion Methodist Church, an Black church in Neshoba County that Schwerner had arranged to use as a "Freedom School." Schwerner was not there at the time, but the Klansmen beat several Blacks present and then torched the church.
On 20 June Schwerner returned from a civil rights training session in Ohio with 21-year-old James Chaney and 20-year-old Andrew Goodman, a new recruit to CORE. The next day 21 June the three went to investigate the burning of the church in Neshoba. While attempting to drive back to Meridian, they were stopped by Neshoba County Deputy Sheriff Cecil Price just inside the city limits of Philadelphia, the county seat. Price, a member of the KKK who had been looking out for Schwerner or other civil rights workers, threw them in the Neshoba County jail, allegedly under suspicion for church arson. After seven hours in jail, during which the men were not allowed to make a phone call, Price released them on bail. After escorting them out of town, the deputy returned to Philadelphia to drop off an accompanying Philadelphia police officer. As soon as he was alone, he raced down the highway in pursuit of the three civil rights workers. He caught the men just inside county limits and loaded them into his car. Two other cars pulled up filled with Klansmen who had been alerted by Price of the capture of the CORE workers, and the three cars drove down an unmarked dirt road called Rock Cut Road. Schwerner, Goodman, and Chaney were shot to death and their bodies buried in an earthen dam a few kilometers from the Mt. Zion Church. The next day, the FBI began an investigation into the disappearance of the civil rights workers. On 23 June the case drew national headlines, and federal agents found the workers' burned station wagon. Under pressure from Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, the FBI escalated the investigation, which eventually involved more than 200 FBI agents and scores of federal troops who combed the woods and swamps looking for the bodies.
The incident provided the final impetus needed for the 1964 Civil Rights Act to pass Congress on 02 July, and eight days later FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover came to Mississippi to open a new Bureau office. Eventually, Delmar Dennis, a Klansman and one of the participants in the murders, was paid $30'000 and offered immunity from prosecution in exchange for information. On 04 August the remains of the three young men were found. The culprits were identified, but the state of Mississippi made no arrests. Finally, on 04 December, nineteen men, including Deputy Price, were indicted by the US Justice Department for violating the civil rights of Schwerner, Goodman, and Chaney (charging the suspects with civil rights violations was the only way to give the federal government jurisdiction in the case). After nearly three years of legal wrangling, in which the US Supreme Court ultimately defended the indictments, the men went on trial in Jackson, Mississippi. The trial was presided over by an ardent segregationist, US District Judge William Cox, but under federal pressure from federal authorities and fearing impeachment, he took the case seriously. On 27 October 1967 an all-white jury found seven of the men guilty, including Price and KKK Imperial Wizard Bowers. Nine were acquitted and the jury deadlocked on three others. The mixed verdict was hailed as a major civil rights victory, as no one in Mississippi had ever before been convicted for actions taken against a civil rights worker. In December, Judge Cox sentenced the men to prison terms ranging from three to 10 years. After sentencing, he said, "They killed one nigger, one Jew, and a white man. I gave them what I thought they deserved." None of the convicted men served more than six years behind bars.
withdraw navy from NATO ^top^
The French government shocks its allies by announcing that it is withdrawing its navy from the North Atlantic fleet of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The French action was viewed in the West as evidence that France would be pursuing an independent policy regarding its nuclear arsenal. In the months prior to the French action, the United States had been pushing its NATO allies to accept a plan whereby the NATO North Atlantic fleet would be armed with Polaris nuclear missiles. The ships would have crews made up of personnel from various NATO nations. This plan, however, conflicted with a French plan to base much of their nation's nuclear arsenal in their navy. Obviously, France wished to maintain absolute control over its ships to carry out this program. Thus, French President Charles de Gaulle's government issued a brief statement indicating that the French ships in the NATO North Atlantic fleet were being withdrawn.
Many NATO members expressed surprise over the French action. In the United States, surprise was also mixed with dismay and no small degree of anger. The French announcement came just as President John F. Kennedy was preparing to go to Europe for a series of talks with America's allies. Privately, some Kennedy advisors were quite vocal in condemning de Gaulle's highly nationalistic independence in moving away from his nation's NATO commitments, thereby threatening the security of France's European allies. And, although the French withdrawal from the NATO North Atlantic fleet did not drastically affect the fleet's military effectiveness, the United States worried that France's action might set a disturbing precedent. NATO was still considered by US officials as the first line of defense against communist aggression in Europe, and France's "defection" was distressing. Kennedy, during his European sojourn, attempted to persuade the French to rethink their position, but de Gaulle stood firm in his decision. America's fears were unrealized, however, as no other nations followed France's example. French naval forces never rejoined the NATO fleet.
|1963 In Rome,
Italian Cardinal Giovanni
Battista Montini is elected Pope Paul VI.
He becomes the 261st pontiff of the Catholic Church, succeeding John XXIII
Le Cardinal Giovanni Battista Montini succède à Jean XXXIII, à l’âge de 65 ans. Il règnera 15 ans durant. L’image de Paul VI restera liée aux voyages qu’il a entrepris. La plupart d’entre eux furent spectaculaires et tous avaient une portée symbolique : - Le voyage à Jérusalem et le baiser de paix au patriarche Athénagoras sur le mont des Oliviers (1969) - Bombay et l’attention portée à la fois au tiers monde et aux religions non chrétiennes (1964) - New York et le discours à l’ONU (1965), - Fatima (1967), Istanbul et Éphèse (1967), - Bogotá et le message à l’Amérique latine (1968) - Genève et la visite aux Organisations internationales du travail, ainsi qu’au Conseil œcuménique des Églises (1969) - Ouganda et le message à l’Afrique (1969) - l’Extrême-Orient avec 48'850 kilomètres de parcours et des escales dans huit pays (1970)
Le contraste est saisissant entre cette aptitude à poser des gestes symboliques et la difficulté qu’éprouva Paul VI à se faire entendre par l’ensemble des catholiques et par l’ensemble des peuples. Il avait choisi la voie officielle, la voie dilomatique et c’est peut-être trop éloigné du peuple. Mais par contre il se battit toute sa vie pour que a paix dans le Tiers-Monde soit garante de plus de Justice.
Some Writings and Addresses of Paul VI
1945 Japanese forces on Okinawa surrender to US during WW II US soldiers on Okinawa found the body of the Japanese commander, Lt. Gen. Mitsuru Ushijima, who had committed suicide
1943 Arrestation de Jean Moulin Le chef du Conseil national de la Résistance, Jean Moulin, trahi, est arrêté à Caluire dans la banlieue de Lyon, le lendemain de son 44ème anniversaire. Le nazi Klaus Barbie commence àl'interroger. Quelques jours plus tard, le 08 Jul, à Metz, dans le train qui part pour un camp de la mort dans lequel on a déposé son corps torturé, Jean Moulin meurt.
1942 54ºC, Tirat Zevi, Israel (Asian record)
1940 Armistice entre la France et l’Allemagne. A la demande express d’Hitler, il sera signé dans le wagon même qui a servi à signer le 11 Novembre 1918 l’Armistice entre les Alliés et l’Allemagne vaincue. C’est symbolique dans l’esprit d’Hitler qui voulait prendre sa revanche d’une défaite qu’il jugeait honteuse et surtout des conditions inégales.
1940 II Guerra Mundial. El Gobierno del general Pétain autoriza a deponer las armas al jefe de los ejércitos franceses del Este, al estar cercados por seis divisiones y dos mil carros blindados alemanes.
1940 Formación de un Gobierno polaco en el exilio en Londres.
1939 Doctors reveal Lou Gehrig has amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
1937 Le Sénat a refusé à Léon Blum, président du Conseil du Front populaire, les pleins pouvoirs économiques. Blum n'a d'autres choix que de démissionner. En Francia, dimite el Gobierno del Frente Popular presidido por León Blum.
1933 Hitler prohibe el Partido Socialdemócrata en Alemania.
1923 Marcus Garvey sentenced to 5 years for using the mail to defraud
1919 Germans scuttle their own fleet Los alemanes hunden setenta barcos de guerra de su flota fondeada en Scapa Flow (islas Órcadas) para no entregarlos a los ingleses, en lo que supone una violación flagrante de las condiciones del armisticio.
1908: 250'000 mujeres se reúnen en Hyde Park (Londres) para reclamar su derecho al voto.
1906 El Senado estadounidense decide la construcción del Canal de Panamá con esclusas.
1903 Sherlock Holmes Adventure of The Mazarine Stone takes place
1894 Workers in Pittsburgh strike Pullman sleeping car company
1879 F W Woolworth opens first store (failed almost immediately)
| 1864 Christopher Memminger resigns as Confederate Secretary
of the Treasury
1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1858 Louisiana chess prodigy Paul Morphy arrives in Europe
1837 Proclamación de Victoria I como reina de Gran Bretaña.
1815 L'empereur Napoléon rentre à Paris, crotté et épuisé. " Il y avait trois jours que je ne mangeais pas ! J'étais très fatigué. En arrivant, je me suis jeté au bain et j'ai mangé. " Les vivats et les applaudissements des Parisiens ne lui laissent cependant aucune illusion. Au soir, il écrit à la fin d'un message à la Chambre des représentants : "Ma vie politique est terminée. "
1814 Fernando VII restablece la Inquisición en España.
1795 (03 messidor an III) TAILLART Antoine, domicilié à Paris, perruquier, est condamné à la déportation,par le conseil militaire établi à Paris, comme convaincu d'avoir tenu des propos incendiaire, en disant que Robespierre et la commune de Paris, du 9 thermidor avaient été sacrifiés, que Louis XVI, sous son régime, n'avait jamais tant fait de mal que les députés de la Convention en un seul jour; et de s'être montré participant de la révolte contre la Convention le 4 prairial an 3
1633 Galileo Galilei is forced by Inquisition to "abjure, curse, and detest" his Copernican heliocentric views
1498 Jews are expelled from Nurenberg Bavaria by Emperor Maximillian
0431 Début du Concile d’Ephèse . Fixé le 7 Juin, il ne commence que le 21, alors que manquent encore quelques Evêques africains et romains.
which occurred on a 21 June:
2003 Abdullah Qawasme, head of the military wing of Hamas in Hebron, West Bank, shot at 21:15 at the entrance of a mosque in the center of Hebron, by 15 Israeli policemen who had just jumped out of three unmarked cars.
2003 Leon Uris, born on 03 August 1924, US Jewish author of Exodus (1958, a story of European Jewry from the turn of the century to the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948), Topaz (1967, about Russian espionage during the Cuban missile crisis), Trinity (story of three Irish families from the mid-19th century to the Easter Rising of 1916), Battle Cry (1953, based on his Marine experiences), The Angry Hills (1955, spy novel based loosely on the diary of an uncle who had fought in World War II in Greece as a member of the British Army's Palestine Brigade), Armageddon: A Novel of Berlin" (1964, about its various crises from the end of WW2 until the airlift); and O'Hara's Choice (October 2003). Uris' other novels include Trinity (about Ireland's 19th-century struggle for independence) and its sequel Redemption (1995); QBVII, a courtroom drama based on his legal troubles with the movie adaptation of Exodus; The Haj (1984, about the birth of Israel as viewed by a Palestinian); A God in Ruins (1999, about an Irish Catholic US presidential candidate opposed to guns who turns out to be Jewish); and Mila 18 (1961, about the Jewish uprising in Warsaw during World War II). Uris' most personal novel, Mitla Pass (1988) closely follows the lives of the author and his family. The book begins in Israel in 1956 during the time of the Suez Canal crisis and centers on the experiences of Gideon Zadok, a writer covering the incident. The novel then traces Zadok's ancestry back to the 1880s, allowing various relatives to tell their stories. Uris loaded his novels with excessive exposition and information. He was not as good a writer as Pynchon, Barthelme, or Nabokov; but he was a better storyteller.
2003 Moshe Kupferman (or Kupperman) Israeli abstract painter, born in Poland in 1926. — more — Untitled 1974 — Abstract 1969 — Composition 1995 — Abstract 1975 — Composition 1986 — Abstract undated
2002 Adnan Auda, 22, Palestinian, shot in the chest by Yosef Cohen, one of a group of Jewish settlers rampaging through Palestinian villages near Nablus, setting fire to homes and cars, after the funeral of the five Itamar settlers murdered the previous day by two Palestinian gunmen.
2002 Mahmoud Massir, and two innocent Palestinian workers, at the Erez crossing in the Gaza Strip, by Israeli Border Police officers firing back at Massir after he throws hand grenades and fires at them. A third Palestinian worker is seriously injured.
2002 Abed a-Samed Samalah, 10, Palestinian, by Israeli shelling while he was at home in the northern Gaza strip. A mother and three of her children were wounded.
2002 Ahmed Ghazawi, 6, his brother Jamil Ghazawi, 12, girl Sajedah Famahwi, 6, and Helal Shetta, 50, deputy director of the department of education of Jenin, West Bank, by Israeli tank shells fired in a Jenin market where a group of Palestinian had come to buy food, thinking that the round-the-clock curfew imposed by the Israeli invaders which is starving them, had been temporarily lifted.
2002 Clifford Possum Tjapaltjarri, Australian aborigine painter born in 1932. MORE ON POSSUM AT ART 4 JUNE 6901 Man's Love Story The Worm Dreaming Human Tracks
1992 Joan Fuster, escritor y ensayista español. .
1990 25'000 in Iranian earthquake.
1986 Al menos 200 personas mueren sepultadas bajo un alud de tierra en una carretera de la provincia ecuatoriana de Putumayo.
1985 Tage Erlander, ex-primer ministro sueco.
1975 Émile Grau-Sala, French painter born on 22 June 1911. Figuras Paddock
1970 Ahmed Sukarno, estadista indonesio.
1948 D'Arcy Thompson, mathematician.
1943 Federal troops put down racial riot in Detroit 30 dead.
1940 Edouard Vuillard, French painter, draftsman, and printmaker, born on 11 November 1868. MORE ON VUILLARD AT ART 4 JUNE LINKS — Place Saint-Augustin _ ZOOM IT — The Sunny Room _ ZOOM IT — La Pâtisserie — Vase de Fleurs Interior with Mother and Child Chemin tournant à midi Une Galerie au Théâtre du Gymnase En chemin de fer Le jardin devant l'atelier The Reader Le Déjeuner à Villeneuve-sur-Yonne _ detail Madame Arthur Fontaine La Flambée
1938 Eduardo Castillo Gálvez, 49, víctima de la morfina. poeta colombiano. Nacido en 1889, Eduardo Castillo fue co-autor de Duelo lírico (1918). Tradujo La parábola del resucitado, de Oscar Wilde. Aparecieron sus poemas Desfile blanco (1920), Réplica a Rivera y Guillermo Valencia (1921), La coronación de Julio Flórez, Visión prerrafaelita. El árbol que canta, su texto más conocido, aparece en 1928. Los poemas La Tisana y Leticia -homenaje a Leticia Velásquez- en 1825. Autor de poemas infantiles tales como La dulzaina y El grillo cautivo (1935), fueron sus últimas obras el poema Entre el cielo y el mar y el ensayo En torno a Delio Seravile (1936). Apareció poco después de su muerte su libro de poemas Los siete carrizos.
1929 Ferdinand Rudio, German mathematician born on 02 August 1856. He worked on group theory, algebra and geometry. He is best remembered for his work in the history of mathematics.
1920 Gaetano Previati, Italian artist born on 31 August 1852.
1908 Rimsky-Korsakov, compositor ruso.
1900 Francesco Beda, Italian artist born on 29 November 1840.
1898 Manuel Tamayo y Baus, dramaturgo español.
1828 Leandro Fernández de Moratín, dramaturgo español.
1820 Aléxis-Thérèse Petit, Frenchman mathematical physicist born on 02 October 1791.
1812 Johann-Friedrich-August Tischbein, German painter specialized in Portraits, born on 09 March 1750. LINKS William V, Prince of Orange-Nassau — Frédérique Louise Wilhelmine, princesse d'Orange~Nassau
Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
| 1661 Andrea Ouche Sacchi, Italian artist born on 30
which occurred on a 21 June:
2003 Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (768 pages) by J. K. Rawlings, goes on sale at $17.97, with some one million copies already paid in advance. The preceding books of the series were Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone (1997), Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (1998), Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azbakan (1999), Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (July 2000)
1966 Washoe Pan Satyrus is adopted by Drs. Beatrix T. and R. Allen Gardner. They would raise her in their home as if she were a human child. Washoe would be the first nonhuman to acquire a human language American Sign Language. Washoe moved with Roger and Deborah Fouts to the University of Oklahoma in 1970 and came to Central Washington University in 1980. There she lived with fellow chimpanzees Moja Lemsip [18 Nov 1972 06 Jun 2002], Loulis Yerkes, Dar es Salaam, and Tatu Oklahoma CHCI chimpcam (M-F 09:00-12:00 and 13:00-15:30 Sa 09:00-12:00 Su 12:00-15:30 Pacific Time)
1957 Berke Breathed breathed his first breath. He would become a cartoonist.
1935 Françoise Sagan France, novelist (Bon Jour Tristesse)
1925 Luis Adolfo Siles Salinas, ex presidente de Bolivia.
1925 Giovanni Spadolini, politico y escritor italiano
1912 Mary McCarthy US, novelist (Group)
1905 Jean-Paul Sartre (philosopher, writer: Being and Nothingness; playwright: No Exit, The Flies, The Age of Reason; rejected Nobel Prize for literature )
1903 Al Hirschfeld cartoonist (1975 Tony Award)
1893 First Ferris wheel premieres (Chicago's Columbian Exposition)
1892 Reinhold Niebuhr US, theologian (Nature and Destiny of Man)
1882 Rockwell Kent painter, printmaker, illustrator, who died on 13 March 1971. Kent also wrote and illustrated books such as Wilderness: A Journal of Quiet Adventure in Alaska (1920) Voyaging: Southward from the Strait of Magellan. (1922) Salamina (1935) Greenland Journal (1960) his autobiography It's Me, O Lord (1955). MORE ON KENT AT ART 4 JUNE LINKS 5 by Kent Clover Fields, Asgaard Workers of the World, Unite! Shakespeare's Venus and Adonis illustrated by Kent Hay Bales, Evening, Below Whiteface Mountain Landscape Monhegan Harbor Mount Whiteface Asgaard 21 prints at FAMSF
1880 Arnold Lucius Gessell, psicólogo y pediatra estadounidense.
1859 Henry Ossawa Tanner, Black US Realist painter born in Pittsburgh PA, who died on 25 May 1937 in Paris, France. MORE ON TANNER AT ART 4 JUNE LINKS The Annunciation The Banjo Lesson Salome The Two Disciples at the Tomb
1858 María Cristina de Austria, reina de España.
1850 Johann Hamza, Austrian artist who died in 1927.
1847 Wilhelm Velten, Russian German painter who died in 1929. Harvest scene
1845 Luis Jiménez Aranda, Spanish Impressionist painter who died in 1928. — La Cuna — Washerwoman On a River Bank Baby and Nurse La visita al hospital — A Lady at the Paris Exposition of 1889
1834 Reaping machine patent obtained by Cyrus Hall McCormick.
1828 Giuseppe Bruno, Italian philosopher, engineer, mathematician, who died on 04 February 1893
1821 The African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Zion Church is formally constituted in New York City. Nineteen clergymen were present, representing six African-American churches from New York City; Philadelphia; New Haven, CT and Newark, NJ.
1819 Jacques Offenbach, compositor francés.
1814 Charles-Théodore Frère frère Bey, French painter specialized in Orientalism, who died on 24 March 1888. MORE ON FRÈRE AT ART 4 JUNE LINKS A View of Beni Souef, Egypt Interior of a Moorish Café Jerusalem from the Environs
1805 José María El Tempranillo, bandolero español.
1781 Siméon Poisson, mathematician
1774 Daniel D Tompkins (D-R), 6th US vice-president (1817-25)
1773 Jorge Juan y Santacilia, matemático y físico español.
1640 Abraham Mignon, German painter who died in 1679. MORE ON MIGNON AT ART 4 JUNE LINKS Still Life with Flowers and Watch Still-Life Still-Life with Fruits Still Life with Peaches, Grapes, and Apricots Fruit Still-Life with Squirrel and Goldfinch
1639 Increase Mather, in Dorchester, Massachusetts, Boston Congregational minister, author, and educator, influential in the councils of New England during the period when leadership passed to the first native-born generation. He published nearly 100 books including , and is credited with helping end executions for witchcraft in colonial America. He was the son of Richard Mather [1596 22 Apr 1669], son-in-law of John Cotton, and father of Cotton Mather [12 Feb 1663 13 Feb 1728]. Increase Mather died on 23 August 1723 in Boston.