• Egypt elects its first president... • US~USSR summit... • Spy Fuchs released... • A tous les Français... • Fin du voyage de Jean~Paul II en Pologne... • Lee confers with his generals... • Texas votes for Annexation... • Toma de Zacatecas... • Malcolm X widow dies burned by grandson... • Hudson set adrift by mutineers...
a June 23:
2003 Holding company AMERCO (UHAL) announces that it has filed for protection under Title 11 of the US Bankruptcy Code, principally affecting subsidiary Amerco Real Estate, but excluding its other subsidiaries: U~Haul, Oxford Life Insurance, and Republic Western Insurance. On the NASDAQ 3.4 million of the 26 million UHAL shares are traded, surging from their previous close of $4.08 to an intraday high of $7.48 and closing at $7.01. They had traded as low as $1.36 as recently as 24 Oct 2002 and as high as $29.75 on 01 November 1999. [5~year price chart >]
“Chapter 11 bankruptcy” allows the debtor to continue its business operations by means of a plan of reorganization, which must meet certain statutory criteria. By enacting chapter 11, the US Congress gave the debtor a chance to restructure its finances so that it may continue to operate, provide its employees with jobs, pay its creditors, and produce a return for its stockholders. Because chapter 11 envisions an ongoing business, the most likely persons to have knowledge of the operation and details of the business are the existing managers who normally continue operations during the chapter 11 process. A major rationale for business reorganizations is that the value of a business as an ongoing concern is greater than it would be if its assets were sold. When a business develops financial difficulties, such as not being able to pay its creditors due to cash flow problems, it may consider filing a chapter 11 bankruptcy. If the business can extend or reduce its debts or drastically lower its operating costs, it often can be returned to a viable state. Generally, it is more economically efficient to reorganize than to liquidate, because doing so preserves jobs and assets.
2003 In United States et al. v. American Library Association, Inc., et al. 02-361. , the US Supreme Court, 6 (Rehnquist, O'Connor, Scalia, Thomas, Kennedy, Breyer) to 3 (Stevens, Souter, Ginsburg), rules that the US government may require that public libraries, in order to receive federal funds, install on their computers software that filters out objectionable material. However the Court allows the software to be disabled for individual adult users who request it.
2003 In Grutter v. Bollinger, 02-241, the US Supreme Court, 5 (O'Connor, Stevens, Souter, Ginsburg. Breyer) to 4 (Scalia, Rehnquist, Kennedy, Thomas), rules constitutional the University of Michigan's policies for admission to its Law School, which gives some preference, though not overwhelming, to members of racial or ethnic minorities.
2003 In Gratz v. Bollinger, 02-516, the US Supreme Court, 6 (O'Connor, Rehnquist, Scalia, Kennedy, Thomas, Breyer) to 3 (Stevens, Souter, Ginsburg), rules unconstitutional the University of Michigan's 150-point system for admission to its undergraduate school's 150-point grading system, which automatically gives members of minorities a 20-point bonus, more than for some measures of academic excellence, writing ability, or leadership skills. Outstanding athletes also got 20 points, as did impoverished applicants.
2002 Conservation International announces the discovery of two previously unknown species of titi monkeys in the Amazon.
MORE MONKEY BUSINESS
1982 Himmy, of Australia, weighs in at domestic cat record 20.7 kg.
| 1972 Hurricane Agnes is costliest natural disaster
in US history
1972 US President Nixon and White House chief of staff H.R. Haldeman discuss a plan to use the CIA to obstruct the FBI's Watergate investigation. (Revelation of the tape recording of this conversation would lead to Nixon's resignation in 1974.)
1970 Charles Rangel defeats Adam Clayton Powell in Democratic primary
1969 Warren E Burger sworn in as US Supreme Court Chief Justice by the man he is succeeding, Earl Warren.
38, elected president of Egypt
99.95% of Egyptian voters mark their ballots to elect Gamal Abdel Nasser as the first president of the Republic of Egypt. Nasser, who toppled the Egyptian monarchy in 1952 in a military coup, was the only presidential candidate on the ballot. In the same ballot, Nasser's new constitution, under which Egypt became a one-party socialist state with Islam as the official religion, was approved by 99.8%. Gamal Abdel Nasser was born in Alexandria in 1918. As a youth, he participated in demonstrations against British rule in Egypt. After secondary school, he studied at a law college for several months and then entered the Royal Military Academy. In 1938, he graduated as a second lieutenant. While serving in the Sudan during World War II, he helped found a secret revolutionary organization, the Free Officers, whose members sought to overthrow the Egyptian royal family and oust the British. In 1948, Nasser served as a major in the first Arab-Israeli war and was wounded in action.
On 23 July 1952, Nasser led 89 other Free Officers in an army coup that deposed the regime of King Farouk. A new government was formed by the Nasser-led Revolutionary Command Council, of which Major General Muhammad Naguib was the figurehead leader. In 1954, Nasser emerged from behind the scenes, removed Naguib from power, and proclaimed himself prime minister of Egypt. For the next two years, Nasser ruled as an effective and popular leader and promulgated a new constitution that made Egypt a socialist Arab state, consciously nonaligned with the prevalent communist and democratic-capitalist systems of the Cold War world.
On 23 June 1956, Egyptian voters overwhelming approved the new constitution and Nasser's presidency. One month later, President Nasser faced a major crisis when the United States and Great Britain reversed their decision to finance a high dam on the Nile River in light of an Egyptian arms agreement with the USSR. In response, Nasser nationalized the British and French-owned Suez Canal, intending to use tolls to pay for his high dam project.
At the end of October 1956, Israel, Britain, and France attacked Egypt in a joint operation. They occupied the Suez Canal, but Soviet and UN pressure forced Israel, Britain, and France to withdraw, and the Suez Canal was left in Egyptian hands in 1957. The episode greatly enhanced Nasser's prestige in the Arab world, and in 1958 he oversaw the unification of Egypt and Syria as the United Arab Republic, of which he became president. He dreamed of bringing all the Arab world into the United Arab Republic, but in 1961 Syria withdrew from the entity following a military coup, leaving Egypt alone. From 1962 to 1967, Egypt intervened in a civil war in Yemen on behalf of the anti-royalists. In 1967, increased Arab-Israeli tension led Egypt to mobilize its forces and demand the withdrawal of UN peacekeepers from Egypt's Sinai Peninsula. Egypt and five other Arab nations prepared for a united strike against Israel, but Israel preempted the attack, beginning the Six-Day War with the destruction of Egypt's air force on 05 June. Egypt and the other Arab belligerents were decisively defeated, and Israeli forces captured all the Sinai and crossed the Suez Canal. In the aftermath of the military disaster, Nasser attempted to resign, but popular demonstrations and a vote of confidence by the Egyptian National Assembly persuaded him to remain in office.
After the Six-Day War, Nasser accepted greater Soviet military and economic aid, compromising Egypt's status as a "nonaligned" state, such as Josip Broz Tito's Yugoslavia or Jawaharlal Nehru's India. In July 1970, the Aswan High Dam was completed with Soviet assistance, providing a major boost to the Egyptian economy. Two months later, Nasser died of a heart attack in Cairo. He was succeeded by Anwar el-Sadat, a fellow Free Officer. Despite his military defeats, Nasser was a consistently popular leader during his 18 years in power. His economic policies and land reforms improved the quality of life for many Egyptians, and women were granted many rights during his tenure. His ascendance ended 2300 years of rule by foreigners, and his independent policies won him respect not just in Egypt but throughout the world.
Election à la présidence de la République Egyptienne du Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser. Son ascension fulgurante l’a poussé aux plus hauts postes de l’état. Lors de la Révolution qui destitua l’ancien roi Farouk, les militaires que commandait ce jeune Colonel remirent le pouvoir aux mains du général Naguib. Celui-ci confia bien sûr des tâches importantes au héros de la Révolution. Il fut président du Conseil et ministre de l’Intérieur. Ce qu’il mit à profit pour asseoir son autorité et "ficher" tous ses adversaires.
On retiendra de lui, en plus de la défaite dans la Guerre des 6 Jours, contre Israël, la construction du barrage d’Assouan, avec l’appui des Russes, après le refus américain, et la nationalisation du Canal de Suez qui détermine l’intervention des troupes franco-anglaises. Sa popularité en fera le leader charismatique incontesté du monde arabe.
A month later he nationalized the Suez Canal after Western bankers refused to finance construction of the Aswan Dam. In response, the British, French, and Israelis launched a combined invasion of Egypt. However, a cease-fire was declared under pressure from the US and the UN, and Egypt later gained formal control of the canal.
| 1951 British diplomats Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean
flee to USSR
1947 US President Truman's veto of Taft-Hartley Act overridden by Congress
1944 Thomas Mann becomes a US citizen
|1940 Retour au pouvoir de Pierre Laval,
en tant que premier ministre du Maréchal Pétain, dans le
nouvel ordre français. Né le 28 Jun 1883, ce fils d’un petit cafetier
d’Auvergne dut travailler pour payer ses études qui lui permirent, en 1907,
de s’inscrire au barreau de Paris. Venu de l’extrême gauche, mais dépourvu
d’idéalisme, il s’affranchit de tous les partis pour faire carrière grâce
à des amitiés personnelles. Avocat, conseiller de nombreux syndicalistes,
il est élu député en 1914 puis maire d’Aubervilliers en 1923, fonction qu’il
conservera jusqu’à sa mort. Battu aux élections en 1919, il est réélu socialiste
indépendant en 1924, puis on le retrouve ministre des Travaux publics sous
Painlevé, de la Justice avec Briand, du Travail dans le second cabinet Tardieu
(1930). Il est président du Conseil de janvier 1931 à février 1932. La crise
économique gagne la France. De nouveau ministre du Travail avec Tardieu
et des Colonies sous Doumergue, il succède à Barthou au ministère des Affaires
étrangères et redevient président du Conseil en 1935.
Face à Hitler, il veut assurer à la France l’alliance de l’Italie (janv. 1935) et celle de l’URSS (mai 1935). Staline décrète alors le ralliement des communistes français à la politique de défense nationale. Laval a peut-être donné à Mussolini l’assurance de ne pas l’inquiéter dans l’affaire d’Éthiopie. Mais celle-ci fera tomber Laval en janvier 1936, alors qu’il s’était maintenu au pouvoir en dépit de sa politique monétaire de déflation et d’économies budgétaires, facteur de mécontentement dans l’opinion et surtout chez les fonctionnaires. Se prononçant contre la déclaration de guerre à l’Allemagne, il revient au premier plan après l’armistice.
Le 23 juin 1940, ministre d’État, il fait intervenir le vote des pleins pouvoirs au maréchal Pétain, vote qui a lieu le 10 Jul à Vichy. Celui-ci le remerciera en le nommant à la Vice-Présidence du Conseil. L’année suivante il sera même premier ministre. En 1942, il cumule tous les ministères importants et devient le véritable chef de l’état, au-dela même du vieux Maréchal Pétain qu’il étouffe. Persuadé de la victoire de l’Allemagne, il provoque la rencontre de Montoire entre Pétain et Hitler, d’où sortira la politique de collaboration (24 oct. 1940). Le 13 décembre, renvoyé par le maréchal, il reviendra au pouvoir le 17 avril 1942. Appelant qu’il n’a pas eu de responsabilité dans l’armistice, il obtient du maréchal la mission de changer les institutions et de gérer les relations avec l’occupant.
Mais le maréchal et Laval s’entendent mal. Laval, en cumulant la direction du gouvernement, les Affaires étrangères, l’Information et l’Intérieur, est cette fois le véritable chef de l’État. Persuadé des difficultés de la collaboration, Laval s’engage dans une longue série de marchandages pour limiter les exigences de l’occupant. C’est la relève puis le Service du travail obligatoire. Mais, en même temps, son gouvernement prend des mesures de répression contre les juifs et contre les résistants. Les extrémistes de la collaboration attaquent aussi Laval. À Vichy même, son passé de "politicien", son style, ses intrigues lui attirent peu de sympathies Il est impopulaire auprès des Français. Laval n’est pas l’inventeur de la révolution nationale, mais il s’en sert à l’occasion. Dans l’histoire, le nom de Laval est lié à la politique de collaboration et à ses plus tragiques modalités. Les Alliés étant parvenus aux portes de Paris, Laval tente une ultime manœuvre politique en essayant d’obtenir d’Herriot, jusque-là en résidence surveillée, la réunion du Parlement. Les Allemands l’entraînent vers Belfort et Sigmaringen. Il s’y considère comme prisonnier.
En mai 1945, il gagne l’Espagne par avion, mais est remis aux autorités françaises le 01 Aug. Son procès porte à leur comble les passions politiques et partisanes. La retenue qui s’était manifestée à l’égard de Pétain est balayée par la haine venue de toutes les tendances de l’opinion. Sa personnalité vénale, sa collaboration claire et nette, plus que zélée avec l’autorité allemande, son action vigoureuse contre les Juifs et surtout les Résistants français, en ont fait l’homme à haïr. Condamné à mort le 09 octobre, Laval s’empoisonne dans sa cellule; il est découvert agonisant, soigné, et porté en civière devant le peloton d’exécution le 15 octobre 1945.
Hitler sightsees in conquered Paris
At 06:00 Adolf Hitler poses for photographers in front of the famous Opera, behaving like any ordinary sightseer, just one day after the French capitulation. For Hitler, who had flown in from Belgium, the visit--his first and last--was a dream come true. His yearning to see Paris had begun when, as an art student, he had pored over pictures of the city's historic sites. Now, Paris lay under his victorious hand, all his own to savor as few men had been privileged to do.
Oddly, Hitler, with his aides, an armed escort and two artist favorites, architect Albert Speer and sculptor Arno Breker, chose to pack his dream into three pell-mell hours. From the Opera, the motorcade went on to the Madeleine, one of the city's numerous memorials to the Napoleonic era, then drove around the Arc de Triomphe and stopped near the Eiffel Tower, where Hitler paused for a travel album snapshot with his artist companions. At Napoleon's Tomb, in the Invalides, the Führer stared at the red porphyry sarcophagus of Europe's last great conqueror, and murmured, "This is the finest moment of my life." As a tribute to the French emperor, Hitler ordered that the remains of Napoléon's son be moved from Vienna to lie beside his father.
Hitler ordered the destruction of two World War I monuments.
| 1939 France turns over sanjak (subprovince) of Alexandretta
(the Hatay) to Turkey.
1938 Civil Aeronautics Authority (US) established
1931 Aviators Wiley Post and Harold Gatty took off from New York on the first round-the-world flight in a single-engine plane.
1925 Landslides create 3-mile long "Slide Lake" (Gros Ventre Wyoming)
1865 General Stand Watie surrenders last sizeable Confederate army in the Indian Territory (today's Oklahoma) at Fort Towson, Doaksville
1864 Skirmish at Nottoway Court House, Virginia on Wilson's Raid
1864 Skirmish at Jones' Bridge, Virginia
1863 Tullahoma Campaign begins in Middle Tennessee
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1784 first US balloon flight (13 year old Edward Warren)
1760 Battle of Landshut, Silesia
1743 Bataille de Bettingen. C'est la guerre de Succession d'Autriche. Les Anglais débarquent à Hanovre. George III, roi d'Angleterre, défait Adrien Maurice, comte d'Ayen, et troisième duc de Noailles.
1683 William Penn signs friendship treaty with Lenni Lenape indians in Pennsylvania; only treaty "not sworn to, nor broken" . Voltaire once remarked that it was the only treaty never sworn to, and never broken.
which occurred on a June 23: |
2002 Ayad Taisir Samoudi, Palestinian policeman, by Israeli gunfire in Jenin, which also injures four other Palestinian policemen, for two of whom the Israelis then add arrest (and possibly insult) to injury, early in the day.
2002 Fadzil Noor, 65 [< 24 May 2001 photo], in Kuala Lumpur, unconscious since heart bypass surgery on 10 June 2002. two weeks ago, hospital officials said. He was the relatively moderate president of the fundamentalist Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party, opposed to Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad and his United Malays National Organization party. MORE
2000 Enrico Cuccia, 92. in Milan, Italian banker. As the cofounder (1946), managing director (1946–82), and honorary chairman (after he was forced to retire in 1982) of Mediobanca SpA, Italy's first—and for a time only—merchant bank, he orchestrated many of Italy's biggest business deals and was instrumental in the transformation of Italy's depressed industrial sector after World War II. He was born on 24 November 1907 in Rome. His corpse was kidnapped from his grave, for ransom, in March 2001 and recovered on 2 April 2001, no ransom paid.
1997 Betty Shabazz, 61, of burns on 90% of her body received on 01 June in fire set by her grandson. ^top^
She was the widow of Malcolm X. Malcolm X was assassinated on 21 February 1965, at the Audubon Ballroom in Harlem. Just a week before his death, the couple's New York City home was destroyed by a firebomb. Malcolm X, also known as El Hagg Malik El-Shabazz, was killed a year after breaking away from the Nation of Islam and forming his own Muslim faction. Three gunmen, two of them members of the Nation of Islam, were sentenced to life in prison for the Malcolm X shooting. Two of the gunmen were released after serving 20 years in prison.
Their daughter, Qubilah Bahiyah Shabazz, 32, had been arrested on 12 January 1995 for conspiring to kill Louis Farrakhan. Shabazz believed that Farrakhan was responsible for the assassination of her father in 1964, and sought to exact revenge through a hired killer. Subsequently, Shabazz admitted her "responsibility," but not her guilt of the charges, and the government accepted a plea bargain that required her to undergo psychiatric and drug treatment.
Michael Fitzpatrick, a high-school classmate of Shabazz, claimed that she called him and asked him to kill Farrakhan. Fitzpatrick said she told him that she wanted to avenge her father's death, and feared for the life of her mother Betty Shabazz who was outspoken in her belief that Farrakhan was behind the 1964 shooting. Although Farrakhan was allied with the Nation of Islam leaders who planned Malcolm X's murder, he most likely was not directly involved in the plot. Unfortunately for Qubilah, Fitzpatrick was already an FBI informant and promptly passed on the information. He also began recording his conversations with Shabazz. She escaped the most serious charges because the tapes showed some wavering and ambivalence on her part in actually going through with the murder.
Some claim that the whole affair was an unbelievable FBI plot. A much-publicized reconciliation between Farrakhan and the Shabazz family occurred after the charges were made against Qubilah.
There had been a 30-year rift between Betty Shabazz and Farrakhan, whom Betty Shabazz believed played a role in her husband's death. Malcolm X was assassinated on 21 February 1965, at the Audubon Ballroom in Harlem. Just a week before his death, the couple's New York City home was destroyed by a firebomb. Malcolm X, also known as El Hagg Malik El-Shabazz, was killed a year after breaking away from the Nation of Islam and forming his own Muslim faction. Three gunmen, two of them members of the Nation of Islam, were sentenced to life in prison for the Malcolm X shooting. Two of the gunmen were released after serving 20 years in prison.
In addition to her legal troubles, Qubilah Shabazz had an alcohol problem, so her 12-year-old son Malcolm had been sent to live with his grandmother Betty in Westchester County, New York. He set the house on fire with gasoline on 01 June 1997 in hopes of being reunited with his mother. The boy was convicted of arson and sentenced on 08 August 1997 to at least 18 months at a juvenile center, sentence to be reviewed yearly thereafter until he turns 18. By 03 August 1999, he had escaped three times and a judge extended his detention to 03 August 2000.
1996 Andreas Papandreou, 77, former Greek Prime Minister
1995 Dr. Jonas Salk, 80, in La Jolla, California. Born on 28 October 1914, de developed of the first polio vaccine (injected, using killed virus), of which the first major field test's success was announced on 12 April 1955. The Salk vaccine was eventually replaced by the orally administered live-virus vaccine of Dr. Albert Sabin.
1985 All 329 aboard an Air India Flight 182, a Boeing 747, as it crashes into the Atlantic Ocean near Ireland, as result of the explosion of terrorist bomb in a piece of luggage. This and the explosion at Tokyo [below], 54 minutes earlier, is the work of a conspiracy of Sikh separatists living in Canada, in revenge against the Indian army's bloody 1984 storming of the Golden Temple in Amritsar. Two of the conspirators are Ripudan Singh Malik, 38, and Ajaib Singh Bagri, 35. This is what the prosecution would allege on 28 April 2003, at the trial of the two in Vancouver.
1985 Two luggage handlers at Narita Airport, Tokyo, transfering luggage to an Air India flight.
1980 Clyfford Still, US Abstract Expressionist Painter born on 30 November 1904. — “he was out of step with his time” — “Still’s paintings are not for everyone” STILL MORE AT ART 4 JUNE LINKS — Jamais — 1946-H (Indian Red and Black) 1947 1948 1949
1891 Wilhelm Eduard Weber, German mathematical physicist born on 24 October 1804. He developed sensitive magnetometers, worked on the ratio between the electrodynamic and electrostatic units of charge, worked in electrodynamics and the electrical structure of matter. He collaborated with Gauss [30 Apr 1777 – 23 Feb 1855].
1852 Karl Pavlovich Briullov, Russian Neoclassical and Romantic painter specialized in Portraits, born in 1799. Briulloff's portrait by Vasily Tropinin. MORE ON BRIULLOV AT ART 4 JUNE LINKS Self-Portrait (1833) Self-Portrait (1848) Self-portrait in a Boat with Baroness Ye. N. Meller-Zakomelskaya and a Girl Alexander Bruloff Sylvester Shchedrin Alexey Tolstoy as a Youth Count A. A. Perovsky (the writer Anton Pogorelsky) Nestor Kukolnic A. N. Strugovshchikov Alexander Briulloff The Last Day of Pompeii _ detail 1 (group at left pelted by falling household objects and a rain of stones) _ detail 2 (couple with child and baby) _ detail 3 (child by dead mother) _ detail 4 (rider on rearing horse, behind Pliny and his mother) Rider: portrait of Giovanina and Amacilia Pacini, the Foster Children of Countess Samoilova _ detail 1 (younger sister looking on) _ detail 2 (older sister riding) Countess Samoilova and Her Ward Amacilia Pacini Leaving a Ball _ detail 1 (Amacilia) _ detail 2 (the countess) Narcissus Italian Midday Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna Prince G. Gagarin Princess Z. Volkonskaya A. Lvov Architect K. A. Ton Juditta Pasta Fanny Persiani-Tacinardi Princess Ye. P. Saltykova
1781 Pierre Louis Dumesnil the Younger, French painter born in 1698. Interior with Card Players
which occurred on a June 23:
1948 Clarence Thomas (US Supreme Court Justice)
1938 The US Civil Aeronautics Authority is established.
1913 William P. Rogers US secretary of state (1969-1973)
1894 Dr. Alfred Kinsey (sexual behavior researcher: The Kinsey Report, The Sexual Behavior in the Human Male)
1894 Duke of Windsor [King Edward VIII of England] (briefly in 1936)
1876 Irvin S Cobb Ky, writer/humorist (Old Judge Priest) COBB ONLINE: Speaking of Operations-- Cobb's Anatomy A Plea for Old Cap Collier
1868 "Type-writer" patented by Christopher Latham Sholes
1860 US Secret Service created.
1858 William Ernest Johnson, English mathematician who died on 14 January 1931. His most important work is Logic, in 4 volumes, the last one unfinished.
1856 Vincenzo Caprile, Italian artist who died in 1936
.1849 John Reinhard Weguelin, British painter of genre, classical, biblical and historical subjects, who died on 28 April 1927. MORE ON WEGUELIN AT ART 4 JUNE Lesbia Pressing Grapes The obsequies of an Egyptian cat A Young Girl with Flamingoes Bacchus Triumphant The Labour of the Danaïdes — Bacchus and the Choir of Nymphs — A Pastoral Scene — The Bath
1846 The saxophone is patented by Antoine-Joseph Sax, Belgian-French maker of musical instruments. He was also called Adolphe Sax. He was born on 6 November 1814, in Dinant, Belgium, and died on 7 February 1894 in Paris.
1845 Émile Renouf, French artist who died on 04 May 1894.
1816 Henri Charles Antoine Baron, French painter and illustrator who died on 13 September 1885. — more
1763 Marie-Josèphe-Rose Tascher de la Pagerie, Martinique, (future Joséphine) who would in 1779 become vicomtesse de Beauharnais by a marriage in Martinique to Alexandre de Beauharnais [28 May 1760 – 23 June 1794] from whom she would obtain a separation in March 1785. They moved to Paris. Her husband was guillotined during the Terror, despite his distinguished services to the Revolution, mainly just because he was a noble. She married civilly Napoléon Bonaparte on 09 March 1796 and, he being emperor since May 1804, religiously on 01 December 1804, the eve of his coronation. Napoléon had the 1904 marriage annuled in 1810 on a technicality (probably pre-arranged) so that he could marry Marie-Louise, daughter of the emperor of Austria. He continued to pay for Joséphine lavish life style. She died on 29 May 1814.
1688 Jacob Laurenszoon van der Vinne, Haarlem Dutch Mennonite painter and engraver who died on 17 January 1737.
1675 Louis Silvestre, French painter who died on 11 April 1760. — more
1612 Andrea Tacquet, Antwerp mathematician who died on 22 December 1660. His most important work, Cylindricorum et Annularium..., followed the approach of Valerio [1552 – 17 Jan 1618]. His Elementa geometriae was his most popular teaching work. He also wrote the textbook Astronomia. His books had a considerable effect on Pascal [19 Jun 1623 – 19 Aug 1662].