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Events, deaths, births, of JUN 27
[For Jun 27 Julian go to  Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Jul 071700s: Jul 081800s: Jul 091900~2099: Jul 10]
• US gets into Korean War... • Helen Keller is born... • Printemps de Prague... • Wobblies founded... • Cherbourg liberated... • Plane hijacked to Entebbe... • Mormon founders lynched... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Battle of Kennesaw Mountain... • Khe Sanh evacuation... • Battle of Adobe Walls... • Thurgood Marshall retires... • Smithson dies...
baby shaheed?On a 27 June:
2002 The Israeli army publishes the photo of a Palestinian baby (who looks like he might have the same age as the al-Aqsa intifada, which began on 28 September 2000, after a provocative visit by Ariel Sharon to the “Temple mount”) wearing a suicide bomber's costume, with an explosive belt and a shaheed's red headband, removed from an album found in Hebron in his home, which the army later destroyed, because his father is a wanted terrorist, Nader Abu Turki, whose father, Redwan Abu Turki, later explained that the photo was taken at a rally at the university, “just for the fun of it”. The army did not allow reporters to go to the site “because Hebron is a closed military zone”. [Israeli troops have shot at ambulances and killed emergency medical personnel on the pretext that the Palestinian use ambulances in their attacks. Are Palestinian babies now going to be killed for a similar reason? The fact is that both Israelis and Palestinians have killed “enemy” babies of that age and younger, including those not yet born or being born, without punishing the killers or taking any measures to avoid the repetition of similar “incidents”.]
2002 In Board of Education of Independent School District No. 92 of Pottawatomie County v. Earls (01-332) the US Supreme Court rules 5-to-4 that public middle and high schools can require drug tests for students in extracurricular activities such as choir or band without violating their privacy rights.
2002 In Zelman v. Simmons-Harris (00-1751); Hannah Perkins School v. Simmons-Harris (00-1777); and Taylor v. Simmons-Harris (00-1779); the US Supreme Court rules 5-to-4 that the Constitution allows public money for tuition vouchers as long as parents have a choice among a range of religious and secular schools.
2001 The 189-member UN General Assembly unanimously adopts the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS at the end of a three-day special session — the first ever on a health issue.
2001 US's ten worst intersections.
      The US's most-dangerous traffic intersection is north of Miami in Pembroke Pines, Florida, the No. 1 US car insurer reports.
      State Farm releases its top 10 "Most Dangerous" intersection list, which analyzes claims data in all 50 US states and the District of Columbia.
      Philadelphia, Phoenix and Tulsa, Oklahoma, each had two intersections on the list, while Frisco, Texas, near Dallas, Metairie, Louisiana, near New Orleans, and Sacramento, California, each had one. The insurer compiled the list based on crashes that resulted in claims by its policy-holders in 1999 and 2000.
      State Farm estimated there were 357 crashes over the two-year period at the Flamingo Road and Pines Boulevard intersection. The main problem there is traffic volume. The intersection handles some 200'000 cars per day.
     Intersections on the top 10 list all meet appropriate design standards and are regulated by traffic lights. Traffic volume and driver error are two important factors in crashes.
      Roosevelt Boulevard intersections at Red Lion Road and Grant Avenue in Philadelphia ranked second and third, while Seventh Street and Bell Road in Phoenix was fourth.
      Memorial Drive intersections with 51st and 71st streets in Tulsa ranked fifth and sixth, while 19th Avenue and Northern Avenue in Phoenix was seventh.
      State Highway 121 and Preston Road in Frisco, Texas, was eighth, Clearview Parkway and Veterans Memorial Boulevard in Metairie, Louisiana, was ninth, and Fair Oaks Boulevard and Howe Avenue in Sacramento was 10th.
2000 ["Physician, cure yourself" department] The Steuben, Indiana, firestation is devastated by a fire, arson probably.
2000 US House of Representatives Republicans make a deal to allow direct sales of US food to Cuba for the first time in four decades.
2000 President Robert Mugabe's ruling party is assured a majority in Zimbabwe's new parliament despite historic gains by the opposition.
1996 President Clinton and other Group of 7 leaders meeting in Lyon, France, pledged solidarity against terrorism following a truck bombing in Saudi Arabia that killed 19 Americans.
1996 Australian cable system offers television, telephone, and data links         ^top^
      Optus Vision, a long-distance telephone company in Australia, beats US technology firms to the punch as it launches the first commercial cable system capable of delivering not only television but also telephone services and high-speed data links. The ability to bundle communication services in a single network was an important goal for the telecommunications, utilities, and wireless industries.
1995 El empresario aragonés Publio Cordón es secuestrado en Zaragoza por el GRAPO (Grupos de Resistencia Antifascista Primero de Octubre).
1994. A la veille du second tour de l'élection présidentielle, Eltsine disparaît. Raison officielle: une extinction de voix. En fait, c'est sa troisième attaque cardiaque en un an.
1991 Thurgood Marshall, 83, retires         ^top^
      Associate Justice Thurgood Marshall, who in 1967 became the first African American to sit on the US Supreme Court, retires after serving on the nation’s highest court for twenty-four years.
      The great-grandson of slaves, Marshall was born in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1908. In 1933, after studying under the tutelage of civil liberties lawyer Charles H. Houston, he received his law degree from Howard University in Washington, D.C. In 1936, he joined the legal division of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), of which Houston was director, and two years later succeeded his mentor in the organization’s top legal post.
      As the NAACP’s chief counsel from 1938 to 1961, he argued thirty-two cases before the US Supreme Court, successfully challenging racial segregation, most notably in public education. He won twenty-nine of these cases, including a groundbreaking victory in 1954’s Brown v. Board of Education, in which the Supreme Court ruled that ruled that segregation violated the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution and was thus illegal. The decision served as a great impetus for the Black civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s, and ultimately led to the abolishment of segregation in all public facilities and accommodations.
      In 1961, President John F. Kennedy appointed Marshall to the US Court of Appeals, but his nomination was opposed by many Southern senators, and he was not confirmed until the next year. On 13 June 1967, President Lyndon B. Johnson nominated him to the Supreme Court, and on 30 August, after a heated debate, the Senate confirmed Marshall’s nomination by a vote of sixty-nine to eleven. Two days later, he was sworn in by Chief Justice Earl Warren.
      During his twenty-four years on the high court, Associate Justice Marshall consistently challenged discrimination based on race or sex, opposed the death penalty, and supported the rights of criminal defendants. He also defended affirmative action and women’s right to abortion. As appointments by a largely Republican White House changed the politics of the Court, Marshall found his liberal opinions increasingly in the minority. He would die two years after his retirement.
1991 The US Supreme Court ruled that juries considering life or death for convicted murderers may take into account the victim's character and the suffering of relatives.
1990 NASA announced that a flaw in the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope was preventing the instrument from achieving optimum focus. victim's character and the suffering of relatives.
1990 Author Salman Rushdie, condemned to death as a blasphemer of Islam by Iran for his novel The Satanic Verses, contributes $8600 to help their earthquake victims
1989 Concluye en Madrid la cumbre de presidentes y jefes de Estado de la Comunidad Económica Europea, cuyo principal logro es el desbloqueo provisional del proceso de unificación monetaria y financiera.
1987 US Supreme Court Justice Powell retires
1986 In referendum, Irish uphold ban on divorce
1986 World Court rules US aid to Nicaraguan contras illegal
1985 Route 66, which originally stretched from Chicago to Santa Monica, Calif., passed into history as officials decertified the road.
1983 Highest price paid for painting by a living artist: $960'200 — Miró (20 April 189325 December 1983). — LINKS — Self~Portrait — Métamorphoses — Carnaval d'Arlequins — Dutch Interior — La Table Avec Lapin — Prades — Libellule aux Ailerons Rouges — Chiffres et Constellations — étoiles en sexes d'escargot — Aidez l'Espagne

1981 Es aprobado el Estatuto de Autonomía de Castilla y León.
1980 US President Carter signs legislation reviving draft registration for 18-year-old males.
1977 5-4 Supreme Court decision allows lawyers to advertise
1977 Djibouti gains independence from France (National Day)
1977 Regresa a España Josep Tarradellas, presidente de la Generalitat de Cataluña en el exilio.
1976 Plane hijacked to Entebbe         ^top^
      An Air France jet carrying 256 passengers from Tel Aviv, Israel, to Paris, France, is hijacked by four Palestinian terrorists. Just minutes after taking off from Athens, Greece, where the plane had stopped to re-fuel, an armed gunman stormed the cockpit and forced the plane to fly to Entebbe Airport in Uganda.
      The terrorists, members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, chose Uganda as their safe harbor because they were welcomed by notorious dictator Idi Amin, who had become an international outcast after murdering hundreds of thousands of people during his seize of power in 1971. After being joined by three others at Entebbe, the terrorists demanded the release of 53 prisoners held by Israel, various European countries, and Kenya. Five of the prisoners were Ugandans held in Kenya. They were almost certainly added to the list by Amin, who provided the terrorists with Ugandan soldiers to help guard the hostages.
      On 30 June the PFLP terrorists released 47 hostages; a day later, another 101 were freed. The 12-member crew of the Air France plane refused an offer to be released and stayed with the remaining hostages — mostly Israeli — who were held in an airport terminal surrounded by explosives.
      While planning a daring raid to free the hostages, Israel pretended to negotiate with the terrorists. On the night of 03 July three C-130 Hercules transport planes that had been painted to look like Ugandan jets began the long flight to Entebbe carrying 200 elite commandos, several Land Rovers, and a Mercedes. When the planes landed in Entebbe, the cars disembarked and sped toward the hijacked plane.
      Surprising both the Ugandan troops guarding the hostages and the terrorists, who believed that the cars were Amin's men returning to help with the negotiations, the commandos attacked. A firefight ensued in which all 7 terrorists, 3 hostages, 1 Israeli military commander, and approximately 20 Ugandan soldiers were killed. Jonathan Netanyahu, the older brother of future Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and the lone Israeli military casualty, was the leader of the mission. (One female hostage who had been taken to a hospital earlier was murdered by Ugandan troops after the raid.) Within an hour, the remaining hostages and crew were safe and on their way back to Israel.
      Most Western nations hailed the amazing rescue of the hostages, but the successful raid did not stop Palestinian terrorists from continuing to target Israel. However, new exhaustive security measures instituted for flights from Israel after the incident helped to drastically reduce plane hijackings.
     This was the subject of the movies (best first) Operation Thunderbolt, Raid on Entebbe, and Victory at Entebbe, and of computer game Operation Thunderbolt.
1974 Augusto Pinochet Ugarte asume el cargo de Jefe Supremo de Chile.
1973 President Richard Nixon vetoes a Senate ban on bombing Cambodia.
1973 Former White House counsel John W. Dean tells the Senate Watergate Committee about an "enemies list" kept by the Nixon White House.
1969 Patrons at the Stonewall Inn, a homosexual bar in New York's Greenwich Village, clash with police in an incident considered the birth of the “gay rights” movement.
1968 “Printemps de Prague”: le Manifeste des Deux Mille Mots         ^top^
     Manifeste de deux milles mots ! Révolte des intellectuels Tchèques (à Prague) plus connue sous le nom de "Printemps de Prague" La période de libéralisation et de démocratisation du système socio-politique tchécoslovaque dite " Printemps de Prague " a été préparée dès le début des années soixante. L’économie planifiée à la soviétique ne convient pas à ce pays industrialisé, la production baisse. Les salaires aussi. Aussi en janvier 1965, une importante réforme économique réhabilite-t-elle les notions de rentabilité et de déconcentration ; mais ses effets sont limités par l’action des bureaucrates. Ces oppositions sont diverses mais soudées entre elles par le refus du stalinisme. La réforme économique et la liberté d’expression deviennent alors indissociables. Le Printemps de Prague commence en 1967 par une révolte des intellectuels. Les écrivains, réunis en congrès en mai-juin, réclament la liberté d’expression. Le pouvoir (Novotny est à la fois premier secrétaire du Parti communiste et président de la République), réagit de manière brutale. En octobre, les étudiants sont durement réprimés par la police alors qu’ils manifestaient pour des revendications matérielles ; Novotny traite de "nationaliste bourgeois slovaque" le secrétaire du Parti communiste slovaque, Alexander Dubcek, qui réclamait un plus grand contrôle des Slovaques sur leurs richesses. Novotny accumule les erreurs (tentative de coup de force déjouée par les officiers libéraux, visite intempestive d’un Brejnev rassuré par Dubcek).
      Le 05 janvier 1968, le présidium élit Dubcek en remplacement de Novotny au premier secrétariat ; Dubcek s’entoure de centristes prudents, double le présidium d’une "commission préparatoire" émanant de la base et organise des conférences régionales. Novotny attaque ouvertement, devant les ouvriers, les "forces de droite" et les intellectuels, ce qui porte le débat dans les usines où les techniciens et les vieux communistes font alliance avec les travailleurs, d’où les comités d’entreprise pour la liberté de la presse et la victoire des libéraux dans les syndicats.
      Le 25 Feb, le général Sejna, ami intime du fils du président Novotny, s’enfuit aux États-Unis avec de l’argent volé et des documents. La mesure est comble : les syndicats et la jeunesse, forces les plus avancées, réclament la démission du président. Elle est obtenue le 22 mars ; une semaine plus tard Novotny est remplacé par Svoboda, vieux héros national, ami de l’URSS et victime des purges. L’équipe Dubcek abolit la censure, réhabilite les victimes des procès et prépare la transition de l’étatisation à la socialisation par un système de cogestion avec l’État ainsi que par la fédéralisation du pays ("Programme d’action du Parti communiste tchécoslovaque" adopté en avril), la "révolution froide" du palais gagne la rue en passant par le remplacement des hommes du passé dans tous les corps intermédiaires.
      Dès mars, les attaques des Soviétiques et de la République démocratique allemande, qui tentent de freiner Dubcek et de le couper des éléments les plus avancés, créent dans l’opinion un extraordinaire rassemblement autour des leaders du Printemps doués d’une personnalité souvent très attachante (Dubcek, Smrkovsky). Sous la pression de la "gauche" portée par l’opinion, le comité central décide de convoquer un congrès pour le 9 septembre, mais le lendemain de cette décision, les troupes du pacte de Varsovie commencent leurs manœuvres en Tchécoslovaquie.
      Le 27 juin, une centaine de personnalités de toutes origines publient le Manifeste des Deux Mille Mots ; qui réclame la liquidation rapide de l’ancien régime et la mobilisation populaire contre les ennemis intérieurs et extérieurs dès avant l’été. Dubcek les laisse faire, tout comme il laisse s’organiser l’autogestion qui gagnera un tiers des entreprises, alors que la population accepte de travailler le samedi et de donner son or à la République. Des centaines d’associations culturelles, nationales, politiques naissent ou renaissent et s’affilient en grand nombre au Front national.
      Le 17 juillet, Les dirigeants du Pacte de Varsovie écrivent une lettre d’admonestation, rappelant les Tchécoslovaques au monolithisme et leur enjoignant de se défaire des "antisocialistes" du parti. À la fin du mois, Dubcek accepte à Cierna et à Bratislava d’écarter les bêtes noires des Soviétiques — les responsables des moyens de communication de masse, de l’économie et du ministère de l’Intérieur — ainsi que de rétablir une censure partielle. Le 20 août au soir et les jours suivants, 600'000 hommes envahissent le pays. La résistance passive de toute la population les oblige à passer un compromis avec Dubcek (accords de Moscou du 16 octobre). Progressivement, les "normalisateurs" gagnent de l’influence dans l’appareil du parti et de l’État.
      Le 17 avril 1969, le contre-printemps froid est réussi : les hommes de 1968, Dubcek en tête, perdent leurs fonctions. Une chape de plomb s’étend de nouveau sur la Tchécoslovaquie. Pour 20 ans. Mais comme le confient les intellectuels à la presse occidentale, la Tchécoslovaquie a connu quelques secondes d’ineffable ivresse !
1968 US forces begin to evacuate Khe Sanh         ^top^
      The US command in Saigon confirms that US forces have begun to evacuate the military base at Khe Sanh, 23 km south of the Demilitarized Zone and 10 km from the Laotian border. The command statement attributed the pullback to a change in the military situation. To cope with increased North Vietnamese infiltration and activity in the area, Allied forces were adopting a more "mobile posture," thus making retention of the outpost at Khe Sanh unnecessary. The new western anchor of the US base system in the northern region would be located 10 miles east of Khe Sanh.
      The siege of Khe Sanh during the 1968 Tet Offensive had been one of the most publicized battles of the war because of the similarities it shared with the battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954, in which the communist Viet Minh forces had decisively defeated the French and forced them from the war. Many in the US media had portrayed the battle for Khe Sanh as potentially "another Dien Bien Phu." The battle began on 22 January with a brisk firefight involving the 3rd Battalion, 26th Marines and a North Vietnamese battalion entrenched between two hills northwest of the base. An incessant barrage kept Khe Sanh's Marine defenders — which included three battalions from the 26th Marines, elements of the 9th Marine Regiment, and the South Vietnamese 37th Ranger Battalion — pinned down in their trenches and bunkers.
      During the 66-day siege, US planes, dropping 5000 bombs daily, exploded the equivalent of five Hiroshima-sized atomic bombs in the area. The relief of Khe Sanh, called Operation Pegasus, began in early April as the 1st Cavalry (Airmobile) and a South Vietnamese battalion approached the base from the east and south, while the Marines pushed westward to re-open Route 9. The siege was finally lifted on 06 April, when the cavalrymen linked up with the 9th Marines south of the Khe Sanh airstrip. In a final clash a week later, the 3rd Battalion, 26th Marines drove enemy forces from Hill 881 North. Gen. William Westmoreland, commander of US Military Assistance Command Vietnam, contended that Khe Sanh played a vital blocking role at the western end of the Demilitarized Zone, and asserted that if the base had fallen, North Vietnamese forces could have outflanked Marine defenses along the buffer zone.
      Various statements in the North Vietnamese Communist Party newspaper suggested that Hanoi saw the battle as an opportunity to re-enact its famous victory at Dien Bien Phu. There was much controversy over the battle at Khe Sanh, as both sides claimed victory. The North Vietnamese, although they failed to take the base, claimed that they had tied down a lot of US combat assets that could have been used elsewhere in South Vietnam. This is true, but the North Vietnamese failed to achieve the decisive victory at Khe Sanh that they had won against the French at Dien Bien Phu. For their part, the Americans claimed victory because they had held the base against the North Vietnamese onslaught. It was a costly battle for both sides. The official casualty count for the Battle of Khe Sanh was 205 Marines killed in action and over 1,600 wounded (this figure did not include the US and South Vietnamese soldiers killed in other battles in the region). The US military headquarters in Saigon estimated that the North Vietnamese lost between 10'000 and 15'000 men in the fighting at Khe Sanh.
1967 Jérusalem israélie         ^top^
      Pendant la Guerre des 6 jours entre Israël et l’Egypte (appuyée par l’intervention des Pays Arabes), la vieille ville de Jérusalem (TransJordanienne depuis 1948) est enlevée par les parachutistes Juifs , ce jour. Le 27 Juin le Knesset la déclare " unifiée " et sous la souveraineté d’Israël. Depuis 1980 elle est la capitale officielle d’Israël (à la place de Tell-Aviv) et les chefs d’Etat arabes (Sadate), Américains (Carter, Nixon, Clinton) Français (Mitterand, Chirac) y sont reçus, de même que les ambassadeurs de tous les pays. Les Lieux Saints (3 confessions : Islam, Judaïsme, Christianisme) se trouvent sous la juridiction des "autorités reconnues" des diverses confessions.
1967 Race riot in Buffalo NY (200 arrested)
1963 Henry Cabot Lodge is appointed US ambassador to South Vietnam. Ambassador Ellsworth Bunkers was to de-escalate the Vietnam conflict without losing the war.
1963 Kennedy appoints Lodge as ambassador to Vietnam.         ^top^
      President John F. Kennedy appoints Henry Cabot Lodge, his former Republican political opponent, to succeed Frederick E. Nolting as ambassador to Vietnam. The appointing of Lodge and the recall of Nolting signaled a change in US policy in South Vietnam. Lodge was a firm believer in the "domino theory," and when he became convinced that the United States could not defeat the Communists in Vietnam with President Ngo Dinh Diem in office, he became very critical of Diem's regime in his dispatches back to Washington. Diem was ultimately removed from office and assassinated during a coup by opposition South Vietnamese generals that began on 01 November 1963. On orders from the Kennedy administration, Lodge had conveyed to the coup plotters that the United States would not thwart any proposed coup. Lodge served in Saigon until June 1964, when he resigned his ambassadorial post to pursue the Republican presidential nomination. Ultimately, Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona secured the nomination and was defeated by Johnson in the general election. Lodge returned to Saigon in 1965 for another two-year stint as ambassador.
1961 In England, Arthur Michael Ramsey is enthroned as the 100th Archbishop of Canterbury, the principal see of the Established Church of England.
1960 British Somaliland becomes part of Somalia
1957 La empresa Seat pone a la venta el coche seiscientos.
1956 Révolte ouvrière en Pologne.         ^top^
     Elle commence dans les chantiers navals de Poznan, bientôt suivie par les aciéries, l’industrie électrique, le bâtiment et le secteur industriel tout entier. Appuyée par Moscou, la répression sera terrible, sanglante. Des dizaines de milliers de morts et d’opposants enfermés. Le président Gomulka, communiste de longue date, lâchera du lest pendant quelques mois, il obtiendra même un remboursement symbolique de 2 milliards de roubles de la part de l’Union Soviétique pour “l’exploitation de l’Economie Polonaise”, mais sitôt la tension sociale retombée, il reviendra au communisme autoritaire pur et dur.
1955 first automobile seat belt legislation enacted (Illinois)
1954 first atomic power station opens (Obninsk, near Moscow, Russia)
1954 CIA-sponsored rebels overthrow elected government of Guatemala.
click for New York Times 195006271950 Truman orders troops to Korea:         ^top^
      The UN Security Council calls on members for troops to aid South Korea and US President Harry Truman sends 35 military advisers to South Vietnam and authorizes the deployment of US troops to South Korea after an agreement to combine forces was made with the UN Two days earlier, Communist North Korean troops had stormed across the 38th parallel in an unexpected invasion of South Korea. In the opening months of the war, the US-led UN forces rapidly advanced against the North Koreans, but in October, Chinese Communist troops entered the fray, throwing the Allies into a general retreat. In 1953, a peace agreement was signed, ending the war and reestablishing the 1945 division of Korea that still exists today. US casualties in the Korean War were 170'000 killed, wounded, or missing in action. Truman"s statement:
     In Korea the Government forces, which were armed to prevent border raids and to preserve internal security, were attacked by invading forces from North Korea. The Security Council of the United Nations called upon the invading troops to cease hostilities and to withdraw to the Thirty-eighth Parallel. This they have not done, but on the contrary have pressed the attack. The Security Council called upon all members of the United Nations to render every assistance to the United Nations in the execution of this resolution.
      In these circumstances I have ordered United States air and sea forces to give the Korean Government troops cover and support.
      The attack upon Korea makes it plain beyond all doubt that communism has passed beyond the use of subversion to conquer independent nations and will now use armed invasion and war.
      It has defied the orders of the Security Council of the United Nations issued to preserve international peace and security. In these circumstances the occupation of Formosa by Communist forces would be a direct threat to the security of the Pacific area and to United States forces performing their lawful and necessary functions in that area.
      Accordingly I have ordered the Seventh Fleet to prevent any attack on Formosa. As a corollary of this action I am calling upon the Chinese Government on Formosa to cease all air and sea operations against the mainland. The Seventh Fleet will see that this is done. The determination of the future status of Formosa must await the restoration of security in the Pacific, a peace settlement with Japan, or consideration by the United Nations.
      I have also directed that United States forces in the Philippines be strengthened and that military assistance to the Philippine Government be accelerated.
      I have similarly directed acceleration in the furnishing of military assistance to the forces of France and the associated states in Indo-China and the dispatch of a military mission to provide close working relations with those forces.
      I know that all members of the United Nations will consider carefully the consequences of this latest aggression in Korea in defiance of the Charter of the United Nations. A return to the rule of force in international affairs would have far-reaching effects. The United States will continue to uphold the rule of law.
      I have instructed Ambassador Austin, as the representative of the United States to the Security Council, to report these steps to the Council
President Harry S. Truman announces that he is ordering US air and naval forces to South Korea to aid the democratic nation in repulsing an invasion by communist North Korea. The United States was undertaking the major military operation, he explained, to enforce a United Nations resolution calling for an end to hostilities, and to stem the spread of communism in Asia. In addition to ordering US forces to Korea, Truman also deployed the US 7th Fleet to Formosa (Taiwan) to guard against invasion by communist China and ordered an acceleration of military aid to French forces fighting communist guerrillas in Vietnam. At the Yalta Conference towards the end of World War II, the United States, the USSR, and Great Britain agreed to divide Korea into two separate occupation zones. The country was split along the 38th parallel, with Soviet forces occupying the northern zone and Americans stationed in the south. In 1947, the United States and Great Britain called for free elections throughout Korea, but the Soviets refused to comply. In May 1948 the Korean Democratic People's Republic — a communist state — was proclaimed in North Korea. In August, the democratic Republic of Korea was established in South Korea. By 1949, both the United States and the USSR had withdrawn the majority of their troops from the Korean Peninsula.
      At dawn on 25 June 1950 (24 June in the United States and Europe), 90'000 Communist troops of the North Korean People's Army invaded South Korea across the 38th parallel, catching the Republic of Korea's forces completely off guard and throwing them into a hasty southern retreat. On the afternoon of 25 June, the UN Security Council met in an emergency session and approved a US resolution calling for an "immediate cessation of hostilities" and the withdrawal of North Korean forces to the 38th parallel. At the time, the USSR was boycotting the Security Council over the UN's refusal to admit the People's Republic of China and so missed its chance to veto this and other crucial UN resolutions. On 27 June, President Truman announced to the nation and the world that America would intervene in the Korean conflict in order to prevent the conquest of an independent nation by communism. Truman was suggesting that the USSR was behind the North Korean invasion, and in fact the Soviets had given tacit approval to the invasion, which was carried out with Soviet-made tanks and weapons.
      Despite the fear that US intervention in Korea might lead to open warfare between the United States and Russia after years of "cold war," Truman's decision was met with overwhelming approval from Congress and the US public. Truman did not ask for a declaration of war, but Congress voted to extend the draft and authorized Truman to call up reservists. On 28 June the Security Council met again and in the continued absence of the Soviet Union passed a US resolution approving the use of force against North Korea. On 30 June Truman agreed to send US ground forces to Korea, and on 07 July the Security Council recommended that all UN forces sent to Korea be put under US command. The next day, General Douglas MacArthur was named commander of all UN forces in Korea. In the opening months of the war, the US-led UN forces rapidly advanced against the North Koreans, but Chinese communist troops entered the fray in October, throwing the Allies into a hasty retreat. In April 1951, Truman relieved MacArthur of his command after he publicly threatened to bomb China in defiance of Truman's stated war policy. Truman feared that an escalation of fighting with China would draw the Soviet Union into the Korean War. By May 1951, the communists were pushed back to the 38th parallel, and the battle line remained in that vicinity for the remainder of the war. On 27 July 1953, after two years of negotiation, an armistice was signed, ending the war and reestablishing the 1945 division of Korea that still exists today.
      Approximately 150'000 troops from South Korea, the United States, and participating UN nations were killed in the Korean War, and as many as one million South Korean civilians perished. An estimated 800'000 Communist soldiers were killed, and more than 200'000 North Korean civilians died. The original figure of US troops lost — 54'246 killed — became controversial when the Pentagon acknowledged in 2000 that all US troops killed around the world during the period of the Korean War were incorporated into that number. For example, any US soldier killed in an car accident anywhere in the world from June 1950 to July 1953 was considered a casualty of the Korean War. If these deaths are subtracted from the 54'000 total, leaving just the US soldiers who died (from whatever cause) in the Korean theater of operations, the total US dead in the Korean War numbers 36'516.
1950 Truman: ce n'est pas le moment de discuter sur Taï-Wan         ^top^
      En 1945, les Américains avaient libéré la Chine de l’occupation Japonaise. Les forces américaines permettent à l’armée chinoise du général Chiang-Kaï-Shek d’occuper l’île de Taï-wan mais les garnisons américaines ne doivent pas partir. En Chine, c’est la lutte entre les forces communistes populaires et les socialistes et les libéraux, entre les partisans de Mao et ceux de Chiang-Kaï-Shek, général héros de la Résistance, puissant seigneur de la guerre. En 1947, une épuration sanglante des forces communistes tuent plus de 10'000 opposants rien que sur l’île de Taï-wan. En 1949, le général Chiang-Kaï-Shek décide de se retirer sur l’île pour échapper aux forces communistes qui gagnent du terrain sur la Chine continentale. Il reçoit l’aide politique et financière des Américains qui en font une base avancée en Mer de Chine.
      En 1950, éclate la guerre de Corée. Les Américains en profitent pour renforcer leur présence et leur contrôle. Le 27 Juin 1950 le président Truman prend une décision "immédiatement exécutive": le sort de Taï-Wan ne sera discuté qu’une fois la Paix revenue. Parallèlement, la menace de l’emploi de la Bombe Atomique dans la guerre de Corée refroidit les Communistes Chinois, qui prennent des positions moins tranchées. La VI° flotte américaine s’installe en force dans le détroit de Formose. Formose est neutralisée.
      En 1954, à la fin de la guerre de Corée, un traité est signé entre les E.U. et Formose ainsi qu’avec la Corée du Sud pour leur garantir l’appui militaire, politique et financier du "gendarme du monde". On en arrive ainsi à une situation absurde, burlesque, mais hélas tragique. Sous prétexte de garantir la "Liberté" du monde non communiste, Taï-Wan est intégrée "de force" dans le système géo-politique américain d’encerclement de la Chine populaire. Ce "cordon sanitaire" se compose de régimes autoritaires, dictatoriaux, impopulaires, minoritaires, refusant toute opposition et largement subventionnés par les Américains : Corée du Sud, Vietnam du Sud, Philippines, Thaïlande et Taï-Wan. Comme dans les républiques "bannanières" de l’Amérique du Sud, le sang coule à flots à chaque velléité de libéralisation.
      Une des conséquences de cetet situation, c’est que la Chine nationaliste (Taï-Wan) reçut le siège chinois à l’ONU, empêchant ainsi la Chine Populaire (Pékin) d’y siéger. Régulièrement des pays demandaient l’entrée de la Chine à l’ONU. Les Américains jugeaient leurs alliés (et donc les récipiendaires de leurs aides financières) à leur vote "Pour ou Contre" le maintien de Taï-Wan.
      Pour rappel, l’île est à peine plus grande que la Belgique (36'000 km²) ; montagneuse, elle comporte de riches plaines littorales. Elle abrite plus de 20 millions d’âmes et possède un revenu national brut des plus élevés, non seulement en Asie, mais aussi dans le monde. C’est le deuxième pays au monde pour la plus forte réserve de devises. Son industrie est d’une efficacité et d’un dynamisme difficiles à suivre. Mais les inégalités de revenus sont criantes et le système politique, quoique "démocratique" n’a pas toujours le même sens de la démocratie que les Occidentaux. La capitale est Taïbei ou Taïpei, une agglomération de plus de 5 millions d’habitants.
      En 1978, le premier rapprochement sino-américain (ou américano-chinois) isole Taï-Wan qui perd son siège à l’ONU au profit de la Chine. Dans les années suivantes, la Chine Populaire parviendra à éliminer Taï-Wan de toutes les organisations internationales (F.M.I. Banque Internationale, Unesco …).
1950 UN approves armed force to repel North Korea         ^top^
      Just two days after communist North Korean forces invaded South Korea, the United Nations Security Council approves a resolution put forward by the United States calling for armed force to repel the North Korean invaders. The action provided the pretext for US intervention in the conflict and was the first time the Security Council had ever approved the use of military force. On 25 June 1950, communist North Korea invaded South Korea. Although some US military personnel were in South Korea, the North Korean forces made rapid headway. Almost immediately, the UN Security Council issued a resolution calling for a cease-fire and an end to North Korean aggression. North Korea dismissed the resolution as "illegal."
      On 27 June Warren Austin, the US representative on the Security Council, proposed a resolution. It noted that North Korea had ignored the earlier cease-fire resolution and that South Korea was pleading for assistance. Therefore, the resolution asked that "the members of the United Nations furnish such assistance to the Republic of Korea as may be necessary to repel the armed attack and to restore international peace and security in the area." The resolution passed by a vote of 7 to 1. Yugoslavia was the only dissenting vote; Egypt and India abstained. The Soviet Union, as a permanent member of the Security Council, could have easily vetoed the resolution, but the Russian representative was boycotting Security Council meetings until the communist People's Republic of China was admitted to the United Nations.
      The Security Council vote meant that any member nation could now come to the assistance of South Korea, though it left unstated how the efforts of various nations might be coordinated. For the United States, the resolution was all that was needed to provide a foundation for US military intervention. Just three days after the resolution was passed, President Harry S. Truman dispatched land, sea, and air forces to beat back the North Korean attack. That action led to three years of US involvement in the Korean War and over 50'000 US servicemen were killed in the conflict. An armistice signed in July 1953 left Korea a divided nation.
1949 Se crea el Instituto Nacional de Industria, que potenció la industria española y fue suprimido 46 años después.
1948 Las potencias occidentales deciden establecer un puente aéreo para asegurar el abastecimiento de Berlín.
1945 FCC allocates TV channels         ^top^
      The US FCC allocates airwaves for 13 TV stations. Before World War II, a few experimental TV shows had been broadcast in New York, but the war postponed the development of commercial television. With the allocation of airwaves, commercial TV began to spread. The first regularly scheduled network series appeared in 1946, and many Americans viewed television for the first time in 1947, when NBC broadcast the World Series. Since privately owned television sets were still rare, most of the series' estimated 3.9 million viewers watched the games from a bar.
1945 L’émirat de Jordanie signe avec Londres un accord qui aboutira à l’Indépendance de la Région. Celle-ci sera effective le 25 Mai 1946.
1944 Allies take Cherbourg         ^top^
      The Allies capture the fortified town and port of Cherbourg, on Normandy’s Cotentin Peninsula, freeing it from German occupation asd giving the Allies their first major port in France. Hitler had for all intents and purposes anticipated his own defeat when, in contrast with the analysis of his advisers, he accurately predicted that the D-Day invasion would be focused on Normandy. He knew the Allies needed to take a large port-and Cherbourg fit the bill. (The Brits had actually handpicked Cherbourg as the target for a "Cross-Channel" landing back in 1942.)
      On 06 June 1944, after a year of meticulous planning conducted in complete secrecy by a joint Anglo-American staff, the largest combined sea, air, and land military operation in history began on the French coast in the Baie de la Seine. The Allied invasion force included three million men, 13'000 aircraft, 1200 warships, 2700 merchant ships, and 2500 landing craft. There were five Allied landing sites at Normandy, and by the evening of the first day, some 150'000 US, British, and Canadian troops were ashore, holding two hundred square kilometers.
      Despite the formidable German coastal defenses, beachheads had been achieved at all five landing locations. At one site — Omaha Beach — German resistance was especially strong, and the Allied position was only secured after hours of bloody fighting by the Americans assigned to it. Over the next five days, the US, British, and Canadian divisions in Normandy took longer to reach their goals than planned, but nevertheless moved steadily forward in all sectors. On 11 June the five landing groups, made up of some 330'000 troops, linked-up in Normandy to form a single solid front across northwestern France.
      From there, Operation Overlord — the code name for the Allied invasion of northwestern Europe — proceeded as planned, with the Allies liberating the French towns they had targeted and the Cotenin Peninsula. On 27 June Cherbourg was captured, and by the end of the month, the Allies had landed 630'000 men, 177'000 vehicles, and 600'000 tons of supplies at a cost of 62'000 dead or wounded. By the end of the summer, Paris had been liberated and the Germans were in retreat all along the western front.
. A perilous airborne strike and the mightiest assemblage of seaborne power yet seen heralded the beginning of the end for Nazi Germany.
1942 The FBI announces the capture of eight Nazi saboteurs who had been put ashore from a submarine on New York's Long Island.
1942 The Allied Convoy PQ-17 leaves Iceland for Murmansk and Archangel.
1941 II Guerra Mundial. Hungría declara la guerra a la URSS.
1940 USSR returns to the Gregorian calendar
1940 Germans use Enigma coding machine         ^top^
     The Germans set up two-way radio communication in their newly occupied French territory, employing their most sophisticated coding machine, Enigma, to transmit information. The Germans set up radio stations in Brest and the port town of Cherbourg. Signals would be transmitted to German bombers so as to direct them to targets in Britain. The Enigma coding machine, invented in 1919 by Hugo Koch, a Dutchman, looked like a typewriter and was originally employed for business purposes. The German army adapted the machine for wartime use and considered its encoding system unbreakable. They were wrong. The Brits had broken the code as early as the German invasion of Poland and had intercepted virtually every message sent through the system. Britain nicknamed the intercepted messages Ultra.
1934 El rey de Arabia y el imán del Yemen ponen fin a la prolongada guerra del desierto.
1934 In the US, the National Housing Act is enacted as one of several economic recovery measures. It provides for the establishment of a Federal Housing Administration (FHA) to be headed by a Federal Housing Administrator. This agency encouraged banks, building and loan associations, etc. to make loans for building homes, small business establishments, and farm buildings. If the FHA approved the plans, it would insure the loan. In 1937 Congress passed another National Housing Act that enabled the FHA to take control of slum clearance.
1924 Democrats offer Mrs. Leroy Springs the US vice presidential nomination, the first woman considered for the job.
1923 Yugoslav Premier Nikola Pachitch is wounded by Serb attackers in Belgrade
1922 Newberry Medal first presented for kids literature (Hendrik Van Loon)
1918 Two German pilots are saved by parachutes for the first time.
1915 38ºC, Fort Yukon, Alaska (state record)
1914 US signs treaty of commerce with Ethiopia
1905 The battleship Potemkin succumbs to a mutiny on the Black Sea. — Se amotina la tripulación del acorazado ruso Potemkin, en Sebastopol, refugiándose el buque en el puerto rumano de Constanza.
1894 Le président Sadi Carnot vient d'être assassiné par un anarchiste. Par 451 voix sur 853 votants, Jean Casimir-Perier celui qui a imposé ces lois pour lutter contre l'anarchie, que l'opposition républicaine de gauche a qualifié de "lois scélérates", est élu président de la République.
1893 The New York stock market crashes.
1874 Buffalo hunters and Indians clash at Adobe Walls         ^top^
      Using new high-powered rifles to devastating effect, 28 buffalo hunters repulse a much larger force of attacking Indians at an old trading post in the Texas panhandle called Adobe Walls. The Commanche, Kiowa, and Cheyenne Indians living in western Texas had long resented the advancement of white settlement in their territories. In 1867, some of the Indians accepted the terms of the Treaty of Medicine Lodge, which required them to move to Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma) but also reserved much of the Texas Panhandle as their exclusive hunting grounds. Many white Texans, however, maintained that the treaty had ignored their legitimate claims to the area. These white buffalo hunters, who had already greatly reduced the once massive herds, continued to hunt in the territory. By the early 1870s, Commanche, Kiowa, and Cheyenne hunters were finding it harder to locate buffalo, and they blamed the illegal white buffalo hunters. When the federal government failed to take adequate measures to stop the white buffalo hunters, the great chief Quanah Parker and others began to argue for war. In the spring 1874, a group of white merchants occupied an old trading post called Adobe Walls near the South Canadian River in the Indian's hunting territory.
      The merchants quickly transformed the site into a regional center for the buffalo-hide trade. Angered by this blatant violation of the treaty, Chief Quanah Parker and Lone Wolf amassed a force of about 700 Commanche, Kiowa, and Cheyenne braves. On this day in 1874, the Indians attacked Adobe Walls. Only 28 hunters and traders occupied Adobe Walls, but they had two advantages over the Indians: the thick walls of the adobe structure were impenetrable to arrows and bullets, and the occupants had a number of high-powered rifles normally used on buffalo. The hunters’ .50 caliber Sharps rifles represented the latest technology in long-range, rapid firing weaponry. Already skilled marksmen, the buffalo hunters used the rifles to deadly effect, decimating the warriors before they came close enough even to return effective fire. On the second day of the siege, one hunter reportedly hit an Indian warrior at a distance of eight-tenths of a mile. Despite their overwhelmingly superior numbers, after three days the Indians concluded that Adobe Walls could not be taken and withdrew. The defenders had lost only four men in the attack, and they later estimated that the Indians had lost 13. Enraged by their defeat, several Indian bands subsequently took their revenge on poorly defended targets. Fearful settlers demanded military protection, leading to the outbreak of the Red River War. By the time the war ended in 1875, the Commanche and Kiowa had been badly beaten and Indian resistance on the Southern Plains had effectively collapsed.
1864 Atlanta Campaign — General Sherman is repulsed by Confederates at the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain., Georgia
1864 Battle of Kennesaw Mountain         ^top^
      Union General William T. Sherman launches a major attack on Confederate General Joseph Johnston's army at the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain in Georgia. Beginning in early May, Sherman began a slow advance down the 160-km corridor from Chattanooga, Tennessee, to Atlanta, refraining from making any large-scale assaults. The campaign was marked by many smaller battles and constant skirmishes but no decisive encounters. Johnston was losing ground, but he was also buying time for the Confederates. With Sherman frustrated in Georgia, and Ulysses S. Grant unable to knock out Robert E. Lee's army in Virginia, the Union war effort was stalled, casualty rates were high, and the re-election of Abraham Lincoln appeared unlikely. In the days leading up to the assault at Kennesaw Mountain, Sherman tried to flank Johnston.
      Since one of Johnston's generals, John Bell Hood, attacked at Kolb's Farm and lost 1500 precious Confederate soldiers, Sherman believed that Johnston's line was stretched thin and that an assault would break the Rebels. So he changed his tactics and planned a move against the center of the Confederate lines around Kennesaw Mountain. He feigned attacks on both of Johnston's flanks, then hurled 8,000 men at the Confederate center. It was a disaster. Entrenched Southerners bombarded the Yankees, who were attacking uphill. Three thousand Union troops fell, compared to just 500 Confederates. The battle was only a marginal Confederate victory. Sherman remained in place for four more days, but one of the decoy attacks on the Confederate flanks did, in fact, place the Union troops in a position to cut into Johnston's rear. On 02 July Johnston had to vacate his Kennesaw Mountain lines and retreat toward Atlanta. Sherman followed, and the slow campaign lurched on into the Georgia summer.
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1862 Confederates break through the Union lines at the Battle of Gaines' Mill (First Cold Harbor), the third engagement of the Seven Days in Virginia. The hard-fighting 44th Georgia suffered some of the heaviest losses of any regiment in the Civil War.
1847 New York and Boston are linked by telegraph wires.
1833 Prudence Crandall, a white woman, arrested for conducting an academy for black females at Canterbury Connecticut. The academy is eventually closed.
1806 Buenos Aires captured by British
1801 Tras la batalla de Alejandría, los franceses capitulan en Egipto ante los ingleses y regresan a Francia.
1789 Louis XVI cède au Tiers         ^top^
      Le 23 juin, les députés du tiers, sommés de se séparer, avaient refusé. Ce jour du 27, le roi cède et se résigne à inviter les députés de la noblesse et du clergé à se joindre au tiers. "La famille est complète", commente le doyen du tiers, Jean-Sylvain Bailly. L'acceptation par le roi provoque la liesse de la foule qui envahit les cours du château de Versailles. La reine, sur la Terrasse de Midi, lui présente le Dauphin qui est acclamé.
1743 King George of the English defeats the French at Dettingen, Bavaria.
1706 Ante el sesgo que toma la guerra de sucesión en España, se anuncia el traslado de la Corte de Madrid a Burgos.
1660 El poeta y escritor inglés John Milton, autor de El Paraíso perdido, es condenado a la cárcel por el Parlamento.
1629 Paz de Alés, que puso fin a la segunda sublevación de los hugonotes franceses y los anuló como grupo político.
1594 Sacre du roi Henri IV.         ^top^
     Il est sacré roi de France et de Navarre, à Chartres, en grande pompe. Il est le "Vert Galant", l’Homme de "la Poule au Pot" celui dont le conseiller Sully (protestant lui aussi) disait : "Labourage et pâturage sont les deux mamelles de la France", mais aussi de l' "Edit de Nantes" ... Pour être accepté par les Français, il a dû abjurer le protestantisme, ce qu’il fit car, disait-il "Paris vaut bien une messe."
1313 Enrique VII es ungido emperador de Alemania en Roma.
1299 In his encyclical 'Scimus fili,' Pope Boniface VIII claimed that Scotland owed allegiance to the Catholic Church. However his most serious problems came from the French king Philippe le Bel.
0678 Saint Agatho begins his reign as Pope
Deaths which occurred on a 27 June:         ^top^
2002 Oleg Sedinko [photo >], by an explosion when he enters his apartment in Vladivostok, accompanied by a bodyguard, who is injured. Sedinko was one of the owners of the Novaya Volna (New Wave) television and radio company and a chain of movie theaters.
2002 Edilson Conde, 12, Juan Quenta, 18, Amador Conde Mendieta, 37, Ramiro Máximo Bautista, 23, Adela Mita de Huayta, 35, Yamil Huayta Mita, 7, Tamaris Huayta Mita, 11, Néstor Camacho, 24, Kevin Camacho, 2, Rubén Camacho, 2, Elisa Camacho Leanca, 33, Dennis Corrales Camacho, 9, Jhanet Corrales, 17, Édgar Llusko Trujillos, 29, Blanca Mamani Cori, 9, Celina Mamani Mamani, 35, Lucía Mamani Mamani, 38, Tomasa Vilca Ventura, 32, Rogelio Cachaca Huallpa, 37, Mario Ayllón Salas, 42, Marcelino Aguilar, 44, Claudio Rivero Céspedes, 36, 20 other passengers, and Rolando Ramírez Guarachi, 27, driver of a 38-seat Totaí bus, traveling at excessive speed on a mountain road from La Paz to Caranavi, which skids off a curve and falls 350 meters into a gorge near Challa (Yungas), Bolivia (112 km from La Paz). The 9 survivors are injured.
2002 John D. Worth, 66, of a heart aneurysm, US historian of Canada and Latin America, whose books include Identities in North America: The Search for Community and Smelter Smoke in North America: The Politics of Transborder Pollution.
2000 Pierre Pflimlin, político y primer ministro francés.
1999 George Papadopoulos, 80, Greece's 1967-74 military dictator, of cancer, in Athens.
1997 Leila al-Attar, 48, (and five other civilians) in US Tomahawk missile strike on Saddam Hussein's intelligence headquarters in Baghdad, Iraq (ordered by Clinton in retaliation for Iraq's involvement in a foiled car bomb plot to kill Bush on a visit to Kuwait). Al-Attar was a painter and head of Iraq's state institute for the arts. Iranians believe that she was targeted (she was not) because she oversaw the work on a portrait of a snarling George Bush Sr. [labeled BUSK IS CRIMINAL and something in Arabic] on the floor of the lobby of the Rashid Hotel (al-Attar had nothing to do with it). The mosaic portrait was the work of brothers Mohsen Tabani, then 45, and Majid Tabani, alone, in retaliation for an errant US missile which killed two in that lobby on 17 January 1993 [when Bush was still president].
1994 Seven persons, by sarin gas released in Matsumoto, west of Tokyo, by Aum Shinrikyo sect members in a parking lot across the street from a rest house where judges who were hearing a case against them are staying. 150 persons are injured. However, Japan’s authorities, hindered by constitutional protection of religious organizations, failed to arrest the sect's leader, Matsumoto Chizuo (“Shoko Asahara” to his followers), 39, or suppress his cult. During the 1980s, Chizuo, a self-styled Buddhist monk, begin winning numerous converts to his Aum Shinrikyo cult, a Japanese name that translated to the "True Teachings of Om." In 1989, Aum was recognized as a religious body and corporation in Japan. On 20 March 1995, the sect would release sarin gas in the Tokyo subway, killing twelve persons.
1994 Salvador Victoria, pintor español.
1989 Alfred Jules Ayer, filósofo británico.
1975 Geoffrey Ingram Taylor, English mathematician born on 07 March 1886.
1970 Antonio de Oliveira Salazar, estadista portugués.
1957 More than 500 persons by Hurricane "Audrey" in coastal Louisiana and Texas.
1952 Max Wilhelm Dehn, German US mathematician born on 13 November 1878. He wrote one of the first systematic expositions of topology (1907) and later formulated important problems on group presentations, namely the word problem and the isomorphism problem.
1949 Alejandro Lerroux García, político español.
1946 Los 69 tripulantes del submarino español C-4, en aguas de las islas Baleares, por colisión con el destructor Lepanto.
1941 Jews burned alive in a synagogue in Bialystok, Poland, by the Nazis, just five days after they attacked the Soviet Union and seized the Soviet-occupied part of Poland.
1935 Eva Coo, executed in New York state in the electric chair.
1927 Thomas Jacques Somerscales, British painter born on 30 October 1842, active mostly in Chile. — MORE ON SOMERSCALES AT ART “4” JUNE LINKSCattle watering in a River LandscapeOff ValparaisoCombate Naval de Iquique _ detail 1 _ detail 2 
1914 Bertha Von Suttner, escritora austriaca, Premio Nobel de la Paz 1905.
1910 Edouard Alexandre Sain, French artist born on 13 May 1830. — [Would you believe this? — There was a French artist named Sain / Who of critics had enough, / So he went to the Pont-Neuf, / Jumped off, and thus died in Seine.]
1883 William Spottiswoode, born on 11 January 1825, London mathematician, physicist, also a leading expert on European languages and on oriental languages.
1880 Carl Wilhelm Borchardt, German mathematician born on 22 February 1817. He did important research on the arithmetic geometric mean continuing work in this area by Gauss and Lagrange. He generalized results of Kummer [29 Jan 1810 – 14 May 1893] on equations determining the secular disturbances of the planets. In this work he used determinants and Sturm functions.
1862 William Madigan, 36, in the Battle of Chickahominy in Gaines Mill, Virginia. Born in Boston, he was a captain in the Ninth Regiment of the Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, also known as the “Irish North.” He was known as a wit and every inch a gentleman, and a brave soldier. Madigan was a punster and a vocalist; could tell a pleasing story, or perpetrate a good joke. He was greatly beloved by his fellow officers. — Massachusetts Governor John A. Andrew commissioned William Morris Hunt [21 Mar 1824 – 08 Sep 1879] to paint a posthumous military portrait of Madigan. It is one of several portraits of Civil War heroes by Hunt.
1844 Joseph Smith, Hyrum Smith, murdered by mob         ^top^
      Joseph Smith, the founder and leader of the Mormon religion, was murdered along with his brother Hyrum when an anti-Mormon mob breaks into a jail in Carthage, Illinois, where they are being held on charges of inciting a riot.
      In 1823, Smith, born in Vermont in 1805, claimed that he been visited by a Christian angel named Moroni who spoke to him of an ancient Hebrew text that had lost been lost for 1500 years. The holy text, supposedly engraved on gold plates by a Native-American historian in the fourth century, related the story of Jewish peoples who had lived in America in ancient times. Over the next six years, Smith dictated an English translation of this text to his wife and other scribes, and, in 1830, The Book of Mormon was published.
      In the same year, Smith founded the Church of Christ, later known as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, in Fayette, New York. The religion rapidly gained converts and Smith set up Mormon communities in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. However, the Christian sect was heavily criticized for its unorthodox practices, such as polygamy, and, on 27 June 1844, Smith and his brother were murdered by an anti-Mormon mob that included members of the Illinois state militia.
      At the time of Smith’s death there were approximately thirty-five thousand practicing Mormons. Two years later, his successor, Brigham Young, led an exodus of Mormons from Nauvoo, Illinois, along the western wagon trails in search of religious and political freedom. In July of 1847, the first wave of 148 Mormon pioneers reached Utah's Valley of the Great Salt Lake. Upon viewing the valley, Young declared, “This is the place,” and the pioneers began preparations for the tens of thousands of Mormon migrants who would follow.
1831 Marie-Sophie Germain, French mathematician and physicist born on 01 April 1776. She made major contributions to number theory, acoustics and elasticity.
1829 James Smithson, in Genoa, Italy, after a long illness, English scientist, endower of the Smithsonian         ^top^
      He leaves behind a will with an interesting clause. In the event that his only nephew died without any heirs, Smithson decreed that the whole of his estate go to “the United States of America, to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an Establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge.” Even with the contingency clause, Smithson’s curious bequest to a country that he had never visited aroused significant attention on both sides of the Atlantic.
      Smithson had been a fellow of the venerable Royal Society of London from the age of twenty-two, publishing numerous scientific papers on mineral composition, geology, and chemistry. In 1802, he overturned popular scientific opinion by proving that zinc carbonates were true carbonate minerals, and one type of zinc carbonate was later named smithsonite in his honor.
      Six years after his death, his nephew, Henry James Hungerford, indeed died without children, and on 01 July 1836, the US Congress authorized acceptance of Smithson’s gift. President Andrew Jackson sent diplomat Richard Rush to England to negotiate for transfer of the funds, and two years later, Rush set sail for home with eleven boxes containing a total of 104'960 gold sovereigns, eight shillings, and seven pence, as well as Smithson’s mineral collection, library, scientific notes, and personal effects. After the gold was melted down it amounted to a fortune worth well over five hundred thousand US dollars. After considering a series of recommendations, including the creation of a national university, a public library, or an astronomical observatory, Congress agreed that the bequest would support the creation of a museum, a library, and a program of research, publication, and collection in the natural and applied sciences, arts, and history.
      On 10 August 1846, the act establishing the Smithsonian Institution was signed into law by President James K. Polk. Today, the Smithsonian is composed of eighteen museums and galleries and many research facilities throughout the United States and the world. Besides the original Smithsonian Institution Building, popularly known as the “Castle,” visitors to Washington DC tour the National Museum of Natural History, which houses the natural science collections, the National Zoological Park, and the National Portrait Gallery. The National Museum of American History houses the original Star-Spangled Banner and other artifacts of US history. The National Air and Space Museum has the distinction of being the most visited museum in the world, exhibiting marvels of aviation and space history such as the Wright brothers’ plane and Freedom 7, the space capsule that took the first American into space. John Smithson, the Smithsonian Institution’s great benefactor, is interred in a tomb in the Smithsonian Building.
1800 Théophile-Malo Corret de la Tour D'Auvergne, 57, in action at the battle of Oberhausen. He had been named “Premier Grenadier de France” by Napoléon Bonaparte, and subject of the non-historical poem (?) The First Grenadier of France, by the worst poet (?) ever, William Topaz McGonagall (1830 or March 1825 – 29 Sep 1902).

Condamnés à mort par la Révolution: ^top^
1794 (09 messidor an II):
LOCHET Pierre, journalier, officier municipal de la commune, 38 ans, né à Varray (Côte-d'Or), domicilié à Tellerey, même département, comme convaincu d'avoir dit dans un cabaret, qu'il fallait s'assembler et aller brûler la Convention nationale; que c'était un composé de gueux.
BOTTO Philippe, ex curé, domicilié à Vilmoiron, canton d'Evry (Aube), comme réfractaire à la loi,, par le tribunal criminel du département de l'Aube.
GELY Antoine, ex curé, domicilié à Barjac (Lozère), par le tribunal criminel dudit département comme réfractaire à la loi.
GIBERT Jean Pierre, secrétaire du bureau de conciliation du district de Nismes, domicilié à Nismes (Gard), par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme fédéraliste.
MEYER Bernard, domicilié à Nidermespach (Haut-Rhin), comme émigré, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
DORGUEIL André Charles, ex vicaire, domicilié au Mans (Sarthe), par la commission révolutionnaire séante à Laval, comme brigand de la Vendée.
GALIN Pierre, domicilié à Vézins (Mayenne et Loire), par la commission militaire séante à Nantes, comme brigand de la Vendée.
DELANNE Marie Suzanne, 60 ans, née à Paris, demeurant à Arras, fille de feu François et de De La Malmaison Marie, à Arras
BLANCHET Victoire, 59 ans, née et demeurant à Arras, veuve de Boitelle Jean Baptiste, à Arras
BRIOIS Albertine, 67 ans, née et demeurant à Arras, fille de feu Albert et Lallart Catherine, à Arras
BRIOIS Françoise Marguerite, 60 ans, née et demeurant à Arras, fille de feu Albert, et Lallart Catherine, à Arras
CORBEAU Rosalie, dentellière, 55 ans née et demeurant à Arras, fille de Joseph et de Lanseille Marie Rose, guillotiné à Arras
NONOT Catherine, 50 ans, née et demeurant à Arras, épouse de N. Faval, guillotiné à Arras
Domiciliés dans le département du Vaucluse, par la commission populaire séante à Orange:
BOUCHET Etienne, avoué, domicilié à Avignon, comme fédéraliste. — DEVAUX Jacques Joseph, coiffeur de femmes, domicilié à Avignon, comme fédéraliste
CHANCELLE Alisier, ex curé de Visan, comme fédéraliste. — VINCENTY Esprit, ex abbé, instituteur, domicilié à Piolenc, comme conspirateur.
Par la commission militaire séante à Bordeaux (Gironde):
LARIECHT Louis, ex chevalier de St Louis, et cultivateur, 74 ans, natif d'Agarau (Basses-Pyrénées), domicilié habituellement à Barsac, depuis 18 mois à Bordeaux, comme contre-révolutionnaire, et n'avoir déposé sa croix de St Louis que long temps après l'époque fixée par la loi, né point avoir de carte de civisme, et n'avoir pas accepté la constitution républicaine de 1793.
LOYAC Laurent, ex conseiller au ci-devant parlement de Guyenne, 60 ans, né et domicilié à Bordeaux, comme n'ayant point remis, aux termes de la loi, ses titres féodaux, lesquels ont été trouvés enfouis chez lui, où il les gardait soigneusement, espérant la contre-révolution.
MARTIN Jeanne, femme Coronaf, 38 ans, née et domiciliée à Bordeaux, comme contre-révolutionnaire fanatique, en recelant le nommé Cornu, et en fréquentant habituellement plusieurs conspirateurs qui se rendaient chez elle pendant la nuit.
POMIER Jean Pierre, 67 ans, ex noble, né et domicilié à Bordeaux, comme convaincu de ne s'être pas soumis à la loi du 27 germinal an 2, et qu'il est hors la loi.
SERRE Jean, homme de loi, 52 ans, natif de Brives-la-Gaillarde (Gironde), comme contre-révolutionnaire.
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
BILLARD François, cultivateur, 67 ans, né à Sautnay (Aisne), comme convaincu d'être complice des conspiration contre la liberté et la sûreté du peuple français, en donnant asyle à des prêtres réfractaire, pour y entendre la messe, et avilir la Convention nationale.
BESSE N. L. femme Genestert, ex noble, 26 ans, née à Olliac (Puy-de-Dôme), comme convaincue de s'être déclarée ennemie du peuple, en entretenant des intelligences avec les ennemis de la République, en provoquant par des discours l'avilissement et la dissolution de la représentation nationale.
ARPAJON A.C.L., ex-noble, femme du maréchal de Noailles-Mouchy, 66 ans, née et domiciliée à Paris, comme convaincue de s'être déclarée ennemie du peuple, en se rendant la complice du traître Capet, en distribuant des sommes que ce tyran employait à soudoyer les fanatiques.
NOAILLES-MOUCHY Philippe, 79 ans, né à Paris, y demeurant, ex noble ex duc, et maréchal de France, gouverneur des maisons de Versailles, Marly et autres lieux, comme contre-révolutionnaire..
BOUFFLERS Adélaïde, veuve du ci-devant duc de Biron, 43 ans, née et domiciliée à Paris, comme convaincue d'être complice du traître Capet et de distribution des sommes que ce tyran employait à soudoyer les fanatiques à l'aide desquels on fomentait la guerre civile.
ROYE Françoise Pauline, veuve du ci-devant maréchal et duc de Biron, 71 ans, née à Paris, domiciliée à Baure près Amiens (Somme), comme contre-révolutionnaire.
BROGLIE Claude Victor, ex prince, ex maréchal-de-camp et ex constituant, 37 ans, né et domicilié à Paris, comme convaincu de s'être déclaré ennemi du peuple, en se rendant complice de Capet, pour renverser la liberté, l'écraser, et rétablir la royauté.
LAGUICHE-SEVIGNAN Amable Charles, ex marquis et colonel de dragons, ci-devant, bourbon, 40 ans, né à Paris, y demeurant, ... et complice de la journée du 10 août.
LINGUET Simon Nicolas Henry, 57 ans, né à Reims, département de la Marne, ci-devant avocat et homme de lettres, depuis cultivateur, domicilié à Marne (Seine et Oise), comme connu par ses écrits et son séjour dans les cours de Vienne et de Londres auprès des despotes, qu'il insulta et encensa tour-à-tour; mais avant la révolution.
MATHIS Louis, cavalier au 16ème régiment, 30 ans, né et domicilié à Champignol (Meurthe), comme convaincu de s'être montré le partisan de la Fayette et de Dumouriez.
NICOLAY Aymond Charles François Marie, père, ex premier président de la chambre des [?], 47 ans, né et domicilié à Paris, comme complice de la conspiration de la prison du Luxembourg où il était détenu.
NORMANT Ant. M., 51 ans, née à Garaur (Charente), ex noble, comme convaincue d’avoir fait émigrer ses deux fils.
POLASTRON J. F. G., 73 ans, ex comte, né à Montpellier (Hérault), comme chevalier du poignard.
SAVE Pierre, huissier et maire, 44 ans, natif de Savizy (Nièvre), domicilié à St Sulpice, même département,comme ennemi du peuple, en disant que ce n'était pas ce que la Convention avait fait de mieux que de faire mourir le roi, qu'il se foutait des lois, que la Convention faisait des lois, mais qu'elle ferait mieux de nommer un roi.
SOMMERAU-PREFONTAINE Jean Baptiste, 59 ans, né à Beauvais (Oise), ex agent de Rohan-Rochefort, domicilié à Rochefort (Seine et Oise), comme convaincu d'avoir fait passer des fonds à l'émigré Roland et à sa fille.
      ... comme contre-révolutionnaires:
, ex négociant de légion de la garde parisienne, et colonel du cent deuxième régiment, 42 ans, né à Lyon.
DUMONT T. E., femme Vannod, ex noble, 67 ans, née à Fribourg en suisse, domicilié à Pontarlier (Doubs).
DUPORTAL P. N., ex abbesse du ci-devant monastère de Louye, 51 ans, née à Metz (Moselle).
LAMBERT Claude Guillaume, 68 ans, ex contrôleur général des finances, ex conseiller au parlement, et maître des requêtes, né à Paris, y demeurant , ... ne payant pas ses impositions, retard qui avait son principe dans le système de contre-révolutionnaire, dont Lambert s'occupait.
LIEGARD-LIGNY René, 77 ans, né à Bordeaux, homme de Loi, ex chevalier de l'Eperon, et ex Agent du prince de Suède, domicilié à Paris.
PISTOYE François Louis, ex juge vignier, 40 ans, né et domicilié à St Rémi (Bouches du Rhône).
VANNOD Jean Baptiste, (dit Montperreux), ancien militaire, ex noble, 60 ans, né à Vaulx (Doubs), domicilié à Pontarlier, même département.
VANNOD Etienne Ferdinand, ancien militaire, ex noble, 72 ans, né à Arbois (Jura), domicilié à Salin, même département.

      ... comme conspirateurs:
COCHEUX Pierre, 21 ans, né à Pontié (Nièvre), charcutier, domicilié à Pouilly (Nièvre).
GUERIN Jean Baptiste, sellier, 32 ans, né à Hevroux, ex province de Berry, domicilié à Chatillon-sur-Seine (Côte-d'Or).
GUYAI-SAINT-PRIEST M. E., ex vicomte, intendant du Languedoc, premier tranchant-porte-cornette de France, 62 ans, né à Grenoble (Isère).
HOURDET N. L., ex curé de Verberie, département de l’Oise, y demeurant, 48 ans, né à Soissons (Aisne).
LEMAN Maximilien, 46 ans, né à Bondye, département du Nord, domestique, domicilié à Paris.
VAUCORET Jean, ex noble, ci-devant chevalier de l’ordre du tyran roi, 63 ans, natif de Luthenet (Nièvre), domicilié à Paris.

1758 Michelangelo Unterberger, Austrian artist born on 11 August 1695.
1641 Michiel Janszoon van Mierevelt, Dutch painter born on 01 May 1567.
1574 Giorgio Vasari, Italian Mannerist writer and painter born on 30 July 1511. — MORE ON VASARI AT ART “4” JUNE LINKSThe Prophet ElishaThe Holy Family with the Infant, St. John the BaptistThe AnnonciationFigure CompositionToeletta Venere
0363 The death of Roman Emperor Julian brings an end to the Pagan Revival.
Births which occurred on a 27 June:
1953 Alice McDermott, National Book Award-winner.         ^top^
     Alice is born in Brooklyn to first-generation Irish-Catholic parents. McDermott's Irish-Catholic upbringing on Long Island became the subject of much of her writing. She went to college at the State University of New York at Oswego, then worked in publishing for a year, unsuccessfully trying to rid herself of the writing bug. She went to graduate school at the University of New Hampshire and soon began publishing short stories in women's magazines.
      Her first novel, A Bigamist's Daughter, came out in 1982. Her second, That Night (1987), was nominated for the National Book Award and the Pulitzer. McDermott and her husband, a neuroscientist, have three children and lived in San Diego and Pittsburgh before settling in Bethesda. She taught at Johns Hopkins University while continuing to write novels, including At Weddings and Wakes and Charming Billy (1998), which beat out the favorite, Tom Wolfe's A Man in Full, for the National Book Award that year.
1946 Eduardo Chamorro, periodista y escritor español.
1940 Daniel Gray Quillen, US mathematician
1938 Bruce Babbitt, would grow up to be US Interior Secretary.
1936 John Shalikashvili, would grow up to be a US Army general and chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
1934 Federal Savings and Loan Association is created.
1930 Henry Ross Perot         ^top^
     He would grow up to enteri the US Naval Academy in 1949, serve in the US Navy (1953-1957), work for IBM, then, in 1962 form his own company, EDS. In 1968 Perot took the firm public, which yielded him, the majority shareholder, several hundred million dollars. In 1984 Perot sold EDS to General Motors for $2.5 billion worth of stock and a seat on GM's board of directors. GM bougt back his seat for $700 million in 1986. In 1969 Perot mounted an unsuccessful campaign to free US POWs being held in North Vietnam. In 1979 he sponsored efforts to rescue two EDS employees held in prison in Iran.
Sisyphus      In 1992 Perot ran as an independent for US president (with James Stockdale for vice president), he won 19% percent of the vote. Then Perot organized the nonpartisan political pressure group United We Stand America. In 1995 Perot established the Reform Party. As its candidate for president in 1996, Perot received 8% of the vote.
1929 Color television demonstration         ^top^
      Researchers at the Bell Telephone Lab in New York City gave the first public demonstration of color television. The demonstration shows an US flag, a watermelon, and a bouquet of roses. A series of mirrors superimposed three images-red, blue, and green, to create one combined color picture. Color television took many years to perfect. CBS broadcast the first experimental color television program in 1951; unfortunately, no viewers had color televisions at the time. It took another five years until the first all-color television station debuted. The station, WNBQ-TV in Chicago, first showed color programs on November 3, 1955, and switched to color entirely, even for local programs, by April 15, 1956.
1926 Frank O'Hara, US poet and critic who died on 25 July 1966.
1923 Paul F. Conrad Cedar Rapids Iowa, cartoonist (Pulitzer 1964, 1971, 1984) — LINKS — Editorial cartoons: Four More YearsFoundering FathersCamp GrenadaI Am NotInformation AgeKick NixonLiars' ClubNixon Rent-A-Bomber Inaugural PortraitNew Mount RushmoreReagan Plays WarNixon's Revenge: How Sweet It Is
1919 Manuel Ballester Boix, investigador químico español.
1913 Philip Goldstein “Guston”, Canada-US Abtract Expressionist painter who died on 07 June 1980. — MORE ON “GUSTON” AT ART “4” JUNELINKS Pit _ ZOOM IT City Limits _ ZOOM IT Green Rug _ ZOOM IT Head _ ZOOM IT Paint, Smoke, EatRoma _ compare Notsug's Amor di EttoneThe StreetThe ReturnBad habits
1905 The Industrial Workers of the World (the "Wobblies")         ^top^
      The dawn of the twentieth century witnessed a sustained burst of progressive activities as various disenfranchised elements of US society pushed to assert their rights. This was especially true in the world of organized labor, as workers marshaled their forces in the battle against Big Business. Along with heading to the picket line, workers formed new and increasingly more strident unions, such as the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), which was formally consecrated in Chicago on this day in 1905. Organized by industrial labor's more militant members, including Eugene Debs, William D. Haywood (also known as “Big Bill” Haywood) and the long-stymied Socialist segment of the American Federation of Labor (AFL), the IWW tilted at the formidable windmills of industrial capitalism and its caste-like wage system. As Haywood told the union's first convention, the IWW's "purpose" was the "emancipation of the working class from the slave bondage of capitalism." Towards that end, the IWW's leaders sought to build a massive union that, rather than give in to labor's nativist tendencies, built its numbers by pooling members from all races and ethnicites. Once the IWW became large enough, its leaders planned to call an apocalyptic strike that would effectively fell the capitalist system. Though the IWW did score some key victories, including leading a successful strike by textile workers in Lawrence, Massachusetts (1912), it also drew heavy fire from business leaders, government officials and conservative sectors of the union movement alike.
1901 Merle Tuve         ^top^
      Merle Tuve made important developments in radar and measured the height of the ionosphere. In 1902, Oliver Heaviside theorized that an atmospheric layer reflected radio waves. William Eccles, a British radio pioneer, had conducted research proving that the ionosphere's reflection of radio waves could enable long-distance radio. As a graduate student in 1925, Tuve measured the ionosphere's height by bouncing short-pulse radio off the layer and measuring how long the echoes took to return.
1899 Juan T. Trippe, US pioneer in commercial aviation who died on 03 April 1981. — [He enabled many to take a quick Trippe trip by air.]
1882 Eduard Spranger, German educator and philosopher who died on 17 September 1963.
1880 Henri Montassier, French artist who died in 1946.
1880 Helen Adams Keller, Tuscumbia, Alabama.         ^top^
      She would become known as a US author and educator who was blind and deaf. Her education and training represent an extraordinary accomplishment in the education of persons with these disabilities.
Helen Keller' age 7      Keller was afflicted at the age of 19 months with an illness (possibly scarlet fever) that left her blind and deaf. She was examined by Alexander Graham Bell at the age of six; as a result he sent to her a 20-year-old teacher, Anne Sullivan from the Perkins Institution for the Blind in Boston, which Bell's son-in-law directed. Sullivan, a remarkable teacher, remained with Keller from 03 March 1887 [photo: Helen Keller at age 7] until her own death in October 1936.
     Miss Sullivan's first effort at teaching Helen was to take her to the well-pump. She steadily pumped cool water into one of the girl's hands while repeatedly tapping out an alphabet code of five letters in the other - first slowly, then rapidly. The scene was repeated. again and again as the young Helen painstakingly struggled to break her world of silence. Suddenly the signals crossed Helen's consciousness with a meaning. She knew that "w-a-t-e-r" meant the cool something flowing over her hand. Darkness began to melt from her mind like so much ice left out on that sunny March day. By nightfall, Helen had learned 30 words.

      Within months Keller had learned to feel objects and associate them with words spelled out by finger signals on her palm, to read sentences by feeling raised words on cardboard, and to make her own sentences by arranging words in a frame. By the end of August 1887, in six short months, she knew 625 words.
      During 1888-90 Helen Keller spent winters at the Perkins Institution learning braille. By age 10, Helen had mastered Braille as well as the manual alphabet and even learned to use the typewriter. Then she began a slow process of learning to speak under Sarah Fuller of the Horace Mann School for the Deaf, also in Boston. Helen Keller also learned to lip-read by placing her fingers on the lips and throat of the speaker while the words were simultaneously spelled out for her. At age 14 she enrolled in the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf in New York City, and at 16 she entered the Cambridge School for Young Ladies in Massachusetts. She won admission to Radcliffe College in 1900 and graduated cum laude in 1904.

     Keller then served on the Massachusetts Commission for the Blind. Throughout her life she worked and raised funds for the American Foundation for the Blind, and she traveled and lectured in many countries, including England, France, Italy, Egypt, South Africa, Australia, and Japan. Keller was also a pacifist and was active in socialist causes. After World War II (1939-1945), she visited wounded veterans in US hospitals and lectured in Europe on behalf of the physically handicapped.
      Having developed skills never approached by any similarly disabled person, Keller began to write of blindness, a subject then taboo in women's magazines because of the relationship of many cases to venereal disease. Edward W. Bok accepted her articles for the Ladies' Home Journal, and other major magazines — The Century, McClure's, and The Atlantic Monthly — followed suit.
      She wrote of her life in several books, including The Story of My Life (1902), Optimism (1903), The World I Live In (1908), Out of the Dark (1913), My Religion (1927), Midstream-My Later Life (1930), Helen Keller's Journal (1938), Let Us Have Faith (1940), Teacher: Anne Sullivan Macy (1955), and The Open Door (1957). In 1913 she began lecturing (with the aid of an interpreter), primarily on behalf of the American Foundation for the Blind, for which she later established a $2 million endowment fund, and her lecture tours took her several times around the world. Her efforts to improve treatment of the deaf and the blind were influential in removing the disabled from asylums. She also prompted the organization of commissions for the blind in 30 states by 1937.
Helen Keller's life is the subject of a motion picture, The Unconquered (1954) . Her childhood training with Anne Sullivan was depicted in William Gibson's play The Miracle Worker (New York opening, 19 October 1959), which won the Pulitzer Prize in 1960 and was subsequently made into a motion picture (1962) that won two Academy Awards. Helen Keller died on 01 June 1968
Vazov on banknote1871 The yen becomes the new form of currency in Japan
1869 Emma Goldman, Lithuanian born US anarchist, feminist and birth control advocate who was deported to the Soviet Union for inciting World War I draft riots in New York. She died on 14 May 1940.
1850 Ivan Vazov Bulgaria, poet/novelist/playwright (Under the Yoke) [Vazov portrait on the 200-leva banknote current in the 1990s until December 1999 >] Sofia man of letters whose poems, short stories, novels, and plays are inspired by patriotism and love of the Bulgarian countryside and reflect the main events in his country's history. He died on 22 September 1921. — VAZOV ONLINE: (in Bulgarian) Apostolt v SofiaV OkopaDraski i SharkiPod IgotoChichovtsiMitrofan i DormidolskiNoraKardashev na LovNova ZemyaSvetoslav TerterMORE
1850 Lafcadio Hearn US, journalist / author. HEARN ONLINE: Chita: A Memory of Last IslandKwaidan: Stories and Studies of Strange Things — translator of Chin Chin Kobakama
1850 Jorgen Pedersen Gram, Dane who grew up to be a mathematician best remembered for the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalisation process which constructs an orthogonal set of from an independent one. He was not however the first to use this method. The process seems to be a result of Laplace [23 Mar 1749 – 05 Mar 1827] and it was essentially used by Cauchy [21 Aug 1789 – 23 May 1857] in 1836. Gram died on 29 April 1916.
1846 Charles Stewart Parnell, Irish nationalist member of British Parliament (1875-91) who died on 06 October 1891.
1838 Bankim Chandra Chatterjee Bengali novelist (Anandamath)
1838 Paul Mauser, armero alemán.
1806 Augustus De Morgan, one-eyed British mathematician who died on 18 March 1871. In 1838 he introduced the term “mathematical induction” putting a process that had been used without clarity on a rigorous basis. Author of Elements of arithmetic (1830), 712 articles for The Penny Cyclopedia, The Differential and Integral Calculus, Trigonometry and double algebra.
1767 Alexis Bouvard, French astronomer and director of the Paris Observatory, who died on 07 June 1843. — [Was he fictionalized in Flaubert's Bouvard et Pécuchet?]
1682 Charles XII king of Sweden (1697-1718)
1667 Ignace Jacques Parrocel, French artist who died in 1722.
1550 Charles IX king of France (1560-74)
1462 Louis XII (the Just) king of France (1498-1515)
Religious Observances Christian : Our Lady of Perpetual Help / RC : Cyril of Alexandria, bishop and doctor (opt) / Christian : St Ladislas I (St Lazlo), king of Hungary / Nuestra Señora del Perpetuo Socorro; Santos Zoilo y Lisardo.

Thoughts for the day: "It gives me a deep, comforting sense that things seen are temporal and things unseen are eternal." — Helen Keller
"Mouse — mice. Louse — lice. The plural of spouse must be spice.” [“Man with several spice must put them in separate hice, and buy different blice for each.”]
“Bulgario, za tebe te umryaha. Endna be ti dostoina zarad tyah, i te za teb dostoini, maiko, byaha.” —
Ivan Vazov
“Ne se gasi tuy, shto ne gasne.” — Ivan Vazov.
updated Friday 27-Jun-2003 13:41 UT
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