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an August 22:
2002 A judge on an inspection visit to the Taubate Provisional Detention Center for prisoners awaiting trial, near São Paulo, discovers a straw scarecrow dressed in police uniform [photo >] on the watchtower "guarding" some 735 jail birds. The judge removes the scarecrow, which had apparently been manning the watchtower for days, and takes it to the court as evidence. This jail was opened at the end of 2001 and has already had one publicized escape via an underground tunnel. Brazil's prison system is plagued with break-outs and violent riots due to extreme overcrowding, lack of funds and poor pay for prison officers.
2000 Publishers Clearing House agreed to pay $18 million to 24 states and the District of Columbia to settle allegations it had used deceptive promotions in its sweepstakes mailings.
1997 Teamster chief forced out ^top^
Just a few days after the pro-union outcome of the UPS strike, reigning Teamster President Ron Carey is forced to step down from his position. The move is part of Election Commissioner Barbara Zack Quindel's ruling that Carey's successful bid for the presidency against James Hoffa in 1996 may have been swayed by illegal campaign contributions. In the election, Carey beat Hoffa by 16'000 votes, or less than four percent of the vote.
1996 US President Clinton signed welfare legislation ending guaranteed cash payments to the poor and demanding work from recipients.
1992 Clinton attacks Bush's economic record ^top^
"It's the economy, stupid" doesn't exactly sound like the basis of quality campaign rhetoric, but on this day Democratic challenger Bill Clinton translated edict into action and uncorked the first in a series of sharp attacks on President George Bush's economic record. As the presidential race heated up, the Arkansas governor dismissed Bush's proposed set of tax cuts as "fools gold." Clinton also branded Bush a "liar," warning that the president had failed to keep his pledge not to raise taxes and would only continue to betray the American public. The economy cooperated with Clinton's rhetoric: on this day, the dollar sank to a record low against the German mark, while the Dow continued to slump its way through the dog days of summer. Though Clinton lacked national experience and was plagued by questions about his personal life, his economic oratory proved potent enough to eventually help him win the election.
1991 Terrorist bombing of the USIS Binational Center in Lima, Peru.
1991 Shortly after midnight, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev returned to Moscow following the collapse of the hard-liners' coup. Later that day, he purged his government of the men who'd tried to oust him.
1991 El Ejército soviético inicia su retirada de las tres repúblicas bálticas Estonia, Letonia y Lituania recientemente independizadas.
1990 Pres Bush calls up military reserves
1988 Australia unveils first platinum coin (Koala)
1984 Republican convention in Dallas renominates President Reagan and Vice-President Bush
1982 General Ariel Sharon urges Palestinians to discuss peaceful coexistence.
| 1978 Los sandinistas (Frente Sandinista de Liberación
Nacional) ocupan el Palacio Nacional de Managua y secuestran a cientos de
1961 From the National Gallery in London, is stolen the recently acquired The Duke of Wellington, the most famous of his three portraits by Goya [30 March 1746 16 April 1828]. It would later be recovered.
1945 Soviet troops land at Port Arthur and Dairen on the Kwantung Peninsula in China.
1945 Conflict in Vietnam begins when a group of Free French parachute into southern Indochina, in response to a successful coup by communist guerilla Ho Chi Minh.
1945 Conferencia de Potsdam, para reorganizar el mapa político de Europa tras la II Guerra Mundial.
1941 Nazi troops reach the outskirts of Leningrad. They surround it by September 8, the start of the siege which would last until January 1944.
1932 BBS begins experimental regular TV broadcasts
1926 En Grecia, un golpe de Estado militar, dirigido por Georges Kondylis, pone fin a la dictadura de Theodoros Pangalos.
1914 Battle of Charleroi, Battle of Namur: the advancing French collide with the invading Germans and are pushed back.
1906 Arrivée du premier aéoroplane à Paris. C'est la machine volante des frères Wright achetée par le brésilien Santo Dumont, passionné des choses de l'air. Il avait gagné la prime de 100'000 francs offerte pour être le premier qui a volé autour de la Tour Eiffel (1901), mais en dirigeable. En octobre 1906, il volera pour la première fois aux commandes d'un " plus lourd que l'air ".
1906 first Victor Victrola manufactured
1862 Skirmish at Catlett's Station, Virginia
1846 US annexes New Mexico
1795 5 fructidor an III La Convention approuve une Constitution qui accorde aux Français un quasi-suffrage universel, mais à deux degrés et obéré d'un cens. En somme elle réserve l'électorat à la bourgeoisie et aux petits propriétaires. Le corps législatif est composé de deux chambres, le Conseil des Cinq-Cents et le Conseil des Anciens, renouvelables annuellement par tiers, le premier chargé de proposer les lois, le second de les accepter. Le gouvernement sera confié à un Directoire de cinq membres, choisis par les Anciens sur une liste présentée par les Cinq-Cents. L'un d'eux sortira de charge chaque année. Ils nommeront et révoqueront les ministres. En plus la Convention décréte (et le complète le 13 fructidor) que les deux tiers des membres du prochain corps législatif, Anciens et Cinq-Cents seront obligatoirement choisis parmi les Conventionnels. Revolución Francesa: la Convención decreta la llamada "Constitución del Año III", sancionada por una votación falsificada del pueblo el 23 de septiembre.
1791 Haitian Revolution begins
1787 Years before Fulton, inventor John Fitch demonstrated his steamboat on the Delaware River to delegates of the Continental Congress.
1777 With the approach of General Benedict Arnold's army, British Colonel Barry St. Ledger abandons Fort Stanwix and returns to Canada.
1775 King George III of England proclaimed the American colonies in a state of open rebellion.
1751 New Light Church minister Isaac Backus, 27, is re-baptized. Forced to leave the sect because of his opposition to infant baptism, he organizes a Baptist church in 1756, and served as its pastor until his death on 29 November 1806. He becomes a leading spokesman for the Baptist church and writes A History of New England, with Particular Reference to the Denomination of Christians Called Baptists.
1741 George Frederick Handel begins work on his sublime oratorio, the Messiah.
1717 The Austrian army forces the Turkish army out of Belgrade, ending the Turkish revival in the Balkans.
1717 El Ejército español desembarca en Cagliari y en tres meses reconquista la isla de Cerdeña.
1642 Civil war in England begins as Charles I declares war on Parliament at Nottingham.
1555 Jeanne d'Albret calls a conference of beleagured Huguenot ministers.
1526 Toribio Alonso de Salazar descubre en el Pacífico las islas Carolinas, a las que llamó así en honor de Carlos I de España.
1454 Jews are expelled from Brunn, Moravia, by order of King Ladislaus
1350 John II, also known as John the Good, succeeds Philip VI as king of France.
0565 Saint Columba reports seeing monster in Loch Ness.
which occurred on a 22 August: ^top^
2003 Amintas Rocha Brito; Antonio Sergio Cezarini; Carlos Alberto Pedrini; Cesar Augusto Costalonga Varejão; Daniel Faria Gonçalves; Eliseu Reinaldo Moraes Vieira; Gil Cesar Baptista Marques Gines Ananias Garcia; Jonas Barbosa Filho; José Aparecido Pinheiro; José Eduardo de Almeida; José Eduardo Pereira II; José Pedro Claro Peres da Silva; Luis Primon de Araújo; Mário Cesar de Freitas Levy; Massanobo Shimabukuro; Mauricio Biella de Souza Valle; Roberto Tadashi Segushi; Rodolfo Donizetti de Oliveira; Sidney Aparecido de Moraes, and Walter Pereira Junior; incinerated by explosion which destroys 30-meter-high VLS-3 space rocket, the two research satellites aboard it, and its launching pad, at the Alcântara Launch Center, near São Luis, Brazil. The dead were 10 technicians and 11 engineers. No one else is injured. O terceiro protótipo do Veículo Lançador de Satélites (VLS-1) explodiu, por volta das 13h30, na plataforma de lançamento e levou pelos ares todo o lançador de foguetes, um pequeno satélite e parte da torre. Vinte e um técnicos do Instituto de Aeronáutica e Espaço (IAE) que trabalhavam no local morreram no acidente. Houve 'uma ignição de um dos quatro motores do corpo principal do foguete, o que levou a uma explosão. Com essa explosão, a plataforma de lançamento ruiu. O foguete estava sendo preparado para um lançamento na segunda-feira (Monday 25 August 2003). Dois satélites de tecnologia nacional seriam lançados. O veículo lançador de foguetes, na hora da explosão, pesava 50 toneladas, sendo 90% combustível sólido, o perclorato de amônia. Quatro grandes tanques são utilizados no primeiro estágio para impulsionar o protótipo. O perclorato de amônia, ao queimar, atinge mais de mil graus. A explosão atingiu um raio de um quilômetro de diâmetro e levou grande parte da torre de lançamentos. Só o veículo lançador custou US$ 7 milhões (R$ 21 milhões). Todo o equipamento é brasileiro. O pequeno satélite de pesquisas que estava na ponta do veículo custa R$ 2 milhões (US$670'000). Esse é a terceira tentativa fracassada de pôr um satélite em órbita com o VLS, mas o mais grave acidente da história do programa espacial brasileiro. Os dois anteriores só ocorreram após o lançamento e não deixaram vítimas. Desta vez, havia pessoas trabalhavam no foguete, no chão.
2002 All seven on board two British helicopters, AgustaWestland Sea Kings, which collide and crash into the Persian Gulf as they participate in attack on the al-Faw peninsula in Iraq. The dead include a US Navy officer.
2002:: 13 German, 1 British, and 1 US tourists, 2 crew members, and Nepalese pilot B. Mishra, at 10:00 as Canadian-built Twin Otter plane of Shangri-La Air, coming Jomson, a popular trekking destination and Hindu religious site in Nepal, crashes near Dopahar, a village about 5 km southeast of resort town Pokhara, in western Nepal.
2001 Bilal al-Ghoul, 26, as two Israeli helicopters fired four missiles at two cars, one of which al-Ghoul, a member of Hamas, was driving, in the southern part of Gaza city. Israel was targeting the top Hamas bomb-makers and commanders, Mohammed Deif and Mohammed al-Ghoul the victim's father but they escaped. This brings the al~Aqsa intifada body count to 584 Palestinians and 152 Israelis.
2001 Mahmoud Jasser, 23, Palestinian, in southern Gaza, in an explosion or shot by an Israeli sniper, according to discrepant reports..
2001 Hakem Tayeh, 22, Fadi Samani, 25, and Zaher Ismail, 30, Ahed Fares, 23, and a 5th Palestinian, shot by Israeli's commandos who thought a first group was planting a terrorist bomb and, later, armed militants approached the bodies. According to Palestinians, four of the five dead were peaceful unarmed villagers.
Israeli commandos opened fire on a group of Palestinians they said were planting a bomb, killing two and at least two others who later approached the bodies. Palestinian officials said three of the dead were unarmed villagers. The Palestinians said they retrieved four bodies from the scene. The army said five Palestinians were killed, but could not account for a fifth body.
The events in the West Bank began sometime after midnight, the Israeli army and Palestinian witnesses providing differing accounts. Soldiers of the elite commando unit Egoz, which is trained for guerrilla warfare, spotted three Palestinians trying to plant a bomb in the area of Shavei Shomron, a Jewish settlement near the Palestinian town of Nablus. The force opened fire, killing two Palestinians and wounding the third who escaped.
An hour later, the force identified another three people, one armed, approaching the bodies, and killed two of them," Adiri said. "After they (the soldiers) charged, they killed the third." The Israeli army initially said armed men approached the area in an ambulance, but later withdrew that claim. A bomb that had been planted by the Palestinians in the area was defused, the Israeli army said.
According to Palestinian witnesses, the incident began with an exchange of fire between Palestinian gunmen from Nablus and soldiers. After one of the gunmen went missing, the others came to the nearby village of Beit Iba to ask residents to form a search party. Dozens of villagers began combing the olive groves near the village. At one point, three of the villagers also went missing, and searches concentrated on a major road near the village used by Jewish settlers and Israeli troops. Palestinian ambulances approaching the area came under fire from the Israeli soldiers. At daybreak, the villagers saw four bodies in the area. Israeli troops eventually permitted ambulances to take away the bodies of the three villagers, but kept the body of a gunman killed in the first clash. The body was later turned over to the Palestinians as well.
Adiri, the Israeli commander, said he had passed warnings to Palestinian officials after the first incident that no one should approach the area because troops were still operating there. The three villagers killed Wednesday were identified as Hakem Tayeh, 22, Fadi Samani, 25, and Zaher Ismail, 30. Hospital officials in Nablus said one of the men had been shot 10 times. None of the three had been involved in gun battles with Israelis in the past, villagers said. The fourth man was identified as Ahed Fares, 23, from the Balata refugee camp near Nablus.
2001 Three Dalit women and three of their children, as they slept late Wednesday night in Dasmai village, 30 kilometers southeast of Patna, India, murdered by the Jayanandan Yadav gang. [Dalit = Untouchable]
1978 Jomo Kenyatta, 83, president of Kenya.
1976 André Lanskoy, French artist born on 31 March 1902.
1975 Andrzej Mostowski, Polish mathematician born on 01 November 1913.
1974 Jacob Bronowski, 66, Polish mathematician and science ethicist. Author of The Poet's Defence (1939, on the truth of science vs that of poetry), William Blake, a man without a mask (1944), The Effects of Atomic Bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1945), The Common Sense of Science (1951), Science and Human Values (1956), The Identity of Man (1965).
1969: 255 victims of Hurricane Camille, which strikes US Gulf Coast
1926 Charles William Eliot, author. CHARLES ELIOT ONLINE: A Turning Point in Higher Education editor of: The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin
1919 Más de 5000 judíos, degollados por destacamentos del Ejército de la República autónoma de Ucrania, en la provincia de Podolia.
1917 Matthijs (Thijs) Maris, Dutch artist specialized in Landscapes, born on 17 August 1839 Young Girl Sewing (black chalk) Nest of dogs The Baptistry, Lausanne (washed sepia) Men Unloading Carts, Montmartre Evening (Forest Landscape with a Deer) (etching)
1914 James Dickson Innes, Welsh painter born on 27 February 1887. 10 paintings at the Tate.
1907 Platon Sergeevich Poretsky, Russian mathematical logician born on 15 October 1846.
1904 Kate (O'Flaherty) Chopin, author. CHOPIN ONLINE: The Awakening, The Awakening (another site), The Awakening, and Selected Short Stories, Bayou Folk, A Night in Acadie
1898 Félicien Joseph Victor Robs, Belgian artist born on 07 July 1833.
1886 Calvin Ellis Stowe, co-author of Discourses by Rev. Samuel T. Seclye, and Rev. Calvin E. Stowe, Delivered ... Before the Society for the Promotion of Collegiate and Theological Education at the West.
1878 María Cristina de Borbón, reina de España.
1875 Karel Ferdinand Venneman, Charles, Flemish~Belgian artist born on 07 January 1802.
1861 Richard Oastler, 71, who had campaigned against child labor and for limiting the work day to ten hours. Because he opposed a law that forced poor farm laborers to work in factories for a pittance, he was fired from his job (May 1838) and placed in debtors prison (December 1840-February 1844). During his imprisonment he wrote the Fleet Papers, a weekly journal discussing factory conditions and poor laws. Eventually supporters raised funds to pay his debt and he was freed.
1849 The Portuguese governor of Macao, assassinated because of his anti-Chinese policies.
1806 Jean-Honoré Fragonard, French painter specialized in Historical Subjects, born on 05 April 1732. MORE ON FRAGONARD AT ART 4 AUGUST LINKS La Résistance Inutile La Bonne Maman — L'Éducation de la Vierge Le Verrou (ZOOM) Fantasy Portrait of l'Abbé de Saint-Non (ZOOM) Diderot Le Guerrier Education is Everything The Stolen Kiss Le Rendez-Vous (ZOOM) Petit Garçon à la Curiosité (ZOOM) Jeune Fille à la Marmotte (ZOOM) — Jeroboam's Offering to the Golden Calf (ZOOM) — Divertissement Galant dans un Parc (ZOOM) L'Amant Couronné (ZOOM) — La Lectrice (ZOOM) Psyche showing to her Sisters her Gifts from Cupid (ZOOM) — The Musical Contest Le petit parc Coresus Sacrificing himselt to Save Callirhoe The Swing Man Playing an Instrument Young Woman Playing with a Dog The Confession of Love The Bathers Adoration by the Shepherds A Young Scholar The Souvenir A Boy as Pierrot The Love Letter The Fountain of Love Artist in the Studio (red chalk) Condorcet Se Donnant La Mort (etching) Park Scene (black chalk, brown ink wash) Woman with a Parrot Au génie de Franklin L'Armoire Saint Jérôme (etching)
1794 Achille-Pierre Dionis du Séjour, French lawyer, politician, mathematician, astronomer, born on 11 January 1734.
1789 Johann Heinrich Tischbein I Kassel Tischbein, German painter specialized in Portraits, born on 14 October 1722. MORE ON TISCHBEIN AT ART 4 AUGUST LINKS — Hirschhatz in der Karlsaue bei Kassel — Jupiter and Callisto — Kurfürstin Elisabeth Auguste — Coriolanus Leaves his Family _ detail Elisabeth von Breitenbach
1752 William Whiston, mathematician who succeeded Newton as Lucasian professor at Cambridge, but was later deprived of his chair on religious grounds. He translated The Works of Flavius Josephus.
1684 Jan van den Hecke, Belgian artist born in 1620.
1676 Edward Cocker, English mathematician, born in 1631, who was the author of an influential arithmetic text which ran to more than 100 editions.
| Births which
occurred on an August 22:
1939 Julio Edgar Cabrera Ovalle, in San Juan Comalapa, Guatemala, studied for priesthood at the Gregorian University, Rome, living at the Pio Latino Americano college. Ordained priest in Rome on 01 December 1963, for the archdiocese of Guatemala City. Appointed Bishop of Santa Cruz del Quiché on 31 October 1986, and consecrated bishop on 06 January 1987; appointed Bishop of Jalapa on 05 December 2001.
1920 Dr. Denton Cooley (heart surgeon)
1920 Ray Bradbury Ill, US science fiction writer whose works include Farenheit 451, The Illustrated Man, The Toynbee Convector, and The Martian Chronicles.
1908 Henri Cartier-Bresson, photographer.
1904 Deng Xiaoping Chinese leader (1976-1983) 1904 Deng Xiaoping, Chinese leader from 1977 to 1987, held nominal leadership position until his death in 1997.
1893 Dorothy Parker, US short story writer (1958 Marjorie Peabody Award), poet, satirist and founding member of the Algonquin Round Table. author, poet, critic and wit Dorothy Parker was born in West Bend, N.J. She died in on 07 June 1967.
1879 Valentin de Zubiaurre, Spanish artist who died in 1963.
1862 Emilio Salgari, novelista italiano.
1860 Gustaf Fröding, Swedish poet, who was one of the pioneers liberating Swedish verse from traditional patterns. He died on 08 February 1911.
1834 William Hazlitt, author. HAZLITT ONLINE: Characters of Shakespear's Plays and: Liber Amoris: or, The New Pygmalion, translator of The Table Talk of Martin Luther
1817 Emily Chubbuck Judson, author. JUDSON ONLINE: The Kathayan Slave, and Other Papers Connected with Missionary Life
1800 Edward Bouverie Pusey, English Anglican theologian, scholar, and a leader of the Oxford Movement, which sought to revive in Anglicanism the High Church ideals of the later 17th-century church. Pusey worked to establish religious orders in Anglicanism, founding in 1845 the first Anglican sisterhood. PUSEY ONLINE: The Holy Eucharist a Comfort to the Penitent translator of The Confessions of Saint Augustine.
1798 (or 1800?) François-Antoine Bossuet, Belgian artist who died on 30 September 1889.
1648 Gerard Hoet, Dutch artist who died on 02 December 1733.