which occurred on an April 18:
Yahya, 21, Palestinian, shot repeatedly on a Tul Karm, West Bank,
street, by Israeli soldiers who say that he had thrown two Molotov cocktails
at them and was about to light a third.
2002 Annalisa Rapetti,
40, Alessandra Santonocito, 39, and Luigi Fasulo, 68, as his Rockwell
Aero Commander 112TC crashes at 17:47 into the 25th floor of the Pirelli
building, the tallest in Milan (31 floors) and seat of the regional government
of Lombardy, starting a fire. The 27th floor collapses onto the 26th, where
government lawyers Rapetti and Santonocito were working.. Fasulo, a Swiss+Italian
from Pregassona, Switzerland, was flying in from Locarno, as he frequently
did, but reported problems with the landing gear and was off the course
indicated to him by the control tower. 36 persons are injured. Fasulo may
have been a money smuggler defrauded by his accomplices on whom he wanted
to draw the police's attention by his spectacular suicide.
Dunya Ishtaya, 4 days old, Palestinian en route to a hospital in
Nablus after the ambulance was stopped at Israeli army checkpoints, in the
evening. The baby daughter of Nasser Ishtaya, a photographer who covers
the West Bank for The Associated Press, had been born five to six weeks
prematurely, and a village doctor said that the child had an irregular heartbeat
and needed treatment at a hospital. Ishtaya spent two hours getting Israeli
permission to allow an ambulance to come to their home in the village of
Salim 5 km from Nablus. The ambulance was stopped at an Israeli military
checkpoint outside the village, and Ishtaya and his wife, Sareen, 22, were
ordered out of the ambulance and searched. While they were waiting at the
next Israeli roadblock, a member of the ambulance crew said that the baby
2002 Fadel Abu Zahera, 9, Palestinian
boy, shot in the abdomen by Israeli soldiers, while he was playing with
a friend in his yard in Beitunia, near Ramallah, West Bank.
Sergeant Marc Leger of Lancaster, Ont.; Corporal Ainsworth Dyer of Montreal;
Private Richard Green, of Mill Cove, N.S.; and Private Nathan Smith of Tatamagouche,
N.S., Canadian soldiers in Afghanistan, by a US smart
bomb that went stupid. At 01:55 local (17 Apr 21:25 UT) a US Air National
Guard F-16 fighter plane mistakenly drops a laser-guided bomb on Canadian
soldiers participating in a nighttime live-fire training exercise about
15 km south of their Kandahar base. Eight Canadian soldiers are injured,
two of them severely. The US plane was not involved in the exercise.
2002 Sixteen Chechen puppet riot policemen, in Grozny,
ten when their vehicle detonates a landmine 200 m from their barracks, and
six others in another vehicle which comes to the aid of the first, as it
detonates another landmine. Six are wounded.
2002 Zhang Xinmin,
39, sucked into the engine of an Air China Boeing 767 as it began to taxi
toward the Kansai, Japan, airport runway for take-off bound for Beijing.
Zhang, a Chinese member of the airline's maintenance staff, possibly intent
on suicide, chased after the plane.
2001 Union Stock Yards,
last large cattle market in Texas, holds its final auction, on the edge
of downtown San Antonio. It was started in 1889. It has become uneconomical
with fewer ranches in increasingly urban Texas.
blind cod, 20 years old (estimated), weight about 2.5 kg, apparently
from overeating. The fish, also called "Toralf" or "Torolv," repeatedly
swam into the net of Harold Hauso, 69, in the Norwegian fjord of Hardanger,
from March 2000 until the 40th and last time on 7 February 2001. Hauso sent
the scrawny fish to a marine park in Aalesund, about 300 km north of Hardanger,
where, on 09 February 2001, it underwent an emergency operation to remove
gas which built up inside its body because of its repeated capture. The
cod eventually regained its appetite and ate the herrings and shrimps fed
to it, but remained very skinny. Suddenly it rolled over and died.
Russell Jump, born in Illinois on 16 March 1895, he served in the
US Army during World War I, and was mayor of Wichita, Kansas in 1952-1953.
He was a Methodist and one of the longest-lived US persons who have been
elected to public office.
1996: 91 Lebanese refugees in a
U.N. camp; killed by Israeli shells. Israel called the attack an
1996: 18 Greek tourists, shot by gunmen
at a hotel in Egypt. The gunmen do not say that it is an unfortunate
1995 Arturo Frondizi, político
1991 Gabriel Celaya, poeta y escritor
1987 Cecil King, magnate de
la prensa británica.
1974:: 11 muertos por un ataque contra una escuela militar
en El Cairo; el Gobierno egipcio acusa a Libia.
63 persons, as suicide bomber destroys US embassy in Beirut
The US Embassy in Beirut, Lebanon, was almost completely destroyed
by a car-bomb explosion that killed sixty-three people, including
the suicide bomber and seventeen Americans. Although the perpetrators
of the terrorist attack were not found, the bombing was probably carried
out in protest of the US military presence in Lebanon.
In 1975, a bloody civil war erupted in Lebanon, with Palestinian and
leftist Muslim guerrillas battling militias of the Christian Phalange
Party, the Maronite Christian community, and other groups. Over the
next few years, Syrian, Israeli, and United Nations interventions
failed to resolve the factional fighting, and on August 20, 1982,
a multinational force featuring US Marines landed in Beirut to oversee
the Palestinian withdrawal from Lebanon.
The marines left Lebanese territory on September 10, but returned
on September 29 following the massacre of Palestinian refugees by
a Christian militia. The next day, the first US marine to die during
the mission was killed while defusing a bomb, and on 18 April
1983, the US embassy in Beirut was devastated by a car bomb, killing
23, 1983, Lebanese terrorists evaded security measures and drove a
truck packed with explosives into the US Marine barracks in Beirut,
killing 241 US military personnel. Fifty-eight French soldiers were
killed the same evening in a separate suicide terrorist attack. On
February 7, 1984, US President Ronald Reagan announced the end of
US participation in the problem-plagued peacekeeping mission, and
on February 26, the last US Marines left Beirut.
Ezechiel Plessner, Polish Russian mathematician born on 13
1951 Antonio Oscar de Fragoso Carmona, general portugués
y presidente de la República.
Einstein, physicist, mathematician, developer
of relativity theory.
Einstein dies in his sleep in a hospital in Princeton, New Jersey.
Einstein's revolutionary theories about time, space, and gravity profoundly
influenced the course of modern science. Einstein was born in Germany
on 14 March 1879, grew up in Milan, studied and taught in Switzerland,
returned to Germany. But, when the Nazis took power in 1933 he was
out of the country, and stayed out, as they were persecuting Jews,
including him. He settled in the US on the eve of World War II. An
avid pacifist, he nevertheless set the stage for the invention of
nuclear weapons when he wrote a letter to President Roosevelt, warning
that Germany might build an atom bomb. The development of nuclear
weapons eventually led to the creation of Internet. The threat of
an attack that could wipe out coast-to-coast communications was an
important factor motivating the Defense Department's ARPA project,
which created the foundation for the Internet.
1941 Eugène Gallien-Laloue (or Galien) Jacques
Liévin, French artist born in December 1854.
Journalist Ernest Taylor “Ernie” Pyle killed during World
War II. ^top^
The US's most popular war correspondent
killed by Japanese machine-gun fire on the island of Ie Shima
in the Pacific.
In 1935, Pyle,
born on 03 August 1900 on a farm near Dana, Indiana, first began writing
a column for the Scripps-Howard newspaper chain. Eventually syndicated
to some two hundred US newspapers, Pyle's column, which related the
lives and hopes of typical citizens, captured the US's affection.
In 1942, after the United States entered
World War II, Pyle went overseas as a war correspondent. He covered
the North Africa campaign, the invasions of Sicily and Italy, and
on 07 June 1944, went ashore at Normandy the day after Allied forces
landed. Pyle, who always wrote about the experiences of enlisted men
rather than the battles they participated in, described the D-Day
scene: "It was a lovely day for strolling along the seashore. Men
were sleeping on the sand, some of them sleeping forever. Men were
floating in the water, but they didn't know they were in the water,
for they were dead."
year, he was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for distinguished correspondence,
and in 1945 traveled to Pacific to cover the war against Japan.
On 18 April 1945, on the island
of Ie Shima, Ernie Pyle was killed by enemy fire. After his death,
President Harry S. Truman spoke of how Pyle "told the story of the
American fighting man as the American fighting men wanted it told."
He was buried in his hometown of Dana, Indiana, next to other local
soldiers who had fallen in battle.
was the author of Ernie Pyle in England (1941), Home
Country (1935), Here Is Your War: Story of G.I. Joe
(1945), Brave Men (1943).
Pulitzer Prize-winning war correspondent Ernie Pyle is killed by Japanese
machine-gun fire on the island of Ie Shima off the coast of Okinawa.
Extremely popular, especially with the average GI, whose life and
death he reported on (American infantrymen braved enemy fire to recover
Pyle's body), Pyle had been at the London Blitz of 1941 and saw action
in North Africa, Italy, France, and the Pacific. A monument exists
to him to this day on Ie Shima, describing him simply as "a buddy."
Burgess Meredith portrayed him in the 1945 film The Story of GI
Ottorino Respighi, compositor italiano.
Hendrik Schoute, Dutch mathematician born on 21 January 1846.
1921 El Banco Hispano Sudamericano quiebra en Buenos
1905 Juan Valera y Alcalá Galiano (una sola
persona), novelista, político y diplomático español.
The first victims of the San Francisco earthquake
At 05:13, an 8.3 magnitude earthquake
struck San Francisco, California, collapsing the city's unreinforced
brick buildings and closely spaced wooden Victorian dwellings. Shock
waves from the quake were felt from Coos Bay, Oregon, to Los Angeles,
and as far east as central Nevada, affecting a total area of about
600'000 square km, approximately half of which was in the Pacific
Collapsed buildings, broken
chimneys, and a shortage of water due to broken mains led to several
large fires that soon coalesced into a deadly city-wide blaze that
burned for days. Hundreds, perhaps thousands, of trapped persons died
when South-of-Market tenements collapsed as the ground liquefied beneath
them. Most of those buildings immediately caught fire, and trapped
victims could not be rescued.
At 07:00, US Army troops from Fort Mason reported to the Hall of Justice,
and San Francisco mayor E. E. Schmitz called for the enforcement of
a dusk-to-dawn curfew and authorized the soldiers to shoot-to-kill
anyone found looting. Meanwhile, in the face of significant aftershocks,
firefighters and additional US troops fought desperately to control
the spreading blaze, often dynamiting whole city blocks to create
On 20 April,
twenty thousand refugees trapped by the massive fire were evacuated
from the foot of Van Ness Avenue onto the USS Chicago, in
one of history's largest evacuations by sea to that date. By 23 April,
most fires were extinguished and authorities commenced the task of
rebuilding the devastated metropolis. It was estimated that over three
thousand people died as a result of the Great San Francisco Earthquake
and the devastating fires that it inflicted upon the city, which was
earthquake begins to shake the city of San Francisco in the morning
hours. The first of two vicious tremors shook San Francisco at 05:13,
and a second followed not long after. The quake was powerful enough
to be recorded thousands of kilometers away in Cape Town, South Africa,
and its effect on San Francisco was cataclysmic. Thousands of structures
collapsed as a result of the quake itself. However, the greatest devastation
resulted from the fires that followed the quake. The initial tremors
destroyed the city's water mains, leaving overwhelmed firefighters
with no means of combating the growing inferno. The blaze burned for
four days and engulfed the vast majority of the city. By the time
a heavy rainfall tamed the massive fire, the once proud city of San
Francisco was in shambles. More than 28'000 buildings burned to the
ground and the city suffered more than $500 million in damages. The
human toll was equally disastrous: authorities estimated that the
quake and fires killed 700 people, and left a quarter of a million
people homeless. The famous writer and San Francisco resident Jack
London noted, "Surrender was complete." Despite the utter devastation,
San Francisco quickly recovered from the great earthquake of 1906.
During the next four years, the city arose from its ashes. Ironically,
the destruction actually allowed city planners to create a new and
better San Francisco. A classic western boomtown, San Francisco had
grown in a haphazard manner since the Gold Rush of 1849. Working from
a nearly clean slate, San Franciscans could rebuild the city with
a more logical and elegant structure. The destruction of the urban
center at San Francisco also encouraged the growth of new towns around
the bay, making room for a new population boom arriving from the US
and abroad. Within a decade, San Francisco had resumed its status
as the crown jewel of the American West.
fire caused by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake destroyed the production
facilities of the fledgling Sunset Automobile Company in San Francisco,
California. Production of the Sunset never resumed and the firm was
legally dissolved in 1909. Throughout the history of American automobile
production no company has ever succeeded on the US West Coast.
1898 Gustave Moreau, French Symbolist
painter born on 06 April 1826. MORE
ON MOREAU AT ART 4 APRIL
with links to images.
1897 Charles Olivier de Penne,
French artist born on 11 January 1831. [Is it of him that they say
that de Penne is mightier than the soared.?]
Monseñor Martínez Izquierdo, primer obispo de la
diócesis de Madrid-Alcalá, asesinado.
1864 More than 150 Yanks,
mostly Black and 13 of the Rebs who massacred them at Poison Spring.
At Poison Spring, Arkansas, 4000 Confederate
calvarymen ambushed 1170 Union soldiers, of which over 300, including
182 from the 1st
Kansas Colored Infantry Regiment, would be listed as killed, wounded,
or missing. Many of the casualties occurred after the battle had ceased.
One account states that Arkansan Rebs, ordered to remove their wagons
from the battle site, “drove over the dead and dying Blacks,” competing
to see who could crush the most heads of Black soldiers.
the occupation of Camden on 15 April 1864, Union General Frederick
Steele sent foraging parties to gather supplies for his army from
the countryside. Hopeful Arkansas civilians interpreted Steele's advance
as a retreat. "Our cavalry are fighting Steele near Washington," a
resident of Princeton recorded in her diary on 16 April 16. "Report
says Steele is slowly retreating towards Camden with Shelby and Marmaduke
hanging like hungry wolves along his line." Safe but uncertain in
Camden, Steele restrained his men admirably from pillaging the town
(after some initial looting of food by the starved troops upon their
arrival) and established a fairly harmonious relationship with the
townspeople, as he had done in Little Rock. When civilians complained
of soldiers raiding their smokehouses and corn cribs, Steele assigned
safeguards to ward off potential thieves. When supplies that Steele
had ordered sent to Camden from Little Rock and Pine Bluff a week
earlier failed to appear, he sent out foraging parties to collect
whatever they could from the neighborhood. One party of nearly two
hundred wagons set out on 17 April to gather corn some 30 km west
Col. James M. Williams
led the mixed column of infantry and cavalry and two guns. He commanded
roughly 670 men, including over 400 black infantrymen from the First
Kansas Colored Volunteers. Sterling Price, from his headquarters at
Woodlawn, about sixteen miles west of Camden, had ordered his cavalry
to be alert to Union movements, particularly attempts to forage. Consequently,
his men covered all roads out of Camden, and that was how a force
of nearly 3600 men, including about 1200 Arkansans and nearly 700
"hungry, half-clothed Choctaws," and twelve guns commanded by Marmaduke
got between the forage train and Camden. The train was actually returning
along the Washington-Camden Road when Marmaduke launched his attack.
Having loaded approximately half of the wagons with five thousand
bushels of corn, the expedition, expecting to fill the others from
farms along the return route, had set a leisurely pace. Near Poison
Spring, about 22 km from Camden, a relief column added two more guns
and gave Williams about 1160 men; but Williams had also lost men to
fatigue as he marched homeward. When Marmaduke struck, Williams had
only about 1000 effectives.
was nearly an ambush. Marmaduke, having the advantage over the slow-moving
train, shifted easily into position across the road to Camden on high
ground near Poison Spring and Lee's plantation. But Williams, who
learned of the Confederate force ahead of him, quickly deployed his
own men at about 09:30. He even managed to push back the pickets of
Brigadier General John Sappington Marmaduke [14 Mar 1833 – 28
Dec 1887] more than one kilometer. But realizing the strength of the
opposition, Williams halted his wagons and drew them up in a defensive
line to receive the inevitable Confederate attack. He placed his Black
infantry in the center of the formation, his cavalry on the flanks.
The Black First Kansas, mostly former slaves from Missouri and Arkansas,
bore the brunt of the attack. They stood little chance. The men of
Brigadier General Samuel
Bell Maxey [30 Mar 1825 – 16 Aug 1895] moved first against
the Federal right flank. This initial advance was followed almost
immediately by deadly artillery fire. The First Kansas repulsed the
first charge, but the weight of Rebel men and arms began to tell on
the bluecoats. Marmaduke followed within minutes with the full force
of his command. Men broke out of the wooded ridge that had concealed
them and descended at the double-quick upon the already wavering Federal
line. Nearly half of the black soldiers fell dead or were wounded
in a little over an hour of fighting.
Once penetrated, the Union line collapsed rapidly. Threatened with
envelopment when the cavalry screen on their left flank was beaten
back, the remains of the First Kansas broke and ran. This proved to
be their undoing. Pursuing Confederates, enraged as the Rebels usually
were when the Federals used Blacks as combat troops, showed vicious
cruelty. They continued to fire into the fleeing ranks, and many wounded
Blacks were murdered as they were lying on the ground. Other Black
troops, hunted down and trapped in the surrounding swamps and woods,
were executed when they attempted to surrender. One Rebel colonel
admitted, "Away trotted the poor Black men into the forest, clinging
to their rifles, but not using them, while the pursuing Confederates
cut them down right and left." A private in Cabell's brigade believed
Choctaws perpetrated most of the butchery. "You ought to see Indians
fight Negroes," he recalled, "kill and scalp them. Let me tell you,
I never expected to see so many dead Negroes again. They were so thick
you could walk on them." A few Blacks, realizing the vengeance being
reaped on their comrades, feigned death by lying motionless on the
field. After dark, they crawled into the woods and made their way
back to Camden. Kirby Smith, who arrived from Louisiana on 19 April,
admitted that of some two hundred captured Federals, he saw "but two
of Williams' command had long since retreated toward Camden. Following
one last threatened charge by Col. Tandy Walker's Choctaws - aborted
when the Indians turned their attention to the defenseless forage
wagons-the Federals moved northward and then eastward in a wide arc
toward their garrison. The head of the column reached Camden at about
23:00. In addition to losing 4 cannons, 170 wagons, and 1200 mules,
the Federals sacrificed 204 killed or missing and 97 wounded, or 30%
of the entire command. The First Kansas lost 117 killed and 65 wounded,
or 42% casualties. The Confederates lost 13 men killed, 81 wounded,
and 1 missing. The Confederates also discovered, upon inspecting the
wagons, that the Federal foraging party had secured far more than
grain on its expedition: included in the cargo was "every kind of
provision from the farm-yard, the pantry, the dairy, and the sideboard.
. . . men's, women's and children's clothing, household furniture,
gardening implements, the tools of the mechanic, and the poor contents
of the Negro hut."
The loss of
the forage train and the military embarrassment at Poison Spring hit
hard at Steele and his thirteen thousand men. A supply train from
Pine Bluff did arrive on 20 April, but it carried only ten days' worth
of provisions. By this time, also, the Louisiana prong of the Federals'
Red River advance had been thoroughly blunted by defeats at Mansfield
and Pleasant Hill. Steele received official notice that Banks was
in retreat; he heard rumors that eight thousand Confederates led by
Kirby Smith had arrived in Arkansas to join the attack against him.
What was more, tensions had developed between his men and the citizens
of Camden who, while adjusting to life with white occupation troops,
resented Steele's black soldiers. "The one thing that really stirred
my blood to heat was the sight of Negro troops going out to fight
our men," reported one resident. Finally, too, the Rebels were closing
in; artillery had been moved up for an apparent bombardment of the
1862 Frederik Hansen Södring, Danish artist born on
31 May 1809.
1863 Four Yanks and some
20 Rebs at the battle of Fayetteville.
In April 1863 , two of the Arkansas's most aggressive cavalry commanders
attempted to reverse the Southerners' sagging fortunes. On the sixteenth,
Brig. Gen. William Cabell led 900 Rebel cavalrymen north from Ozark
to attack Federal forces occupying Fayetteville. Cabell, nicknamed
"Old Tige," was a thirty-six-year-old Virginian and a West Pointer
whose prewar service in the army had been primarily in the quartermaster
departments On this spring morning, he would lead his troops into
a fight that was a microcosm of the whole war. The First Arkansas
Cavalry (Confederate) would battle the First Arkansas Cavalry (Union)
in an area both called home.
Federal officer described Fayetteville as "a beautiful little hamlet
nestling among the foothills of the Ozark range,… the chief educational
center of the state, the home of culture, refinement, and that inborn
hospitality so characteristic of the South… The Public Square… was
surrounded by stores and shops, broken only… by an old-fashioned tavern."
The first "casualties" of the
battle of Fayetteville were Lt. Gustavus F. Hottenhaur and eight of
his men from Company B of the First Arkansas Cavalry (Union), who
were enjoying a dance at a private home in West Fork some 12 km south
of the town. A detachment of Cabell's cavalry under Lt. Jim Ferguson
surprised the merrymakers and demanded their surrender. The shocked
Federals scattered in every direction, "into the kitchen, the cellar,
and under the floor." Their commanding officer demonstrated the greatest
imagination by attempting unsuccessfully to climb up the chimney.
All nine were taken prisoner.
Cabell continued his march on Fayetteville, arriving shortly after
sunrise on Saturday 18 April. The Confederates approached the city
from the east with "wild and deafening shouts" and advanced on the
headquarters of the Federal commander, Col. M. LaRue Harrison, located
in the Tebbetts' house just northeast of the town square." Harrison's
brother, Capt. E. B. Harrison, was asleep in the Baxter house across
the street when the Rebels attacked. Awakened by the commotion, he
looked out the east door of his room and saw, to his shock and consternation,
a column of Confederate cavalry moving toward him. He escaped out
the front door and ran to warn his brother. Cabell placed his two
pieces of artillery on a hillside east of town and opened fire on
the Federal camp with canister and shell. One of the first shots,
an explosive shell, entered the Baxter house, where several women
and children had sought shelter in the cellar. The shell crashed through
the wall and struck a heavy wooden partition. The partition deflected
the shell into a kettle of lye, which extinguished the fuse and prevented
an explosion and, in all probability, saved the lives of the civilians
huddled in the cellar. For almost four hours the battle raged around
the Union headquarters. The Rebels managed to gain control of the
Baxter house and a grove of trees south of the Tebbetts' house, but
could go no farther.
Col. J. C. Monroe led a desperate cavalry charge against the Union
right, only to run into "a galling crossfire ... piling rebel men
and horses in heaps" in front of the Federals' ordnance office. Captain
Harrison had sought protection behind a tree and witnessed the Rebel
charge. He later wrote:
with wonder, as well as admiration, upon that splendid body of horsemen
as they swept down Dixon Street.... [W]hen nearing College Avenue,
they were met by a fire from the Federal soldiers the most heroic
could not face it.... I stood by the tree as the cavalrymen came thundering
down the road, many falling from their mounts, one horse (evidently
wounded to its death) turned and with a terrific leap cleared the
high plank fence and fell dead in the Baxter lot, carrying his rider
with him, who, though evidently wounded, freed himself from the dead
horse and made his way around the house.
Monroe's charge was the Confederate high water mark. Gradually, the
Union forces began to drive back both flanks of the Rebel line. The
Confederates in the Baxter house at the center of the Rebels' position
continued to resist for almost an hour after both wings had begun
to give way, but eventually they too were driven out. By late morning,
what remained of Cabell's command was retreating toward Ozark. Colonel
Harrison had too few horses to mount a pursuit.
Federal losses were 4 killed, 23 wounded, 35 missing, and 16 captured
(including Hottenhaur's ill-fated dancers at West Fork). Cabell reported
his losses as approximately 20 killed, 30 wounded, and 20 missing.
The fierce resistance of the Arkansas Federals surprised him. The
First Arkansas (Union) had turned and run at the battle of Prairie
Grove and ever since had been considered unreliable. But in his official
report of the engagement at Fayetteville, Cabell noted, "The enemy
all (both infantry and cavalry) fought well, equally as well as any
Federal troops I have ever seen. Although it was thought by a great
many that, composed as they are of disloyal citizens and deserters
from our army, they would make but a feeble stand, the reverse, however,
was the case."
Cabell also reported
that he could have burned a large part of the town, "but every house
was filled with women and children, a great number of whom were the
families of officers and soldiers in our service." He placed part
of the blame for his setback on the superior weapons possessed by
the Union troops. Many of his men were armed with "Arkadelphia rifles,"
which, he noted, were "no better than shotguns." The Federals were
equipped with the longer-range Springfields and Whitneys. Despite
his failure to take the town, Cabell reported that his men were "in
fine spirits, and ready to try to take the enemy again and that he
would shortly be prepared "to strike a heavier blow."
1855 Jean-Baptiste Isabey, French painter,
draftsman, and printmaker, born on 11 April 1767. MORE
ON ISABEY AT ART 4 APRIL
with links to images.
1837 Giovanni Migliara, Italian
painter and teacher born on 05 (15?) October 1785. MORE
ON MIGLIARA AT ART 4 APRIL
with links to images.
1832 Jeanne-Elisabeth Chaudet Husson
Gabiou, French artist born on 23 January 1767. —
François Antoine Arbogast,
Alsatian mathematician born on 04 October 1759.
(29 germinal an II) Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire
Jean. Joseph, banquier de la ci-devant cour, ex-député
à l'assemblé constituante, âgé de 70 ans, né à Inca, en Espagne,
domicilié à Mierville, département de la Seine Inférieure, comme
LALAURENCIE Marie (dite Charras), ex noble, âgée
de 42 ans, native de Chassars, département de la Charente. domicilié
à Amiens, département de la Somme, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
MAGNY François, âgé de 24 ans, tailleur et soldat
au 6ème régiment de hussards cavalerie, domicilié à Limoges, département
de la Haute Vienne, comme usurpateur des autorités constituées.
domiciliés à Paris, département de la Seine:
GOUVEL Marie Adrienne, veuve Vierville, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
MESNARD Didier François (dit Chouzy) père, ex commissaire
au bureau de la dépense du dernier tyran roi, âgé de 64 ans, né
à Versailles, ex ministre plénipotentiaire en franconie, comme convaincu
d'être auteur et complice des conspirations qui ont existé contre
la liberté du Peuple.
MESNARD Jean Didier (dit Chouzy) fils, ex contrôleur
général de la bouche du dernier tyran roi, âgé de 35 ans, né à Versailles,
département de la Seine, comme convaincu d'être auteur et complice
des conspirations qui ont existé contre le peuple français.
NOGUET Jeanne Marie, âgée de 36 ans, native de
Bayonne, veuve de Rolin-d’Ivry, maître des requêtes, actuellement
femme Destat-Bellecourt, comme complice des conspirations contre
la liberté et la sûreté du peuple, tendantes à rétablir la tyrannie
et à détruire le gouvernement républicain.
PAYMAL François Michel, domestique du nommé Hariague,
âgé de 29 ans, natif de Versailles, département de la Seine et Oise,
comme contre-révolutionnaire, ayant partagé les sentiments de Guybeville,
et ayant dit qu’il aimerait mieux voir le feu aux quatre coins de
Paris, que de voir la république tenir.
ROBIN Jean, officier de maison chez le nommé Hariague
de Guibeville, âgé de 43 ans, natif de Valence, comme ayant dit
qu’il aimerait mieux voir le feu aux quatre coins de Paris, que
de voir tenir la république; que si l’on faisait mourir Marie
Antoinette, il connaissait un parti qui s’y opposerait, et qu’il
serait le premier à se mettre à leur tête.
ROLLAT Sébastien, ex noble, âgé de 52 ans, natif
de Bruyère, département de l’Allier, comme contre-révolutionnaire,
ayant fait partie d’un rassemblement chez les nommées Billens et
nés et domiciliés à Paris, département de la
DEMESLE Adélaïde Marguerite, femme divorcée de
Duchilleau, âgée de 41 ans, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
GOUGENO Louis Georges, ex syndic de la ci-devant
compagnie des Indes, receveur à la régie général, ex maître d'hôtel
du tyran roi, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
GENESTE (ou GENET) Antoine Grégoire, 27 ans, banquier,
comme contre-révolutionnaire conspirateur contre la souveraineté
ROLLAT René, officier de la colonelle général de
dragons, âgé de 32 ans, comme ayant fait partie des rassemblements
chez les nommées Billens, et Charras, et comme ayant émigré.
GONNEL Marie Gabriel, veuve de Vierville, âgée
de 49 ans, condamnée à mort , comme conspiratrice.
HARINCUE Pierre, (dit Guibeville), ex noble, ex
président au ci-devant parlement de Paris, âgé de 63 ans, comme
HARINVUE Marie Claude Emilie, veuve Bonnaire, ex
noble, âgée de 43 ans, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
GRANSART Catherine, domicilié à Allauch, département
des Bouches du Rhône, par le tribunal criminel dudit département
PHILIPPIÉ François, marchand de Bois, domicilié
à Marseille, département des Bouches du Rhône, par le tribunal criminel
dudit département, comme conspirateur.
BARBEYER Jacques, (dit Lamotte), précepteur de
la jeunesse, domicilié à Montjabron, canton de Montélimart, département
de la Drôme, comme séditieux, par le tribunal criminel du département
de la Drôme.
BAUD André, manœuvrier, domicilié à Montjabron,
canton de Montélimart, département de la Drôme, comme séditieux,
par le tribunal criminel du département de la Drôme.
BOISSIE Jean, domicilié à Moullac, canton de Puy-la-Roque
et de Montauban, département du Lot, comme émigré, par le tribunal
criminel du département du Lot.
LAPOIRE Cl. François, cultivateur et négociant,
domicilié à Valdahon près de Besançon, département du Doubs, comme
complice d'émigré, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
DAUDIN Nicolas, prêtre, domicilié à Richelieu,
département de l'Indre et Loire, comme réfractaire à la loi, par
le tribunal criminel du département de la Vienne.
LAUDINET Jean, maçon, domicilié à Pointiers, département
de la Vienne, comme receleur de prêtres réfractaires, par le tribunal
criminel dudit département.
DAVID Pierre, commissaire des guerres à l’armée
de l’Ouest, domicilié à Angers, département de Mayenne et Loire,
comme Conspirateur, par la commission militaire séante à Angers.
DIGNE Jean François, homme de loi, domicilié à
Draguignan, département du Var, comme conspirateur, par le tribunal
criminel dudit département.
MEDARD Jacques, bordager, domicilié à Courceboeuf,
département de la Sarthe, comme contre-révolutionnaire, par le tribunal
criminel dudit département.
VINCHON Jean Claude, domicilié à Letric, département
des Vosges, comme émigré, par la commission militaire séante à Auxonne.
YWINS, domicilié à Douay, département du Nord,
par la commission militaire de l’armée du Nord séante à Cassel,
comme introducteur de faux assignats.
1684 Gonzales Coques, Flemish painter specialized in portraits,
born on 08 December 1614. MORE
ON COQUES AT ART 4 APRIL
with links to images.
| 1793 Condamnés à mort par la
HUNOUT Pierre Séverin, feudiste domicilié à Chaumont,
département de l'Oise, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme
distributeur de faux assignats.
LECLER Jeanne Catherine,
âgée de 50 ans, cuisinière depuis 15 ans dans la même maison, née
et domiciliée à Paris, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme
contre-révolutionnaire, pour avoir dit, en allant au marché, quelle
aimerait mieux un roi, que cela 'irait pas bien sans cela.
brigands de la Vendée, domiciliés dans le département
de la Vendée, par la commission militaire séante aux
ACHARD Pierre, laboureur
domicilié à St Nicolas de Brrein, canton des Sables.
François (dit Moriniére), domicilié à Beauvoir, canton de
ANGIBAUD Prosper, juge de paix, domicilié
à Beauvoir, canton de Challans.
employé aux douanes, domicilié à St Gervais, canton de Challans.
BROCHET Joseph, jardinier, domicilié à St Gervais,
canton de Challans.
POIRAUD François, domestique,
domicilié à St Gervais.
domicilié à la Garnache, canton de Challans.
Nicolas, marchand, domicilié à Challans.
Pierre, laboureur, domicilié à Aubigny.
Pierre, laboureur, domicilié à Poiré.
Jacques, maire de Notre-Dame-de-Ré, y demeurant.
Jacques, marchand, domicilié à Verré.